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2017年10月24日 06:40:03 | 作者:飞度新闻 | 来源:新华社
Pope Francis will call for a “drastic reduction” in carbon emissions and lash out against “economic powers” that are opposing efforts to combat climate change, according to an early draft of his forthcoming encyclical on the environment.教皇方济各(Pope Francis)即将发表的一则关于环境的通谕初稿显示,他将呼吁“大幅减少”碳排放,并抨击那些抵制抗击气候变化努力的“经济大国”。The Vatican was due to publish the document — which counts as the highest form of papal teaching in the Catholic Church — on Thursday, but Italian magazine L’Espresso released a 192-page version on Monday.梵蒂冈计划于周四发布这则通谕,但意大利杂志L’Espresso周一发布了一份192页的初稿文本。通谕是天主教会最高形式的教廷文书。Although Vatican officials warned that the text was not final, it nonetheless offered a clear and detailed picture of the 78-year-old Argentine pontiff’s message on the environment, which could emerge as the most enduring legacy of his tenure at the helm of the 1.2bn-strong Catholic Church.虽然梵蒂冈的官员警告说,这一文本并非最终版本,但它已清晰、详细地展现了这位78岁高龄的阿根廷籍教皇在环境问题上的立场,可能成为他执掌拥有逾12亿信徒的天主教会任期内留下的最永恒遗产。In the encyclical, which is timed to bolster the push for a global deal to cut carbon emissions in Paris at the end of 2015, Pope Francis writes that global warming has been caused “mainly by human activity”, even though other factors, such as changes in orbits and the eruption of volcanoes may have played a role.这则通谕是为持2015年底在巴黎达成一项全球削减碳排放协议的努力而发布。教皇方济各写道,全球变暖“主要是由人类活动”引起的,尽管地球运行轨道变化及火山爆发等其他因素可能也产生了影响。He laments that so far efforts to forge solutions to the “environmental crisis” have been stymied by “the refusal of the powerful, [and] the disinterest of the others”.他痛惜道,到目前为止,为解决“环境危机”的努力由于“大国的拒绝(以及)其他国家的漠不关心”而受到阻碍。“The attitudes that are blocking solutions — even among believers — range from denial to indifference to comfortable resignation or blind faith in technology,” he says.他说,“阻碍达成解决方案的态度(甚至在信徒中)包括拒绝、漠不关心、安逸地忍受或者盲目相信科技。”“Many of those who hold more resources and economic or political power seem to focus mainly on disguising problems and hiding their symptoms, and are merely trying to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change,” Pope Francis writes, adding that “speculation” and the “search for a quick profit” tend to ignore environmental impacts.教皇方济各写道,“许多拥有更多资源、经济或政治权力的人似乎主要把精力用在掩饰和隐瞒问题,只是在试着缓和气候变化的负面影响,”并补充说,“投机”和“对快速获利的追逐”往往忽视环境影响。“The submission of politics to technology and finance is proven by the failure of global summits on the environment,” he said.“政治对科技和金融的屈从已从全球环境峰会的失败得到了明,”他说。But Pope Francis is also calling on ordinary people — and not just Christians — to take action in their everyday lives. “Humanity must be conscious of the need to change its way of living, producing, and consuming,” he writes.但教皇方济各也呼吁普通民众(不仅是基督教徒)在日常生活中采取行动。“人类必须意识到改变自己生活、生产和消费方式的必要性,”他写道。Climate change sceptics, particularly in the US, have taken aim at Pope Francis, who is due to address the UN and the US Congress on sustainable development in September.教皇方济各将于9月就可持续发展问题在联合国和美国国会发表演讲。气候变化怀疑论者已将矛头指向教皇方济各,特别是在美国。US Republican presidential candidate Rick Santorum, a Catholic and climate change sceptic, has said the Church would be “better off leaving science to the scientists”.美国共和党总统候选人里克#8226;桑托勒姆(Rick Santorum)是一名天主教徒,也是一位气候变化怀疑论者。他说,教会“最好将科学留给科学家处理”。 /201506/381121Few Chinese take paid leave中国很少有人带薪休假A large amount of Chinese employees refuse to take paid leave, a legal right for workers stipulated by Chinese law, a new survey has found.我国法律规定职工享有带薪休假的合法权利,但很多职工拒绝享受带薪假。According to a nationwide survey conducted by Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, around 50% of Chinese employees choose not to take paid leave.人社部一项全国性调查显示,目前我国有50%左右的职工选择不休带薪假。In a bid to find out why, the People#39;s Daily recently interviewed several employees in different employment settings. The newspaper found interviewees who work for government organs, institutions and State-owned enterprises reluctantly give up their rights due to concerns that asking for paid leave might ;leave bosses the bad impression of being lazy; and influence future job promotions.为找原因,《人民日报》近日采访了不同职业背景的一些职工,发现在政府部门、事业单位和国有企业工作的受访者由于担心要求休带薪假可能会给老板留下;偷懒;的坏印象,影响未来工作晋升而不情愿地放弃休假的权利。In other jobs, such as sales, employees forego paid leave to avoid smaller bonuses, as only basic salary is given during that time.对于其它工作,如销售,职工放弃带薪休假是为了避免奖金的缩水,因为带薪休假期间只能拿底薪。 /201507/389138Airpocalypse“空气末日”(Airpocalypse)(noun) – the shockingly high levels of air pollutants plaguing major Chinese cities, particularly in winter in the colder north of the country, where coal-burning is the main source of electricity and heating.名词,指中国主要城市中极其严重的空气污染,特别是在冬季的华北地区,那里的气候较为寒冷,供电和供暖主要靠烧煤。This portmanteau word was coined at the start of 2013 as dark sulphurous clouds of pollution descended on Beijing, blocking out the sun and sending residents scurrying to buy face masks, air filter machines and air tickets to escape the smoggy Armageddon.这个英文合成词(由air和apocalypse合成——译者注)是2013年年初被创造出来的。当时,含有硫等污染物的毒雾降临北京城,遮天蔽日,北京的居民纷纷急忙去购买口罩和空气净化器,或乘飞机逃离这个雾霾笼罩的“末日决战场”。In January and February the volume of harmful microscopic particulates in Beijing’s air reached 60 times the recommended healthy level and the Chinese government issued warnings to people not to go outside or even exert themselves while at home with the windows tightly closed.2013年1月和2月,北京空气中有害微粒的数量达到健康空气建议标准的60倍,中国政府向民众发出警报,建议大家不要外出,即便是在窗户紧闭的室内也不要剧烈运动。For many expatriates, especially those with children, the prospect of emphysema and lung cancer proved decisive, and there was an exodus throughout the year that gathered pace as school terms ended.事实明,对许多旅居北京(特别是带着孩子一起的)的外国人而言,患上肺气肿和肺癌的可能性是一种切实的担忧。一年来,不断有外国人逃离北京;随着寒假的到来,这种外逃的步伐近来进一步加快了。Some moved to Shanghai, where they hoped they would be able to avoid the hazy day of judgment, but in recent weeks China’s commercial capital has been enveloped in the same yellow-brown toxic blanket that has become commonplace in the capital.一些外国人搬到了中国的商业首都——上海,希望在那里可以躲过雾霾弥漫的末日审判。但最近几周,上海同样被这种北京民众已见怪不怪的黄褐色毒雾所笼罩。At one of the larger international schools in Beijing a decision was made to build a giant hermetically sealed fresh-air dome over the sports field so that students can still play and exercise, even on the most heavily polluted days.在北京一个规模较大的国际学校,校方决定建一个巨型密封式穹顶,罩在运动场上方,这样一来,即便在污染最严重的日子里,学生也能继续玩耍和锻炼。The growing concern is partly due to increased awareness about the issue.人们日益担心空气,部分原因是他们对这个问题的意识增强了。Not long after the 2008 Olympic Games, the US embassy installed a monitor on its roof to detect the level of PM2.5 – particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrograms or less, which can enter the human blood stream through our lungs – in Beijing’s air.2008年奥运会后不久,美国驻华使馆在屋顶上安装了一个监测仪,用来监测北京空气中PM2.5的水平。PM2.5是指直径小于等于2.5微米的颗粒物,可通过肺部进入人体血液。Initially the findings were published only on the embassy’s Twitter feed, limiting the impact because Twitter is blocked in China.最初,美国驻华使馆仅将监测结果发布在自己的推特(Twitter)页面上,影响程度有限,因为推特在中国是被封禁的。But with the rise of domestic Twitter-like services such as Sina Weibo, public campaigns by Chinese celebrities eventually forced the authorities to admit the scale of the problem and start publishing more accurate figures.但随着中国国内类似推特的务兴起(例如新浪微),中国一些名人发起的公共运动最终迫使当局承认问题严重,并开始发布更准确的数据。Unlike “airpocalypse”, which does not yet have a Chinese equivalent, the term PM2.5 (pronounced “PM er dian wu” in Mandarin) has transcended linguistic barriers and is just as likely to be heard from the lips of the average Beijinger as from a native English speaker.随后,PM2.5这个外来语也跨越了语言的藩篱,成为了北京老百姓耳熟能详的词汇,其普及程度和英语国家别无二致。China’s ruling Communist party sees the issue as a potential omen of its eventual downfall as the country’s growing middle class increasingly questions the legitimacy of an authoritarian regime that cannot even guarantee its citizens clean air.执政的中国共产党意识到,空气问题可能为其敲响丧钟,因为该国不断状大的中产阶级日益质疑,这个连让公民呼吸清洁空气都无法保的威权政权,到底有何合法性?The government has made some attempts to clean up polluting factories and steel mills, and has vowed to improve fuel standards and limit the number of cars on the country’s gridlocked roads.中国政府已在清理污染环境的工厂和炼钢厂方面做出了一些努力,并已承诺要提高燃料标准、限制汽车数量(中国的交通拥堵情况已然非常严重)。But as temperatures drop and the coal-fired power stations stoke their fires, residents in China’s biggest cities are bracing for another dark and depressing winter.但随着气温降低,燃煤火电厂烧旺炉火,中国大城市的居民面对的是又一个阴郁的冬天。 /201401/271965

The sound of 16,000 people chanting “Ali, Alibaba” fills the Yellow Dragon Stadium in Hangzhou, a city on China’s eastern coast. As the theme to The Lion King begins to blare over the sound system, a diminutive figure rises through the stage floor.在华东城市杭州的黄龙体育馆,16000人有节奏地反复喊着“阿里,阿里巴巴”。接着,《狮子王》的主题曲在音响系统中响起,一个瘦小的身影从舞台中升了起来。Dressed in leather and sporting a giant spiked Mohawk, black lipstick and a nose ring, Jack Ma begins to belt out an off-key rendition of Elton John’s “Can you Feel the Love Tonight” to his adoring employees.马云(Jack Ma)身穿皮衣,戴着一顶巨大而有尖顶的莫西干式假发,涂着黑色唇膏并穿了一个鼻环。他拉开嗓门,有点走调地向崇拜他的员工们演唱埃尔顿#8226;约翰(Elton John)的《今夜你能感觉到爱吗》(Can you Feel the Love Tonight)。It had been 10 years since Mr Ma founded Alibaba, the internet company that made him a billionaire, and it was time to celebrate. Soon, it will be time to celebrate again: Alibaba, the world’s most successful ecommerce company, is preparing to sell shares in a global initial public offering that is expected to be valued at well over 0bn.这是马云创立阿里巴巴10周年纪念会,这家互联网公司使他成为了亿万富翁,这是一个庆祝的时刻。不久,另一个值得庆祝的时刻又将到来:阿里巴巴这家全球最成功的电子商务公司正准备进行首次公开发行(IPO),预计其市值将远超1000亿美元。Mr Ma has been a cult figure in China for years. But he captured the attention of the world this year as excitement built around the impending IPO, which will let investors own a slice of the fastest-growing internet market on the planet.多年来,马云在中国一直是受人崇拜的偶像人物。但在今年,随着市场对阿里巴巴即将进行的IPO越来越感兴趣,他也吸引了世界的关注。上市将让投资者有机会在全球增长最快的互联网市场持有股份。Alibaba’s sales now exceed those of eBay and Amazon combined and make up about 2 per cent of China’s gross domestic product. Seventy per cent of all Chinese package deliveries come from Alibaba sales. Roughly 80 per cent of Chinese ecommerce transactions are conducted through Alibaba’s sites. And this is probably just the beginning, considering more than half of China is still offline. With 600m people using the internet and counting, China will soon overtake the US as the world’s biggest ecommerce market.阿里巴巴的销售额如今超过了eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)之和,占到了中国国内生产总值(GDP)的约2%。中国所有的快递包裹中约有70%来自于阿里巴巴的销售。中国的电商交易中大约有80%是通过阿里巴巴的网站进行的。而这很可能只是一个开始,因为仍有一半以上的中国人不上网。鉴于中国网民人数已经达到6亿,而且还在不断增加,中国将在不久超越美国,成为全球最大的电商市场。Mr Ma, godfather of China’s scrappy entrepreneurial spirit, is the FT’s 2013 Person of the Year because he personifies the Chinese internet – with all its potential and its contradictions.身为中国斗志旺盛的企业家精神“教父”的马云,被英国《金融时报》评为2013年度人物,因为他是中国互联网的化身——体现了中国互联网的全部潜力和矛盾。In a nation whose success has been built largely on business ideas developed elsewhere, Mr Ma is a true innovator. His contemporaries have mostly copied established business models to create “China’s Google”, “China’s Amazon” or “China’s Twitter”. But when Mr Ma started Alibaba in his apartment in 1999, this type of business-to-business ecommerce website did not exist.在中国,创业成功大多依赖于借鉴海外发展起来的商业理念,但马云是一位真正的创新者。与他同时代的人,大多复制成熟的商业模式,创立“中国的谷歌(Google)”,“中国的亚马逊(Amazon)”以及“中国的推特(Twitter)”。但当马云1999年在自己的公寓里创立阿里巴巴时,企业对企业(B2B)电子商务网站还不存在。Mr Ma is now setting his eyes on a new goal: shaking up Chinese finance. This has sent shockwaves through the staid, state-dominated financial sector and shows that his ambitions extend well beyond online retail.马云现已将目光投向新的目标:撼动中国的金融业。这在古板的、公有制为主体的中国金融行业激起了轩然,并表明马云的雄心远远超出了在线零售业。But there is another reason for choosing Mr Ma this year: his decision in May to step down as Alibaba’s chief executive at the age of 48 to devote himself to tackling some of China’s biggest problems – in particular its looming environmental disaster.但将马云评为今年的年度人物还有另一个原因:今年5月,他决定在年届48岁之际卸任阿里巴巴首席执行官职务,转而投身于应对中国一些最大的问题——尤其是中国日益迫近的环境灾难。He remains executive chairman of the company but his decision to focus less on the blind pursuit of riches and more on improving the state of the world reflects a profound shift in Chinese society – one that is being facilitated by the rise of the internet. After three decades of double-digit economic growth, the country’s growing and increasingly vocal middle class is no longer content with a myopic focus on GDP growth rates.马云仍是阿里巴巴的执行董事长,但他决定将更少的精力用于盲目追求财富,而将更多精力用于改善世界面貌,这反映了中国社会的深刻转变——互联网的崛起正使这种转型变得更加容易。在经历了30年的两位数经济增长后,中国不断壮大且越来越愿意表达自身诉求的中产阶层不再满足于短视地关注于GDP增长率。“In China, because of problems in water, air and food safety, in 10 or 20 years we will face a lot of health problems, like increased cancer. So that is one area where I will invest my money and time,” Mr Ma said in a telephone interview last week. “My second focus is people’s culture and education – if we don’t do this then young Chinese people will grow up with deep pockets but shallow minds.”马云上周在接受电话采访时表示:“在中国,因为水源、空气质量以及食品安全等方面的问题,10至20年后我们将面临大量健康问题,例如癌症发病率上升。因此我将在这个领域投入我的资金和时间。我的第二大关注领域是民众的文化和教育——如果我们无所作为,中国的年轻人将成长为富裕但浅薄的一代。”Mr Ma’s energy and optimism inspire many. But that does not mean he is a saint. Some former colleagues and confidants say his incredible success and the adulation it has brought has made him overconfident in his ability to change the world.马云的活力和乐观精神鼓舞了很多人。但这并不意味着他是个圣人。一些前同事和密友表示,马云惊人的成功以及由此带来的过度美誉,使他对自己改变世界的能力过于自信。In almost the same breath, he will say the internet is going to make China more open and transparent, while also vowing to hand over to the authorities information on any netizen who dares criticise the authoritarian Communist party.他会在几乎同一句话里表示,互联网将使中国变得更加开放透明,而他将继续向当局提供任何敢于批评威权的共产党的网民的信息。His own authoritarian tendencies, and his sometimes dizzying reversals in business strategy, have bred resentment among a minority at Alibaba. But his cult-like following ensures even disgruntled former employees do not dare criticise him openly.马云自己的专断倾向,以及他有时令人眩晕的商业战略逆转,使阿里巴巴的少数人产生反感。但他近乎偶像人物的光环意味着,即便是心怀不满的前员工也不敢公开批评他。“Anybody who wants to do anything in the Chinese tech industry in future has to be careful what they say about Jack Ma because he is just so powerful,” says a former employee who asks not to be named.一位要求匿名的前员工表示:“任何未来想在中国科技行业中做点什么的人,在谈到马云时都必须慎言,因为他的影响力太过强大。”“But even people like me who don’t buy into his cult of personality recognise that he epitomises the entrepreneurial new China, where a person from a very poor background can become huge through pure perseverance and by rallying people around him.”“但即便像我这种不吃他的个人崇拜那一套的人也承认,他是中国新一代企业家的代表,一个背景很穷的人通过坚持不懈和笼络人才成长为巨头。”Born in the southeastern Chinese city of Hangzhou in 1964, Ma Yun (his Chinese name) inherited a gift for showmanship from his parents, who earned their living as performers of “ping tan”, a traditional musical storytelling technique.马云1964年出生于杭州,他从父母那里继承了表演的天赋。马云的父母靠表演评弹(一种传统曲艺形式)为生。Mr Ma’s early life cannot have been easy: traditional ping tan was banned during the Cultural Revolution, the catastrophic decade-long political campaign launched by Mao Zedong in 1966 in which millions were persecuted, killed or banished to remote parts of the country.马云的早年生活肯定不容易:评弹在文化大革命期间遭禁,这场由毛泽东在1966年发动的灾难性政治运动持续了整整十年,其间数百万人受到迫害、被杀死或下放到中国的偏远地区。As a child, Mr Ma was bad at maths but fascinated by English. As China emerged from the trauma of Maoism and began opening up to the world, he decided he would devote himself to learning the language.马云小时候数学较差,但他对英语很有兴趣。随着中国渐渐抚平毛时代的创伤,开始向世界开放,他决定全身心投入英语学习。For nine years he got up early every morning and rode his bike to the Hangzhou Hotel, where he befriended foreign tourists and worked for free as a tour guide in order to practise English.有整整九年时间,他每天都早早起床,骑上他的自行车奔向杭州大酒店(Hangzhou Hotel),他在那里和外国游客交上朋友,免费充当导游,以练习自己的英语。After twice failing China’s national university entrance exam he was eventually admitted to Hangzhou Teacher’s Institute, where he graduated in 1988.在参加高考两次落第之后,他最终进入了杭州师范学院,并于1988年毕业。He worked as an English teacher at a local university making a month but in 1994 he started a translation business that took him to the US, where he was introduced to the internet. At the time, China’s state media were not allowed even to mention its existence.此后他在杭州当地的一所高校担任英语老师,每月的工资相当于12美元。但1994年他成立了一家翻译公司,这使他有机会去美国出差,在那里接触到了互联网。那时中国的官方媒体甚至不能提及互联网的存在。After a failed attempt to start an online Chinese version of the Yellow Pages, Mr Ma went to work for the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, where one day he was assigned to take an American visitor on a tour of the Great Wall.在创办中国黄页(China Yellow Pages)失败之后,马云进入中国对外经济贸易部工作。有一天,他被指派陪同一位美国游客游览长城。The visitor was Jerry Yang, co-founder of Yahoo. The meeting would turn out to be transformative for both men.这位游客就是雅虎(Yahoo)的联合创始人杨致远(Jerry Yang)。事实明,这次的见面将成为两人事业生涯的转折点。Early in 1999, Mr Ma gathered 17 friends and founded Alibaba in his apartment in Hangzhou, giving rousing lectures that revealed his ambition, his vision and his fighting spirit.1999年初,马云联合17位朋友在他位于杭州的公寓里创建了阿里巴巴。他发表了励志演讲,展示了自己的雄心、愿景和战斗精神。“Chinese brains are just as good as theirs and this is the reason we dare to compete with Americans,” Mr Ma told his comrades in a speech that was caught on camera. “If we’re a good team and we know what we want to do then one of us can defeat 10 of them.”马云在这段被录制下来的演讲中向他的战友们表示:“中国人的大脑和美国人一样聪明,这正是我们敢于和他们竞争的原因。如果我们是一个优秀的团队,而且我们知道自己想要做什么,那么我们就能以一当十。”Alibaba’s model was simple: allow small and medium-sized Chinese companies to find global buyers they would otherwise only be able to meet at trade shows. It worked brilliantly.阿里巴巴的模式非常简单:帮助中国的中小企业找到原本只能在交易会上见到的全球买家。这种模式取得了极大的成功。In 2003, Alibaba made its first tiny profit and launched Taobao (“search for treasure”) to compete with US ecommerce group eBay, which then dominated in China with market share of about 80 per cent.2003年,阿里巴巴首次实现了小额盈利,同时为了与美国电子商务集团eBay竞争而创建了淘宝网,当时eBay在中国占据主导地位,拥有大约80%的市场份额。In a series of interviews with global media, Mr Ma announced he was “going to war” with eBay. At the time, it seemed like a comical mismatch.在接受全球媒体的一系列采访时,马云宣布与eBay“开战”。当时,这种宣战显得有些可笑,因为双方实力悬殊。By 2007, eBay’s market share in China had dropped to less than 8 per cent and it had in effect quit the market. Taobao’s share price had soared to 84 per cent, making Mr Ma the unrivalled king of Chinese ecommerce.到2007年,eBay在中国的市场份额降至不足8%,实际上已经退出了中国市场。淘宝的市场份额飙升至84%,这让马云成为了无可匹敌的中国电商之王。He struck a landmark deal with his old friend Mr Yang in 2005, with Yahoo paying bn for a 40 per cent stake in Alibaba and handing its China operations over to Mr Ma to run.2005年,他与自己的老朋友杨致远达成了里程碑式的协议:雅虎付10亿美元收购阿里巴巴40%的股权,并将其中国业务交给马云运营。In taking over Yahoo China, Alibaba inherited a scandal that would cast a shadow over Mr Ma’s reputation in the west but cement his image as a safe pair of hands in the eyes of the Chinese government.阿里巴巴接管雅虎中国(Yahoo China)的同时也继承了一桩丑闻,这将为马云在西方的形象带来阴影,但巩固了其在中国政府眼里办事可靠的形象。Yahoo’s earlier decision to hand over private email information to the Chinese authorities had led to at least two Chinese journalists and democracy advocates being thrown in prison for subversion.此前,雅虎将私人邮件信息移交给中国有关部门的决定,导致了至少两名中国记者和民主人士因颠覆罪被捕入狱。When asked how he would handle such a situation now that he was in charge of Yahoo’s China operations, Mr Ma’s reply was unambiguous.当时有记者问马云,既然你现在负责雅虎中国业务,你将如何处理这种局面,他的回答相当干脆。“We create value for the shareholders and the shareholders don’t want us to oppose the government and go bankrupt,” he told reporters at the time. “Whatever [government officials] say, we’ll do it.”马云向记者表示:“我们为股东创造价值,股东不希望我们与政府作对,走上破产之路。无论(政府官员)说什么,我们都会配合。”When asked last week in the interview about the challenges of dealing with the Chinese government, Mr Ma pointed out that there had never been an organisation in China or perhaps anywhere that is as large as Alibaba. It boasts more than 600m registered accounts and welcomes about 100m shoppers a day.在上周采访中被问及与中国政府打交道的种种挑战时,马云指出,中国(或许全世界)从来没有阿里巴巴这么大的企业。阿里巴巴号称有6亿多注册账户,每天有大约1亿人通过其平台购物。“At the beginning I thought the government would worry,” Mr Ma said. “[But] we focus on business and the creation of jobs. The government seems to feel more comfortable now.”马云说道:“起初我以为政府会感到不安。(但)我们致力于商业和创造就业。政府现在似乎放心多了。”To his employees he has often said that Alibaba should “be in love with the government but never marry it”. Over the years he has repeatedly turned down offers to establish joint ventures with the state.在公司内部,他经常对员工表示,阿里巴巴应该“跟政府谈恋爱但不要嫁给他们”。多年来,他一再拒绝了与政府建立合资企业的提议。Apart from the Chinese government, Mr Ma seems willing to pick a public fight with almost anyone.除了中国政府以外,马云似乎愿意与几乎所有人公开作对。That includes Alibaba investors such as Yahoo and, most recently, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, which this year refused to change its listing rules to accommodate the corporate structure Alibaba would like to use for its forthcoming IPO.这包括雅虎等阿里巴巴投资者,最近还有香港交易所(Hong Kong Stock Exchange)。香港交易所今年拒绝为了配合阿里巴巴希望采用的股权结构而修改上市规则。Within Alibaba, this fighting spirit is celebrated constantly and employees – or “Alipeople” as they are called – assume nicknames taken from characters in the kung fu novels that Mr Ma loved to as a young man.在阿里巴巴内部,这种战斗精神不断得到赞扬,而员工们(他们被称为“阿里人”)几乎都有一个来自马云年轻时非常喜欢阅读的武侠小说的化名。This is more than a gimmick for Mr Ma, whose own nickname – “Feng Qingyang” – comes from a reclusive swordsman character who was unpredictable and aggressive.对马云来说,这不只是一种噱头。马云自己的绰号是“风清扬”,它来自一个隐居山中的剑侠角色,行事不可预测而且非常好斗。“People don’t realise how much martial arts and kung fu novels influence Jack and his strategy for business,” says a former confidant. “They also helped shape his idealism because they are all about upholding the righteous way.”马云以前的一位密友表示:“人们没有意识到武术和武侠小说对马云及其企业战略的影响有多大。它们还帮助塑造了马云的理想主义,因为它们的要义都是弘扬正义。”Outside the ruling Communist party it is hard to find anyone today in China who has had a bigger impact on the lives of ordinary people than Mr Ma.在执政的共产党以外,在当今中国很难找到另一个人像马云一样,对普通人的生活影响如此之大。His decision to address some of the biggest problems facing China shows that his ambition extends far beyond changing the way people do their shopping. In an essay published this year, he laid out the scope of his vision.他决定应对中国一些最大的问题,这表明他的雄心远不止改变人们的购物方式。在今年发表的一篇文章中,他阐述了自己的愿景。“Just as the internet is revolutionising retail,” Mr Ma wrote, “we at Alibaba believe it will eventually do the same to fundamentally information-driven industries such as finance, education and healthcare. Once this change happens – once we are all connected – I believe the spirit of equality and transparency at the heart of the internet will make it possible for Chinese society to leapfrog in its development of a stronger institutional and social infrastructure.”马云写道:“就像互联网正在改写零售业那样,在阿里巴巴,我们相信它最终也将转变那些根本上由信息驱动的行业,比如金融、教育和医疗。一旦发生这种变化,一旦我们全面实现互联互通,我相信,互联网核心的平等与透明精神,将让中国社会有可能在发展更强大的制度和社会基础设施方面实现飞跃。”But he also included a warning: “Our water has become undrinkable, our food inedible, our milk poisonous and worst of all the air in our cities is so polluted that we often cannot see the sun,” he wrote. “Twenty years ago, people in China were focusing on economic survival. Now, people have better living conditions and big dreams for the future. But these dreams will be hollow if we cannot see the sun.”但他也提出了警告:“现在我们的水不能喝了,食物不能吃了,牛奶有毒,最糟糕的是,我们的城市空气污染如此严重,以至于我们经常看不到太阳。20年前,中国人只想着经济生存。现在人们的生活条件变好了,对未来有更远大的梦想。但如果我们看不到太阳,这些梦想将是空洞的。” /201312/268904

A 58-year-old Utah woman is set to give birth in a few weeks — to her first grandchild.据美联社1月8日报道,在美国犹他州普洛佛,一名58岁的妇女未来几周内即将产下她的第一个孙女。Julia Navarro is serving as a gestational surrogate for her daughter and son-in-law after the couple struggled with fertility problems.因女儿和女婿长期不不育,母亲朱莉亚·纳瓦罗为其。Navarro#39;s daughter Lorena McKinnon said she began trying to have a baby with her husband, Micah McKinnon, three years ago. The 32-year-old Provo woman said she#39;s had about a dozen miscarriages, with the longest pregnancy lasting 10 weeks.女儿洛雷娜·麦金农和丈夫米卡·麦金农三年前就开始准备生孩子。不幸的是,32岁的她习惯性流产,最长的期只有10周。After several tries, the couple began looking for a surrogate. McKinnon said a friend and sister both considered carrying her baby, but ultimately decided against it.几经努力后,这对夫妇开始寻找。虽然曾有一位朋友和都考虑过为其,但最终还是放弃了。That#39;s when her mother offered to step in.此时,她母亲主动提出为其。;As a family, we have to help each other,; Navarro told The Salt Lake Tribune .纳瓦罗告诉盐湖论坛报:“作为一个家庭,我们要互相帮助。”Navarro had to undergo hormone shots for three months before an embryo fertilized by her daughter and son-in-law could be implanted. Because of her age, doctors had warned there was only a 45 percent chance the implantation would be successful.在女儿和女婿受精的胚胎植入前,纳瓦罗要接受3个月的荷尔蒙注射。由于高龄,医生曾警告胚胎植入成功率只有45%。But the procedure was a success, and Navarro said she#39;s had a smooth pregnancy carrying a developing baby girl.幸运的是,整个过程进行得很顺利,纳瓦罗说自己成功怀上了一个女婴儿。As with other surrogacy arrangements, the couple and Navarro needed three months of counseling.与其他程序一样,这对夫妇和纳瓦罗需要接受为期3个月的心理咨询。;The psychologists wanted to make sure we knew what we were getting into — that we were mentally prepared,; McKinnon said. ;Mostly, surrogacy contracts are with people you don#39;t know. It was weird to have a contract with my mom.;女儿说:“心理医生想确认我们清楚面临的状况——但我们已经做好心理准备了,通常合同是和陌生人签的,和我母亲签合同感觉怪怪的。”It#39;s unclear how rare it is for a woman to carry her own grandchild, but recent news reports have detailed similar relationships.生完女儿又生孙女的事很少见,但最近的新闻报道中也出现类似的情况。Last year, a 53-year-old Iowa woman gave birth to her twin granddaughters. And in 2012, a 49-year-old woman in Maine gave birth to her grandson.去年,爱荷华州一名53岁的妇女产下了一对双胞胎孙女。2012年,缅因州一名49岁的妇女产下了孙子。McKinnon said she was grateful and overwhelmed by her mother#39;s offer, which eases some of the obstacles and financial burdens for parents using a gestational surrogate.女儿麦金农说母亲的帮助让她感激又感动,因为这样也减轻了的困难和经济负担。According to Utah law, surrogates must be 21 or older, financially stable and must have aly given birth once.根据犹他州法律,者必须21岁以上,经济收入稳定,且必须已生育一次。Couples must be married and are allowed to offer a reasonable payment to a surrogate.只有已婚且能提供合理报酬给者的夫妇才允许申请。On average, a couple can spend about ,000 on procedures and paying the surrogate, but McKinnon said her mother#39;s offer to help is saving the couple about half of that.平均一对夫妇花在程序和者报酬的费用为6万美金(约合36.3万人民币),不过因为母亲的帮助,麦金农可以省掉一半的费用。Both she and her daughter said they#39;ve bonded over the experience.她和母亲都说这次经历增进了她们的感情。The baby girl is due in early February.女宝宝即将在二月初出世。 /201401/272685

Forget the pyramids, Tahrir Square and the Nile. Egypt is y to ditch Cairo and build a shiny new capital if the government has its way.先别想金字塔、解放广场还有尼罗河了。埃及准备抛弃开罗,建造一个闪亮新首都,如果埃及政府这一想法能顺利实施的话。Fed up with pollution, traffic gridlock, a packed population with soaring rents and creaking infrastructure, Egypt is teaming up with a developer in the ed Arab Emirates to build a city in what could be one of the world#39;s most ambitious infrastructure programs。由于原首都污染严重,交通拥堵,人口大爆炸,房屋租金高涨,以及跟不上时代的基础设施等诸多压力,埃及计划与阿拉伯联合酋长国的一个开发商合作,建设一个新首都。这个首都建设计划可能是世界上最宏伟的公共建设项目之一。The yet-to-be-named city will sp out over 150 square miles, or roughly the size of Denver, and could eventually be home to 7 million people, the developers and government announced Friday。开发商和政府周五(3月13日)宣布,这个尚未被命名的城市将占地150平方英里(388平方公里),大概就是丹佛市(美国科罗拉多州最大的城市)的大小,大概能容纳700万名居民。The current capital of Cairo, while full of history and vibrant charm, is home to more than 18 million people, and living in and getting around the city can be maddening and frustrating. The government says the idea is to reduce congestion in Cairo, which is projected to double in population in the coming decades。现在的首都开罗,是一座既有历史底蕴,又富有勃勃生机的城市。开罗市里常住人口超过1800万,不管是住在城市里还是在城市中穿行,都会让人感到烦闷不适。政府称,考虑到开罗在未来十年里可能会增加一倍的人口,此举是为了改善开罗市内的拥堵情况。An exact location was not announced, but the city is expected to be built east of Cairo. It will be closer to the Red Sea -- between two major highways -- the Suez and the Ain Sokhna roads。新首都的具体地址尚未公布,但是应该是建在开罗的东边。新首都会位于两条主要交通干道——苏因士和艾因城市公路——中间,比开罗更靠近红海。The ambitions are big. In addition to the new embassies and government buildings, it plans to have an international airport bigger than Heathrow, solar energy farms, 40,000 hotel rooms, nearly 2,000 schools and 18 hospitals -- all linked together by over 6,000 miles of new roads。这项工程非常宏伟。除了新大使馆和政府大楼以外,还会在新首都建设一个比希斯罗机场(位于英国伦敦)更加大型的国际机场,还有太阳能农场,4万多间酒店住房,将近2000所学校和18所医院,这些建筑会由6000多英里的新公路连接起来。But if the dream is big, the bill will be bigger。但是,梦想如果很宏伟,实现梦想的账单数额,就会更加“宏伟”。The total cost is estimated at U.S. billion, Minister of Housing Mostafa Madbouly announced at an economic development conference in Sharm el-Sheikh。住房部长莫斯达#8226;玛德布理在沙姆沙伊赫(的一个经济发展会议上声称,建设新首都的总造价预计将达到450亿美元。The unveiling of the new capital was paired with a glitzy website with renderings showing a lush and technological urban scape of glass towers and pools。新首都的揭幕是通过眩目的网站展现的,网站展现了一片既有城市绿化又有高科技设施的城市景观,有玻璃楼塔,还有游泳池。The plan is backed by a group that describes itself as ;a private real estate investment fund by global investors focused on investment and development partnerships; led by Emirati developer Mohamed Alabbar。这项建设新首都计划的幕后持者是一个自称“专注于全球投资和发展的私人房地产投资基金会”的组织,该组织的领导者是阿联酋的地产开发商穆罕默德#8226;阿拉巴。Alabbar made his name as the founder of Dubai#39;s Emaar Properties, primarily known for developing the world#39;s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa。阿拉巴是迪拜的艾玛哈集团的创始人,他最著名的项目就是建造了世界上最高的建筑——迪拜塔。Egypt is not the first country to plan on moving its capital from established big cities to rural greener pastures. Myanmar has only recently completed its move from crumbling Yangon to the new city of Naypyidaw. Nigeria moved to Abuja in the 1990#39;s, and Brazil carved its capital Brasilia out of the wilderness over 50 years ago。埃及并不是世界上第一个想把首都从成熟的大都市搬迁至乡村绿地的国家。缅甸最近才完成把旧首都从衰败的仰光到新城市内比都的大迁移,尼日利亚在19世纪90年代把首都搬到阿布贾,巴西也在50年前在一片荒蛮之地上建起了首都巴西利亚。And then there was another crazy idea of building a capital on a square of swampland that seemed mainly to be a boondoggle for wealthy land speculators at the time。此外,还有一个疯狂的搬迁首都例子,就是在一片沼泽地上建立一个都城,这在当时看来简直就是有钱的土地投机商的异想天开。 /201503/365026

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