深圳鹰钩鼻整形价格美生活

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 深圳鹰钩鼻整形价格妙手中文
Britain Scotlands independence referendum英国 苏格兰独立公投Och aye the No还是投反对票吧Scotland ponders whether independence and separation are the same thing苏格兰思考独立和分离是不是一回事Should Scotland be an independent country or not?苏格兰应不应该独立?In negotiations concluded on October 15th, David Cameron secured the single in-or-out question that he wanted. But the choice facing Scottish voters in 2014, and the campaigns to influence them, will not be nearly as simple as the words on the ballot suggest.在10月15日结束的谈判中,大卫·卡梅伦如愿确保了公投只涉及简单的是或否的问题。但是,苏格兰选民到2014年面临的选择,以及之后会对他们造成影响的各种竞选活动,将远不如选票上的那几个字那样简单。John Curtice, a psephologist at Strathclyde University, says that Scots divide into three roughly equally-sized camps. The first lot want independence. The second prefer the status quo. A final group, accounting for about 30% of those polled, would like to stay in the union but also want more powers for Scotland. In effect, they are the swing voters. With two years to go until the referendum, the campaigns are aly converging on them.斯特拉斯克莱德大学的选举学家约翰·柯蒂斯表示,苏格兰选民分为三个规模大致相同的阵营。一个阵营希望苏格兰独立。一个希望保持现状。最后一个阵营占参与民调的人数的30%,他们仍想留在联合王国里,但也想中央下放给苏格兰更多权力。事实上,他们属于摇摆选民。尽管距公投还有两年时间,各类竞选活动已经在向他们靠拢了。The separatist Scottish National Party (SNP) will try to woo them by making independence seem trivial. The party has aly underlined its enthusiasm for the queen, the B, the pound, the Bank of England’s interest rates and British opt-outs from irksome European Union rules. Its leader, Alex Salmond, talks of a “social union” between England and a newly-independent Scotland. But he will have a hard time convincing Scots he can deliver these things. Independent Scottish participation in sterling, EU opt-outs and the B are not, and will never be, in his gift.独立派的苏格兰民族党(SNP)将通过弱化独立的重要性尝试争取这类选民的持。该党已经强调其爱戴女王、关注英镑和英格兰利率并持英国选择不受欧盟那些讨人厌的规矩的约束。党领袖阿历克斯·萨尔蒙德也谈论英格兰和新独立的苏格兰之间的 “社会联合”。但他想要让苏格兰选民相信他可以做到这些事情,还需要费一番功夫。苏格兰独立后是否继续使用英镑,是否在对待欧盟问题上与英格兰保持一致,是否会让B覆盖苏格兰,都不是、而且也永远不会是由他随意决定的。Unionists, meanwhile, are trying to convince Scots that voting “no” would result in a hefty dose of new powers. On signing the referendum agreement, Mr Cameron called on Scots in favour of more devolution to vote to stay in the ed Kingdom. Labour has launched a commission to draw up a new devolution package, which will report next year and advance a final set of proposals in 2014. The Liberal Democrats have aly proposed far-reaching changes, including a new federal structure for the entire union. Under their plan, Scotland would raise about two thirds of the money it spends.与此同时,统一派则试图说苏格兰人,投否定票会使苏格兰获得大量新的权力。在签署公投协议时,卡梅伦呼吁持权力下放的苏格兰人投票留在联合王国里。工党已经成立了一个委员会来设计一整套新的权力下放议案,该委员会将于明年提出报告,并在2014年拿出最终方案。自由民主党已提议进行影响深远的改革,其中包括在整个王国建立一个新的联邦架构。根据他们的计划,苏格兰获得的中央拨款将增加三分之二。Jeremy Purvis, of the pressure group Devo Plus, hopes that the unionist parties’ schemes will coalesce in the run-up to the referendum. He claims this will present voters with a clear set of commitments, to feature in all three main parties’ manifestos for the 2015 election, showing that a vote against separation is not a vote for the status quo.压力集团Devo Plus的杰里米·珀维斯希望,统一派各党在公投的预备阶段就能将各方方案合而为一。他声称这将使选民看到一整套明确的承诺,并要求使其成为三个主要政党2015年大选宣言的重头戏,从而告诉选民,投票反对分裂并不等于投票持维持现状。If that happens, much of the wind will be taken out of Mr Salmond’s sails. He may be a romantic Caledonian nationalist but many SNP voters (and even some party members) would be perfectly satisfied with the advanced devolution proposed by the unionist parties. Nationalist hopes that a busy Scottish cultural calendar in 2014 and participation by 16- and 17-year-old voters will significantly boost the separatist turnout are optimistic at best.如果珀维斯所言成真,萨尔蒙德就会受到出其不意的打击。他也许是一位浪漫的苏格兰民族主义者,但许多苏格兰民族党的选民(甚至包括民族党党员)将会心满意足地接受统一派各党提出的权利下放方案。但是,民族党希望2014年的各类苏格兰文化节及16至17岁的选民的加入能提高独立投票率,这也算得上乐观。So the referendum is forcing the SNP to make concessions to the union, while pushing unionists towards further devolution. The gap between the visions set forth by the two sides, while roomy, is shrinking. It now concerns questions of identity—citizenship, flags, titles, membership of international organisations—more than retail politics. Can Scotland be sufficiently independent within the UK? Unless Mr Salmond can persuade the average voter that it cannot, the union is safe.因此,公投正迫使苏格兰民族党对联合王国作出让步,同时敦促统一派政党进一步下放权力。双方愿景之间的差距尽管很大,却也正在缩小。现在双方关注的不仅仅是零售政治,还有身份方面的问题,即公民身份、旗帜、名号及在国际组织中的资格。苏格兰能否在联合王国中获得充分的独立?除非萨尔蒙德可以让普通选民相信不能,否则联合王国还是联合王国。翻译:陈莎莎译文属译生译世 /201608/458872That may not sound so bad in theory, but downside about this region of the brain is that along with adolescent inhibitions may come experimentation and abuse of addictive drugs.这听起来可能不是那样糟糕,但这个区域的真正缺点是随着青少年情绪压抑,对成瘾药物的尝试和滥用也会随之而来。In addition, because of the immature state of this brain region, adolescents may be quicker to succumb to nicotine, alcohol, and drug addiction, and to do so with greater permanency.此外,由于这个大脑区域的不成熟状态,青少年也许会更快地屈于尼古丁,酒精和毒品,并且更具有永久性。What can be done about it?我们可以做些什么呢?Because this suggests that substance use disorders among adolescents are actually neurodevelopmental disorders as well; researchers and doctors may learn more about how to treat these patients by focusing on the particularities of the adolescent period and on the brain in that period.这表明,青少年的物质使用障碍实际上也是神经发育障碍;研究人员和医生可以通过关注青年期的青少年和那个时期大脑的特质,了解更多关于治疗这些病人的信息。201503/364634

Well, last time I was here wait from the show,上次我来这等节目的时候I.. I got court.. court side tickets to a Laker game.我拿了票去看湖人球赛Thats fun. Yeah, cause my...my business agent thought I was mad at him for sexually harassing me.那挺有意思的 对 因为 我的代理人以为我生他的气 因为他性骚扰我Well. - No, but Im like 33 So Im just starting to really appreciate that.好吧 不 因为像我这种33岁的女人 我得庆幸 有人还会性骚扰我You know what I mean? I see. I see.你知道什么意思吗 我知道Well its sure I cant speak for everyone,Im not like ;Sexual her up.; But,当然 不是每个人都这样 我不是那种欲求不满的人 但是in your 20s you feel like you walk around,like walk past a construction site,你二十几岁的时候外出被骚扰 就比如说经过工地you become like, oh, like dont...But then in your 30s.你会说 不要 不要啊 但是当你上了三十多了You know Im just like.. ;What about this?; Like, ;How about...; Yep.你就会像这样 老娘这里性感吗 这里呢 对Its like my skirts over my head, and Im like ;Uh;.然后把裙子撩过头顶They are like ;We are eating.;But um....it changes, it really does.他们一脸嫌弃地说 别闹了 吃饭呢 但是 二十岁和三十岁肯定是不一样的It changes so... I.. I got court-side seats,变化很大 我拿到了场边票Which youve sat at court side at a game, right? I have.你也是场边票吧 对I thought there will be free boos.Um... Its not. Its not.我以为 会有人对我吹口哨呢 然而 是我想太多I used to get beyond the team to get free boos. So,I go,我靠近球队 为了赢得欢呼 所以我就去了I get randomly sit next to see Diana Agron.我随便一坐 靠着戴安娜?阿格龙You know the actor shes on Glee.Shes the cheeerleader queen.她出演过;欢乐合唱团; 她是拉拉队女王I bet you know how hot she is.我知道你们都认为她超性感Yeah, there we go, there is the picture,thanks for.... Yes, isnt that great?对 就是这样 这是拍到的照片 还真得谢谢了 是不是很女神Shes like the most gorgeous girl ever.她看起来真是美翻了Her name was Queen on that show to pull off that name在这场比赛中完美诠释了女王这一头衔Like if my name was queen on the show Theyd be like,如果我是比赛中的女王 他们肯定会这样;Oh, the jolly Irish crowns keeper that...;Does it Jim tie it again, you know.那个欢脱的爱尔兰人拿着 要是再弄一遍 /201603/429496

Researchers now estimate that climate change will cause the death of 500,000 adults by the year 2050. 研究人员目前估计,到2050年气候变化将导致50万成人死亡。About three fourths of those deaths will be from China and India, the research journal Lancet published on Wednesday. 研究杂志lt;lt;柳叶刀gt;gt;周三发文表示,约有四分之三的死亡将来自中国和印度。A computer model repeatedly found that low levels of available fruits and vegetables would cause these deaths from malnutrition. 一项计算机模型反复发现,低水平食用水果和蔬菜会导致营养不良而死亡。So far, this is the most concrete proof scientists have of the day to day impacts the dangers of climate change will present to humans. 到目前为止,这是科学家们最具体的据,关于气候变化危险将对人类每天的影响。At least 155 countries are predicted to impacted by a lack of food.预测至少有155个国家受到食物缺乏的影响。译文属。201603/429497Housing楼市Modest plans温和战略The government goes back into housebuilding政府重回地产建设WHEN George Osborne is spotted outsideWestminster, he is very often making an appearance on a building site, wearing a fluorescent safety jacket. It was no surprise to hear him claim once again, in his budget speech on March 19th, that “Were gettingBritainbuilding”. Sadly, given the huge extent ofBritains housing shortage, the chancellors proposed interventions do not add up to much.当财政大臣乔治·奥斯本不在威斯特敏斯特宫(英国议会所在地)时,他经常穿着荧光安全出现在某个建筑工地上。在他3月19日发布的预算报告中,听到其再次宣布“我们正在振兴英国”这番言论并不令人惊讶。可惜的是,由于英国巨大的楼市缺口,奥斯本提议的政府干预收效甚微。The biggest announcement was that the government will extend Help to Buy, a scheme that guarantees mortgages for people purchasing newly built homes. Mr Osborne also hopes to build a new town at Ebbsfleet, a patch of post-industrial land in the Thames estuary, and promises to speed up the redevelopment of several rotting 1960s and 1970s social housing estates inLondon.报告中最重要的一份公告是政府计划延长“购房持计划”,一项为新屋购房者提供的住房抵押贷款政府担保政策。奥斯本同时还希望在埃贝斯福利特市建造一个新城镇,该市位于泰晤士河口,是一小片后工业用地,奥斯本还承诺加速重新开发几个伦敦上世纪六七十年代烂尾的社会住宅小区。By making it easier for housebuilders to shift their stock, Help to Buy has probably helped boost building slightly, especially in northern cities where construction had all but ceased. Extending the programme will boostBritains housing stock by 120,000 by 2020, the Treasury claims, though it will also expose taxpayers to any future house-price crash. Mr Osborne also announced a new fund to support lending to small housebuilders—who have struggled to get financing in recent years—which ought to have a similar effect.通过使住建商更容易卖出存量房,购房持计划很有可能会对刺激楼市略有作用,尤其是在建造工程全部停止的北部城市而言。财政部表示,到2020年,延长购房持计划预计能为英国新增12万套新房供给,虽然纳税人会有承担未来房价崩盘的风险。奥斯本还宣布新增一项政府资金用以持小微住建商,这类住建商近年苦于不能获得融资,这项政策与前者有异曲同工之妙。The new town is more adventurous. Ebbsfleet, where a high-speed rail link toLondonopened in 2007, has had plans for new homes for almost 20 years. Few have been built, mostly because the site is a partially flooded quarry with little in the way of shops, public transport or infrastructure. The governments new idea is to create a development corporation with control over planning and the ability to borrow to clean up and prepare the site. That was how post-war new towns such as Milton Keynes andStevenagewere built.新建城镇得方案更为大胆。2007年,一条连接埃贝斯福利特市与伦敦的高铁线路开通了,该市新增住房的计划已有将近20年,但却几乎毫无所成,大部分原因是这个部分积水地区曾经是个采石场,几乎没有地方给超市、公共运输设施或者公共基础设施用以建设。政府新出台的政策旨在创建开发公司控制规划,以及贷款能力来清理该地做好准备。这就是战后新城------米尔顿凯恩斯和斯蒂夫尼奇建成之法。A similar interventionism is visible in the plan to rebuild 1960s estates. Many of these, such as the Aylesbury Estate in Southwark and Robin Hood Gardens in Tower Hamlets, are crumbling. By increasing the density on the sites, and using the proceeds of selling the extra houses built, it ought to be possible to cover the cost of reconstruction. But councils have been short of money to do much themselves, and private developers extract high returns in exchange for putting up capital. With central-government money, those projects ought to move quicker and councils ought to get more for their land.这个重建上世纪六十年代房屋的计划明显与干涉主义颇为相似。很多这样的住宅区诸如南部萨瑟克区的埃尔斯伯里地产以及东部陶尔哈姆莱茨区的罗宾伍德花园正面临拆除。通过增加拆除点的数量密度以及使用出售额外已建房屋的收入,政府应该可以收回重建的成本。但地方政府因资金短缺而力不从心,而私营开发商以收取高额回报作为注入资本的交换条件。有了中央政府划拨的资金,这些项目得以进行得更为迅速,并且地方政府可以从他们的用地中获利更多。These are decent measures—but nowhere near enough. To accommodate population growth,Englandalone needs to increase its supply of homes to around 230,000 per year, more than twice the number built last year. The real restriction onBritains construction sector is planning policy, which constrains building near existing infrastructure at the edge of cities. The chancellor has been unable to change that. Instead, he is in effect adopting a milder version of 1960s-style grand planning: using government money to boost construction on marginal, unpopular sites. It is an improvement, but only just.这些措施还不错,但还远远不够。为适应人口增长,仅仅只是英格兰地区每年就需要增加约23万套房屋供应,是去年已建成数量的两倍。英国建筑业真正的限制是规划政策,其中包括了城市边缘已落成的公共基础设施附近的建筑。财政大臣奥斯本无权改变。相反,实际上他采取了一个更温和的上世纪六十年代的宏伟规划:用政府的钱刺激边缘、偏远地带的城市建设。这是一种进步,但不仅仅是进步。译者 周雨晴 校对 邵夏沁译文属译生译世 /201510/402278Among the hundreds of Syrians who fled their homeland for Michigan is a young family of five.They came here just this past April, trading the violence and death in Homs for a sparsely furnished, rented corner duplex in a modest neighborhood in Dearborn.Well be bringing you the story of this young family on Stateside over the coming months as they settle into their new life in Michigan.An introductionMaan is a 39-year-old carpenter. His 30-year-old wife Bayan was a teacher before the revolution broke out in 2012.They have asked us not to use their last name for fear that media attention could mean bad things for family members still in Syria.Homs has seen some pretty intense fighting throughout the four-plus years of civil war there.That danger forced Maan and Bayan to make the painful decision to leave. First they fled to Jordan, where they stayed with relatives for nearly four years.After a vetting process that Maan says took a year and seven months, the family learned earlier this year that they were coming to America.And now, theyre here. Maan, Bayan and their children—two daughters ages six and 18 months, and a four-year-old son—starting over in Michigan.Last month, Statesides Cynthia Canty and producer Joe Linstroth visited the family in their Dearborn home to talk about their transition from war-torn Syria to Michigan suburbia.With the help of translators, the group talked for nearly an hour and a half at the familys three-and-a-half legged dining room table, sharing biscuits and strong cardamom-scented coffee.As it turns out, apprehensions can run in both directions.;I was a little worried when we were told we would be coming to the ed States because of what Ive been seeing on the news,; Bayan said. ;And I still get inquiries by my friends, How is it for you there? How are people treating you? You wear a headscarf: has that affected the way people are treating you? And I would say, No, actually. Everybodys been so nice and accepting and I havent had any issues at all.;Bayan said on the way to the ed States, the family passed through Ukraine.;And in Ukraine I felt those kinds of looks and the kinds of things that people were asking me about, but over here its a country of freedom—freedom of religion,; she said. ;Its just got so much freedom and Im lucky to be here.;Maan, too, was ;a little skeptical; when the family first arrived in Michigan.;The doors are not as thick here as they are back home,; he said.But then he witnessed something that put his mind more at ease. There was an argument going on outside. Someone called 911.;Immediately, two minutes later, they were here,; Maan said of the police. ;After we saw things like that, we felt a little safer and started leaving our windows open, because we know that if we call for help, it is going to come.;Hopes for the futureJust a few weeks into their new life in Michigan, free from the risk of shells crashing through the ceiling, or government troops arresting them, its clear Maan and Bayan are once again allowing themselves to dream.;My number one priority is my children,; Maan said. ;Making sure they get an education. Making sure they have a bright future ahead of them. Making sure they are happy and healthy.;He also hopes to find consistent work and a house he can call his own.;Yes, we are refugees,; Bayan said. ;And you maybe have a fear of us because you dont know us, just as we have a fear when we arrived here, because we didnt know what to expect. But as time goes on, you will get to know us and you will see that we are going to be friends. We are brothers and sisters. We are people who help each other out. We are just all human beings. Theres no separation or ill will towards other people or other religions.;Well check in with the family periodically on Stateside as they settle in and start the Michigan chapter of their lives. In the coming weeks, well learn what life was like in their town of Homs before the civil war; how things changed once war broke out; their journey to Michigan; and why they hope to shed that label of ;refugees.;A special thanks to the Syrian American Rescue Network and to Reem Akkad and Samer Koujan for help with translation.201606/450791

Monetary policy货币政策A long low note长期低息Why interest rates can be expected to stay low for years为什么可以肯定利率在未来数年都会维持在低位?CENTRAL bankers have a reputation for snatching away the punch bowl just as the party gets going. So, almost as soon as Britains economy started to recover, commentators and markets started fretting about when interest rates would rise. Mark Carney, the Bank of Englands governor, has tried to soothe them with “forward guidance”, in effect promising to hold off until the economy recovers. But Mr Carney also whispered something else: that rates would stay unusually low even when they do budge. The punch bowl will go, he suggested, but there will still be plenty of booze around.央行高管们因为“在宴会开始前拿走调酒杯”式的工作而备享荣耀。所以,几乎就在英国经济刚刚开始有起色时,员和市场就担忧利率可能会上涨。而英格兰主席马克.卡尼已经尝试以“前瞻指导”政策进行安抚(注2)。事实上,他承诺会拖住利率直到经济完全复苏。但是马克.卡尼也暗示了其他一些事情:即便到了必须妥协的时候,利率依然会不同寻常得停留在低位。他示意道:调酒杯也许会拿走,但成瓶的酒会留下很多。Since the Bank of England was founded in 1694 its main interest rate has bounced around an average of 5%. It stood at 5.75% when the financial crisis struck in 2007; since it has been at a record low of 0.5%. But as Britains economy recovers, Mr Carney expects rates to settle below the historical norm, and points to market expectations of 2-3%. That is only a shade higher than the banks 2% inflation target.英格兰成立于1694年,其主要利率在平均值5%附近浮动。2007年金融危机到来时,利率达到5.57%;而自年开始,其破纪录的停留在0.5%的低位。随着英国经济恢复,马克.卡尼期望利率能维持在历史常规水平之下,即设定为市场所期望的2-3%。这只比央行2%的通胀目标略高了一点。The bank believes Britains “equilibrium interest rate”—the rate needed to keep inflation and economic growth on an even keel—is being depressed by three things. One is the ongoing fiscal contraction. With the state using a shrinking share of resources, the private sector has to expand faster to take up the slack. A lower interest rate is needed to achieve that.央行认为英国的“均衡利率”—这个利率要求稳定通货膨胀与经济增长—受到三个方面的压制。第一个因素是持续的财政紧缩。在国家所配的资源的比例越来越少时,私人部门必须更快发展,以充分利用社会闲散资源。为此,利率必须降低。The second has to do with the countrys convalescing banks. During the crisis the sp between the central banks policy rate and the interest rates commercial banks charged their customers for loans jumped. Although the sp has fallen since, it remains much higher than it was before the crisis. So the Bank of England need not raise its rate so high to generate a given level of private-sector interest rates.第二个因素与本国业的复苏有关。在这次金融危机中,央行的政策利率与商业向客户收取的贷款利率差额大幅上升。尽管之后利率差有所回落,却仍比危机之前高很多。所以英格兰不需大幅上调其政策利率来让私人部门的贷款利率达到设定水平。The final factor is the rest of the world. Britains openness, through trade and finance, ties it to foreign economies. The euro-zone crisis has hit the countrys exporters and banks. “Secular stagnation”, a notion recently popularised by Larry Summers of Harvard University, might also be at play: falling investment demand in advanced economies, combined with a glut of savings in emerging markets, has pressed down on equilibrium interest rates throughout the world.最后一个因素在于世界的其他国家。通过贸易与金融的开放,英国经济与外国经济紧密相连。欧元区的危机打击了该国的出口商和。近日颇为流行的经济学术语“长期性经济停滞”或许可以解释这种情形。这个术语是由哈佛大学的拉利·萨默斯提出的,指的是在发达经济中,投资需求持续下降;再加上新兴经济体中储蓄过剩,这就使得全球市场中的均衡利率都被压低。These pressures seem unlikely to abate soon. Britains major political parties are all committed to eliminating the fiscal deficit over the next parliament. Credit sps are unlikely to shrink to their pre-crisis lows, which reflected an overly sanguine attitude to financial risk. The euro zone faces a lengthy slog back to health. And if, as Mr Summers suggests, global stagnation persists, the downward pressure on Britains equilibrium interest rate might even increase.这些方面的压力不可能很快消失。英国的主要政党都承诺在下届国会中减少财政赤字。利率差降低到危机之前的水平也微乎其微。危机之前的利率差是对金融风险乐观过度的反映。欧元区经济也要经历一段漫长的跋涉方能恢复。如果正如萨默斯而言,全球经济停滞会持续,那么英国均衡利率的下行压力甚至还可能会增加。A persistently low bank rate would be bad for savers but a boon for borrowers. Britains 9m or so mortgage-holders are sensitive to the banks policy rate: the average new mortgage is fixed for just two years (compared with 27 years in America) after which it tends to track the banks rate. Matthew Whittaker of the Resolution Foundation, a think-tank, calculates that the difference between a bank rate of 3% in 2018 and a rate of 5% is that 620,000 fewer households would be in “debt peril”, defined as spending more than half their disposable income on debt payments.长期的低利率对储户不利,但对借贷方则有利。英国九百万左右的按揭对政策利率很敏感:平均来看,新按揭头两年利率固定(相比之下美国可以有27年期),之后就倾向于锁定利率。智库决议基金的马修.惠特克这样计算:2018年3%的利率与5%的差别就是前者可以使六十二万户家庭脱离“债务危机”。后者指一半的可配收入用于偿还债务。The prospect of rates remaining low for years should also improve companies behaviour. British investment is startlingly weak at present—still 20% below its pre-crisis peak, and lower than in any other G20 country as a share of GDP. The expectation of more cheap finance, together with dwindling spare capacity and rising demand, ought to entice firms to build and buy. The Bank of England predicts an extraordinary 43% rise in business investment by 2016, which would boost both demand and productivity.在未来几年,维持在低位的利率会对公司起到促进作用。英国的投资目前惊人的低迷—只有危机前峰值的20%。其占GDP的比例比20国集团中任何一国都低。而对廉价贷款的期待,加上闲置产能的减少和市场需求的上升,应该能够刺激企业的创建与购买。英格兰预测2016年的商业投资会额外增加43%,而这就能够持需求和生产率。But a low equilibrium interest rate should make Mr Carney nervous. Bank rates cannot easily be cut to below zero. A new normal of 2-3% would thus leave the bank with little space to cut rates when future shocks hit. Britains emergency monetary experiments, such as quantitative easing and forward guidance, are known as “unconventional”. In time they could become part of the new normal, too.但是一个较低的均衡利率让卡尼很紧张。利率不会轻易降低到负数。常规的2-3%的利率会让在应对未来冲击时没有空间去降低利率。英国尝试了紧急状态下的货币政策,例如定量宽松和前瞻指导,都以“非传统”而著名。在适当时候,它们就可以成为新常规的一部分。翻译:王化起 校对:周晓婷 译文属译生译世 /201510/404276Welfare reform福利改革Bedrooms and brickbats睡房与碎砖The bedroom tax will probably survive睡房税很可能延续ON A sunny spring morning, a small group of protesters wait at the Department of Work and Pensions with a giant card for Iain Duncan Smith. It is his birthday. But the card also marks a year since the introduction of the “bedroom tax”, as opposition politicians call the welfare secretarys scheme to encourage people in subsidised social housing to move to smaller properties. “One year on and still causing misery”, it s.在一个阳光明媚的早晨,一小群人带着巨大的宣传板,上面画着伊安.杜肯.史密斯,来到就业与养老金部大门前。当日是部长的生日。此画板标志着“睡房税”已经实行了一年。这是政治反对派们对史密斯福利计划的戏称。福利大臣想动员民众从接受补贴的社会房屋搬到小点的房子中。板上写着“实施一年了,依然生贫致困”。Since 2010, the coalition has introduced plenty of changes to the welfare system. But few are as unpopular as the bedroom tax (officially, the “removal of the spare-room subsidy”). According to Ed Miliband, the Labour leader, it symbolises an “out-of-touch, uncaring Tory government that stands up for the privileged few”. In February the nationalists in Scotland triumphantly scrapped it. The Liberal Democrats are split by it. Yet despite the tide of anger, it will probably survive.2010年以来,执政联盟对福利系统进行了大刀阔斧的改革。没有几个项目像“睡房税”一样惹人讨厌(官方的说法,“取消闲置房屋的补贴”)。据工党党首文立彬说,这标志着“脱离群众,对大众利益漠不关心的保守党政府公然倒向特权阶层了”。二月份,苏格兰的民族主义执政党废除了该政策。而自由民主党内部也对此政策看法不一。尽管群情激愤,该计划十有八九会延续下去。Before April 2013 tenants with spare rooms got enough housing benefit to cover their full rent. Since then, they have had to pay for them themselves. On average, that means finding another 14 per week, typically out of other welfare benefits—which are hardly generous to begin with.The government says this is fair because people “underoccupying” their homes are preventing larger families from using the space more fully. The charge encourages tenants with spare bedrooms to downsize—or to rent them out. It is also meant to cut around 360m per year from the benefits bill.2013年八月以前,租了空房的住客可以拿到足够的房屋补贴来抵消其全部房租。从那以后,他们只好自己付房租了。平均算起来,这意味着每周得额外拿出14英镑,这些钱往往从其他福利收益中节省出来。而这些福利补贴往往本来就没多少。该政府认为,这很公平,因为百姓“空置”其房屋就是为了阻碍有更多成员的家庭充分利用房屋空间。该命令鼓励租用多间房屋的住户搬到更小的房子里——或者将多余房屋转出。这也意味着每年能从补贴账单中节省3600万英镑。Whether it can do so depends largely on people being able to move. So far just 6% of those affected have done, according to a B survey. A high proportion live in post-industrial northern towns, where councils own plenty of 1950s and 1960s family homes but comparatively few smaller flats. In Liverpool, for example, 24% of social tenants are affected by the policy. In Westminster, by contrast, where there is enormous demand for housing, the figure is just 5%.节流能否实现取决于人们多大程度上愿意挪窝。到目前为止,据B调查,目标群体中只有6%受到影响。其中大部分都住在北部衰落的工业区城镇中。城镇委员会手握大量1950s-1960s相对较小的单套住房。例如,利物浦那里24%的社会租户受到此项政策影响。威斯敏斯特则相反,房屋需求旺盛,社会租户只占5%。Yet the numbers of people affected is falling. When the policy came into effect last April, 560,000 households were hit. By November, that had fallen to around 500,000. Research by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF), a charity, explains the shortfall. Some people had found work; some had reached retirement age, whereupon the scheme no longer applies. And more may now be moving. Mutual exchanges—where tenants swap council homes with each other—appear to have taken off. Meanwhile, some housing associations and councils are buying smaller homes and selling large ones.但目标人群的数量在下降。政策在去年四月生效的时候,560,000的家庭在调控之内。到了十一月份,数量已经下降到约500,000。朗特里慈善基金会(JRF)对此有解释:一些百姓找到了工作;一些到了退休年龄,计划也就不再适用了。更多的民众正另寻他所。互惠交换,即租户互换其委员会名下的房屋,似乎已经开动了。同时,一些房屋联合组织和委员会正在购买小面积的房屋,而将大的房屋卖掉。Scrapping the tax outright could undo some of these improvements. Steve Wilcox, the author of the JRFs report, suggests tweaks that would make it work better. Exempting tenants with severe disabilities, who may need a room for a carer or equipment, would help. They currently have to apply for emergency funds from local authorities: a messy, bureaucratic process. So too would boosting that pot of money.直接取消睡房税就会阻碍其中某些改良。朗特里基金会报告的主笔史蒂夫·威尔科克斯就建议对计划稍微改进就能让它事半功倍。把身患残疾因而需要一间房给看护人员或设备的租户免除在外就会有帮助。他们现在不得不申请地方政府设立的紧急基金:这个官僚化的程序往往一团乱麻。这样做也能持那一大笔节省的目标。Such pragmatism will not appeal to the Labour Party. For Mr Miliband, the bedroom tax is a helpful springboard for a wider war on welfare reform. Yet if elected in 2015, he too will want to cut the deficit. Tweaks might then be welcome.但这些实用主义的策略对工党毫无吸引力。对文立彬来说,睡房税是就福利改革问题进行更大规模的斗争的一块有利跳板。但如果2015年能竞选成功,他也会削减赤字。那时改进措施可能就会有持了。 翻译:王化起 校对:邵灵玲 译文属译生译世 /201509/399894

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