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来源:365优惠    发布时间:2017年10月22日 20:09:33    编辑:admin         

Science and technology科学技术The 2012 Nobel prizes诺贝尔生理学奖Good eggs 再生医学界的大好人THIS years Nobel physiology prize goes to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for a crucial discovery in stem-cell science?—how to make what are known as pluripotent stem cells from ordinary body cells.今年的诺贝尔生理学奖颁给了约翰格登爵士和山中伸弥,来表彰他们在干细胞领域的关键发现-那就是如何利用普通的体细胞来合成多功能干细胞。What the citation does not say is that this work also allows clones to be made from adult animals, potentially including people.诺贝尔颁奖典礼上的褒奖词没有指出的是,这项成果使得成年动物 的克隆成为可能,也有可能可以克隆人类。A stem cell is one that can differentiate into daughter cells specialised for particular functions, and all the cells in a body are thus derived from stem cells.干细胞是一种可以分化成细胞的物质,而细胞则担当某种特定的功能 ,体内的所有细胞都是来源于干细胞的。That includes the stem cells themselves, which derive from ur stem cells found in embryos.而干细胞则是来自胚胎中的ur干细胞。These embryonic stem cells are the pluripotent cells, meaning they can turn into many other sorts of cell.这些胚胎干细胞就是多功能干细胞,他们可以分化成很多其他种类的细胞。Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of great value to researchers but, if the embryos they came from were human, their use is controversial.多功能胚胎干细胞对于研究者来讲弥足珍贵,但是如果这些胚胎来自于人类,那这些干细胞的使用就有争议了。Also, if such cells are ever to play a useful role in medicine, then they will need to be available in bulk—and ideally in a form whose DNA matches that of the recipient.而且,这些细胞在医药方面扮演着如何重要角色, 那么 我们就大量需要这些干细胞了—在理想的情况下,这些干细胞的DNA和接受者的DNA相匹配。Sir John and Dr Yamanaka have both conducted work that should help make this possible.格登爵士和山中士的研究就是来推动这一试想实现的可能性。Sir Johns prizewinning study, published half a century ago, in 1962, when he was at Oxford University, was to transplant the nuclei of cells from adults of a frog called Xenopus laevis into enucleated eggs of that species.格登爵士的获奖研究发表于半个世纪前的1962年,当时他正在牛津大学读书,打算将一只成年非洲爪蟾的细胞核移植到同类的无核卵子中。The eggs in question then developed into healthy adults.这些卵子随后发育成健康的非洲爪蛙。This showed that DNA is not altered during embryonic development, at least in Xenopus.这表明DNA在胚胎发育的过程中并未变异,只是在非洲爪蛙的身上没有发生变异。It thus suggested it might be possible to get an entire adult cell to perform a similar trick, without involving an egg at all.这表明很有可能在得到一个成年完整细胞的情况下,通过同样的试验,但是不用卵子。That was what Dr Yamanaka did.而后者就是由山中士完成的。He and his colleagues at Kyoto University managed to activate four crucial genes in adult mouse cells.在日本京都大学,他和他的同事成功激活了四个成年老鼠细胞中的关键基因。These genes each encode a protein of a type known as a transcription factor, which controls the expression of DNA.这些基因每个都可以表达生成一种蛋白质,转录因子,控制DNA的表达。Together, they trick the cell in question into thinking it is part of an embryo.和他的同事一起,他们将试验细胞看成胚胎的一部分。In the first experiment, conducted in 2005, Dr Yamanaka did not get complete mice, but he did turn the adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. Subsequent work by his group and others then produced embryos which, if transplanted into the womb of a female mouse, will go all the way to adulthood.第一个试验是2005年完成的,山中士的细胞没有发育成完整的老鼠,但是士确实将成年细胞转化成了多功能胚胎干细胞。他的科研小组随后生成了这种胚胎,如果将该胚胎植入一只雌性老鼠的子宫内,它就会发育成老鼠。Finally, in 2007, Dr Yamanaka managed to switch on the same four genes in adult human cells, and thus generated pluripotent human stem cells.最后,于2007年,山中士成功转变了成年人体细胞中的同四种基因,而后生成了多功能人体干细胞。In principle, that opens the door to human cloning, though no one has tried this in practice—and in most countries such an experiment would be illegal.理论上,这一研究开启了人类克隆的大门,尽管还没有人曾付诸实施-大多数国家,这种试验都是非法的。It also opens the door, though, to bespoke tissue repair as it would allow cells of whatever type were desired to be grown from, say, a few skin cells and then transplanted back into the donor without risking an adverse reaction from his immune system.这一研究也开启了订制组织修复的大门,因为可以将任何种类的细胞转化成别的细胞,比如,一些皮肤细胞被移植回到捐献者的体内,而不用担心会对捐献者的免疫系统造成不良影响。How well that would work in practice remains to be seen.在实践中,这项研究能走多远,我们拭目以待。But if it works well then Sir John and Dr Yamanaka may turn out to have been the pioneers of a whole, new field: regenerative medicine.但是如果成功的话,格登爵士和山中士就成为一项全新领域的先驱了,那就是再生医学。 /201401/274148。

Business商业报道Manufacturing in Serbia塞尔维亚的制造业Balkan legacy巴尔干遗产Fiat goes east to lower costs菲亚特东迁降低成本MASS-MARKET carmakers in western Europe are enduring car sales at their lowest since 1993.畅销的汽车制造商在西欧正忍受着自1993年以来的最低销量。They are losing money on their assembly plants in their home countries, yet politics makes it hard to close them.他们在本国组装厂赔钱,但政策又使得很难将它们关闭。That has encouraged them to seek ways of manufacturing more cheaply in emerging-market states on Europes periphery, to drive down their average costs.这鼓励他们在欧洲国家寻找更便宜的新兴市场的方式来压低他们的平均成本。Take Fiat, which lost 247m in the third quarter of this year.菲亚特在今年第三季度亏损2.47亿。Some 5,700 workers have been put on extended leave in Italy, and even in Poland Fiat has had to shed 1,450 jobs.在意大利约5,700名工人休长假,在波兰菲亚特甚至不得不裁员1,450个工作岗位。But its Serbian operation is expanding, and in just over a year has gone from zero to becoming the countrys largest exporter.但在塞尔维亚业务却不断扩大,并在短短一年多时间已经从零到成为其最大的出口商。Since March, Fiat has taken on 600 new workers and now employs 3,800 at its plant at Kragujevac, a town in central Serbia.自三月以来,菲亚特在塞尔维亚中部的一个小镇的工厂招聘了600名新工人,现在已拥有员工3,800名。Local suppliers to the plant have taken on a further 1,200 recruits.本地供应商的工厂也新招聘了1,200名新员工。Fiat has invested 1.2 billion in the plant, which now turns out 600 of the companys chunky, family-friendly 500L small cars each day.菲亚特已经在这个厂投资1.2亿美元,每天产出600辆耐用的、适合家用的500L小型车。The region was so badly hit in the 1990s by the collapse of Yugoslavia, followed by sanctions and war that it became known as hunger valley.上世纪90年代南斯拉夫解体对该地区造成了严重的打击,再加上制裁和战争使它成为饥饿的山谷。But it had an industrial legacy in Zastava, maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles.但它在扎斯塔瓦有一个工业遗产,优吾车和卡拉什尼科夫步的制造商。In 1989, the last full year of the old Yugoslavia, 180,950 cars rolled off the production lines. In 2004 Zastava produced only 13,300 of its ropy models.1989年,老南斯拉夫全年有180,950辆汽车从生产线下线。在2004年却只生产了13,300辆它的ropy型号。What saved Zastava from oblivion was its links to Fiat, which dated back to 1954.与菲亚特的关系使扎斯塔瓦免于被遗忘,这个关系可追溯到1954年。In 2008 the assets of Zastava were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija, owned 67% by the Italian firm.2008年扎斯塔瓦的资产被转移到一个新的公司,位于意大利的菲亚特汽车有限公司SRBIJA拥有67%的股权。Since then, the old Zastava plant has been demolished. In the new one, workers with an average age of 30 move around silently, tapping instructions into computer terminals that control the plants robots.从那时起老扎斯塔瓦厂就被拆毁了。在平均年龄为30岁的新厂里工人在默默地将指令输入计算机终端控制工厂的机器人。The rationale for producing in Serbia is cost: the wage Fiat pays there is a fifth of what it pays in Italy, and a third of what it pays in Poland.在塞尔维亚生产的理由是成本:菲亚特付的工资只有在意大利的五分之一,是在波兰的三分之一。Last November, however, protests from disgruntled workers forced Fiat to increase wages in Kragujevac by 13%.然而去年11月不满的工人迫使菲亚特在克拉古耶瓦茨增加13%工资。The Serbian government subsequently agreed to compensate Fiat for this by paying it 10,000 for each employee it took on—not the first time a government has had its arm twisted by a carmaker into providing subsidies.随后塞尔维亚政府同意为每一位员工补偿菲亚特10000欧元,这不是政府第一次由汽车制造商拧着胳膊为其提供补贴。It also promised Fiat a further 3,000 per car to make cheaper 500Ls for the Serbian market.它还承诺每辆车补贴菲亚特3,000欧元降低塞尔维亚市场500Ls车的价格。France and rival car importers cried foul, and the European Commission ruled that Serbia, a candidate for European Union membership, had indeed violated state-aid rules.法国和竞争对手的汽车进口商哭诉违反规则,欧盟委员会裁定塞尔维亚的确触犯了国家援助规则,而其是加入欧盟的候选国。The car-price subsidy was abandoned but the cash-for-workers one was not.汽车价格补贴被放弃,但工人现金补贴没有。The plant could make 200,000 cars a year but its production will be lower.工厂一年可以生产200,000辆汽车,但其产量将会降低。One reason is that Serbia failed to persuade Russia to include cars in a free-trade agreement struck in 2011.原因之一是2011年塞尔维亚未能说俄罗斯将汽车列入自由贸易协定。Kragujevac has good transport links and is close to Fiats main European markets.克拉古耶瓦茨拥有良好的交通是菲亚特在欧洲的主要市场。The government would like to encourage more such investment, because too much of Serbias measly economic growth since 2008 has been achieved without creating jobs.政府希望有更多的投资,因为自2008年以来塞尔维亚可怜的经济增长创造不了多少就业机会。How annoying, then, that one of the advertisements made to publicise the 500L in America shows the cars arriving as women strip off their outer garments to the cry of: The Italians are coming!讨厌的是在美国做广告宣传500L汽车时妇女脱掉外衣喊叫:意大利人都来了!If only potential American investors knew that these Italians are really Serbs.假如只有潜在的美国投资者知道这些意大利实际上是塞尔维亚的。 /201311/264838。