当前位置:黑龙江地方站首页 > 龙江新闻 > 正文


2018年03月18日 23:35:52    日报  参与评论()人

杭州种一颗牙收费杭州医院治疗口腔种植牙齿美容多少钱杭州虎牙正畸哪家医院好 Business商业报道Canadian retailing加拿大零售业Drug deal 药品生意A merger to see off an American challenge实行兼并抗衡美国的挑战THEY met on July 11th in a minivan on a country road.7月11号,维斯顿·佳林,加拿大零售王朝的孙子和科库至·霍尔格,When they emerged Galen Weston, scion of a Canadian retailing dynasty, and Holger Kluge, chairman of the countrys biggest drugstore chain, had made a deal.乡村最大的药品连锁店董事长在一条乡村道路上的小货车里见了面并达成协议。The Weston groups Loblaw grocery chain, by far Canadas largest,agreed to buy Shoppers Drug Mart for 12.4 billion.维斯顿集团的罗伯劳连锁店,作为加拿大目前最大的食品杂货连锁店,同意以12.4亿加拿大元的价格购买其康药房。With this, the relatively cosy world of Canadian retailing comes of age.随着此合同的签订,加拿大零售业迎来一个比较舒适的氛围。To global retailers accustomed to merciless competition Canada is appealingly civilised.相对于国际零售商惯于的残酷竞争,加拿大则更偏向于文明的请求。Unlike Americans and Europeans, Canadians have not been hammered by a housing bust.不同于美国和欧洲,加拿大没有受到房地产泡沫的打击,Fewer big grocery chains are fighting for market share than they are south of the border.很少有大的百货公司连锁店像他们南边的邻居一样在争取市场份额时那么努力。Compared with the ed States, Canada has about 60% of the retail floor space per consumer and profit margins are higher.加拿大有美国60%的人均零售面积但利润却更大。But things are becoming less comfortable.但是,事情开始变得有点不乐观。Target, an American discount chain, moved into Canada this year, joining Walmart, a behemoth that has been there since 1994.塔吉特公司,一家美国的折扣连锁店,今年加盟沃尔玛,进入加拿大。沃尔玛,自1994年就进入加拿大的大公司。Safeway, another American grocer,pulled out in June,西弗伟公司,另一家美国百货公司,则在6月份退出。but only because a Canadian rival, Sobeys, made an irresistible offer for its stores.原因不仅因为加拿大内部的竞争,超市也为他的商店提供了令人不可抗拒的价格。Clothes retailing is getting more crowded, too.装零售业也人满为患,J.Crew arrived in 2011 and Nordstrom, an American department-store chain, is expected in 2014.J·克鲁2011年进入加拿大,诺斯通,一家美国连锁百货商场有望2014年进入。All this is happening as consumers are becoming less cheery: economic growth is sluggish and debt is high.面对这些,由于经济萧条,债台高筑,消费者越来越不怎么乐观。Century-old Loblaw is part of the Weston familys transatlantic empire, which ranges from food manufacturing to the Selfridges and Fortnum amp; Mason department stores in Britain.世纪公司罗伯劳是维斯顿家族横跨大西洋帝国的一部分。在英国,它涉及食品制造到塞尔福里奇和福特纳姆amp;梅森百货商店。Loblaw hit a rough patch in the mid-2000s, when it briefly fell into loss.罗伯劳公司经营曾在20世纪中叶的时候亮过红灯,陷入短暂的亏损之中。But it has since streamlined operations and upgraded its technology.但是从那时起,它就精简业务,提高科技。Shoppers Drug Mart has built its network steadily over the past half-century.其康药房在上半个世纪里建立了稳定的商业网。The merged group, with sales of C42 billion, is in part a counter to the American onslaught.合并之后的集团,售价高达420亿加拿大元,在某种程度上,是对美国冲击的一种反击。Shoppers will remain a separate unit and keep its top managers.商店依然是独立的单元,并保留其高级管理者。Even so, the partners expect to save C135m on annual technology and marketing costs.即使如此,合伙者希望每年能在科技和市场上节省13.5亿加拿大元。More important, says Ken Wong, who teaches business strategy at Queens University in Ontario, is the opportunity for both chains to wring more from their private-label product lines and loyalty programmes.王肯,安大略洲皇后大学商业策略讲师说,更重要是两个连锁店有机会从自有品牌和客户忠诚上赚取更多。By Canadian standards they are adept marketers of their own ranges.按照加拿大标准,他们在各自的领域里是熟练的经销商。But Canada lags private-label powerhouses such as Britain and Switzerland.但在,加拿大在自有品牌上落后于其他强手,比如英国和瑞士。There is much to be gained from selling Shoppers “Life” range of mouthwashes and plasters in Loblaws groceries and pushing Loblaws “Presidents Choice” food in Shoppers pharmacies, says Mr Wong.王先生说,在罗伯劳的百货店销售生活用品,从漱口水到药膏,在其康药房促销“总统的选择”的食物有很大的好处。Loblaws loyalty programme will get a boost from merging with Shoppers superior scheme and both will gain from having a bigger data lode to mine.和其康合并的方案,会让罗伯劳的客户忠诚项目参与人数大增,双方都会有一个更大数据脉矿开发。The deal will mark the arrival in Canada of another global fad.这个决议标志加拿大另一个全球风尚的到来。Until now Canadian grocers have largely ignored the trend in other rich countries to open “convenience” shops in the neighbourhoods where their customers live.目前加拿大百货店已经很大程度上忽视了在其他发达国家有客户居住的社区开便利店的趋势。The acquisition of Shoppers 1,242 stores, which are mainly smallish outlets in cities and towns, provides Loblaw with a full-fledged convenience chain at a stroke.超市的1,242家分店,多为市镇的小网点,这为罗伯劳公司的反击提供了充分的便利链。It places Loblaw “at the front of the pack”, says Kenric Tyghe of Raymond James, a financial-advice firm.金融咨询公司瑞士金融集团的Kenric Tyghe 说,合并让罗伯劳公司走在前列。The stockmarket likes the deal:股票市场看好这个交易:shares of both companies jumped on the news.消息传出之后两家公司的股票都上涨了,So did those of rivals Metro, a supermarket, and Jean Coutu, a drugstore chain.股票上涨的还有他们的对手一个超级市场和一个连锁药店,尚酷都。Investors are speculating that these two will join to form another Canadian champion. That is unlikely to deter further incursions from across the border.投资者认为这两个公司的联合会形成一个新的加拿大冠军并有可能阻止国外进一步的打击。 /201308/252296Science and technology科学技术Biotechnology patents生物技术专利Natural justice自然正义Americas Supreme Court is to rule on the patenting of genes美国最高法院将对基因专利做出裁决THE nine justices on Americas Supreme Court must apply their minds to the thorniest of legal questions.美国最高法院的九位法官全力专注于处理这最棘手的法律问题。On April 15th they were presented with a particularly testing puzzler: should the law allow people to patent human genes?4月15日,法官们遇到一个相当棘手的案件:法律是否允许取得人类基因的专利权。The case is the culmination of a battle that began in .年专利之争使此案件白热化。It pits Americas Association for Molecular Pathology and various other interested parties—represented by lawyers from the American Civil Liberties Union—against Myriad Genetics, a biotechnology firm that holds patents on two human genes, called BRCA1 and BRCA2.案件起源于美国分子病理学学会与其他利益相关方—由来自美国民权同盟的律师代表—联名起诉麦利亚德基因公司,该生物技术公司持有名为BRCA1 和 BRCA2的两个人类乳腺癌基因专利。That makes Myriad the sole producer of tests to detect mutations in those genes.专利的授权使麦利亚德公司成为检测这两个基因突变的基因测序独家供应商。Such mutations often increase a womans risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer.这些基因突变常会增大女性患乳腺癌及卵巢癌的风险。It is an emotionally charged question.这是一个带着感性色的案件。Patent offices around the world have been granting patents on genes, human and otherwise, for decades, but time has done little to soften opposition to the idea.虽然世界各地的专利局数十年来一直授予人类基因或者其他基因的专利,但也未能减缓外界对这一做法的反对。Laymen are often baffled when they find out that it is possible to patent parts of the human genome.部分人类基因可注册专利常使得非专业人员感到困惑。Anti-patenting campaigners argue that the idea of claiming a patent over the shared genetic heritage of the human race is absurd, immoral or both.反对专利注册的人认为,对共享的人类遗传基因申请专利的做法是荒谬的或不道德的,或两者皆有。But the court is unlikely to base its ruling on such airy ethical principles.但法院是不大可能依据这些不切实际的道德准则来对此案件进行裁决的。The legal debate revolves not around the two genes humanness, but their naturalness—for the judges are being asked to rule whether Myriads genes count as a product of nature.法律争辩的焦点不在于基因的人类性,而是在于它们的自然性—因为法官理应裁决麦利亚德公司的基因是否算是自然产物。If they do, then under American law they cannot be patented.如果是的话,那在美国法律规定下,这些基因就不能被注册专利。At first glance, it may seem odd to argue that a gene is anything other than a product of the natural world.乍看之下,这可能看上去很奇怪,争论基因是否只是自然界产物。But Myriads patents do not cover the genes as they occur in living cells.但麦利亚德公司的专利并不包括活细胞中存在的基因。Rather, they cover isolated forms of the genes, which have been identified, snipped from the genome and chemically modified to make them analysable in a laboratory.恰恰相反,专利涉及的是这些基因的分离基因,已被测定的分离基因是从基因组中剪切出来经化学方法修饰后可用于实验室实验分析的一类基因。Myriad argues that these alterations, and the new use to which the resulting gene is put as part of a diagnostic test, make their product sufficiently innovative to be worthy of the laws protection.麦利亚德公司声称这些改造基因,以及合成基因用于诊断测试的这类新应用,使他们公司产品足够创新,值得受到法律的保护。The plaintiffs say this reasoning is spurious: the chemical changes are trivial, and the resulting bit of DNA useful only because it is identical in every meaningful way to the version that occurs in vivo.原告们则认为这种逻辑带有欺骗性:化学改造不重要,DNA合成之所以有用只是因为与源基因在生物体中作用模式完全相同。Doctors, patients and biotechnology companies are interested in the information content of genes, the argument runs, not the incidental details of their chemical composition.他们还认为,医生、患者以及生物技术公司感兴趣的是基因的信息内容,而不是化学合成基因所附带的信息。For a while, the court found itself bogged down in analogies with the patent-eligibility of chocolate-chip cookies and baseball bats.法庭暂时陷入了像巧克力饼干和棒球棒专利资格似的困境中。There are other criticisms of Myriad.还有另外一些对麦利亚德公司的批评。One is that its patents are too broad.有人认为麦利亚德公司的专利涵盖范围过大。The firms tests look for variations in BRCA genes.该公司的基因测序是为发现BRCA基因的突变体。Rather than patenting every conceivable variant, the company claims jurisdiction over isolated DNA sequences, 15 base pairs long, that match short parts of the genes.他们不是对每一有可能得到的基因突变体持有专利权,而是对一段分离到的基因序列持有专利权,这段基因序列含有15个碱基对,可与BRCA基因短链配对。An analysis by Jeffrey Rosenfeld and Christopher Mason, of the Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics and Cornell University respectively, published in Genome Medicine, found that 689 other human genes contain 15-base-pair strings found in BRCA1, suggesting Myriads patents technically cover those unrelated genes, too.分别来自赛克勒比较基因组学研究所和康奈尔大学的杰弗里·罗森菲尔德以及克里斯托弗·梅森,在《Genome Medicine》杂志发表的文章中指出,研究发现其他689个人类基因都含有BRCA1基因中的这段15个碱基对的DNA链,这表明麦利亚德公司的专利从学术角度来讲也涵盖这些不相关的基因。The economics of genomics基因组的经济学The arguments ranged beyond the arcana of human genetics and American patent law.讨论范围超出了人类遗传学的深奥知识和美国专利法之外。The judges were keen to explore the impact of a hypothetical anti-Myriad ruling on the countrys thriving biotechnology industry, which, according to one estimate, was worth 92 billion in 2011.法官们热衷于探讨的是,一个假设的反对麦利亚德公司专利的裁决会对国家日益繁荣的生物技术行业产生何种影响,据统计,生物技术行业2011年产值为920亿美元。Several questioned Christopher Hansen, the plaintiffs lawyer, on what incentive firms would have to identify interesting genes if there were no possibility of winning a patent on them.有人质疑原告律师克里斯多夫·汉森,如果不能获得专利权,那么公司又有什么动力去发掘有价值的基因。Developing such tests is not cheap.基因测序技术的实验花费并不便宜。According to Mark Capone, Myriads president, the firm spent around 500m before it had a product it could bring to market.据麦利亚德公司董事长马克·卡波尼所说,公司在一个生物产品可投入市场之前要花费大概5亿美元。Others argue that such patents hold back biotechnology, an industry that is changing fast.另有人认为,这样的专利阻碍了日新月异的生物技术行业的发展。Donald Verrilli, Americas solicitor general, who represents the governments view in the case, pointed out that competitors need the patent-holders permission to isolate the genes to see if they can develop a better test, or even to examine them for any other effects they may have.对此案件,政府发言人美国副检察长唐纳德﹒维里利指出,竞争者有了专利持有人的许可去分离基因,才能知道他们自己是否可以研发出更好的测序方法,或者甚至可以研究发现基因其他潜在的价值。Some observers think an anti-Myriad ruling would have little practical effect.一些观察员认为反对麦利亚德公司专利权的裁决将不会产生太大的经济影响。The firms patents expire in 2015, and technology has moved on.该公司的专利权有效期截止到2015年,而到那时,生物技术早已有极大的进步。The cost of genetic sequencing is falling fast, and it may soon be possible for people to have their entire genomes sequenced for less than the roughly 4,000 Myriad charges for its tests.基因测序成本会大大降低,很快人们也许就可以花费少于4000美元就能对自己全部的基因测序。Any genes of interest could thus be examined for worrisome mutations, probably without infringing any patents.从此不用侵犯任何专利权,就可检测基因突变。And Mr Hansen conceded that much work in modern biotech concerns recombinant DNA, which involves cutting and pasting DNA from different sources to make synthetic sequences not found in nature, something that the plaintiffs agree should be covered by patent law.而且汉森律师不得不承认,现代生物技术的基因重组,大部分是对不同外源DNA进行剪切、粘贴后形成自然界中不存在的DNA合成序列,这并不违犯专利法。Whatever conclusion the court comes to, the judges seemed keen to avoid an overly broad ruling.不管法院裁决结果如何,法官们似乎倾向避免做出过于清晰的裁决。That may be a legally sensible approach to a knotty question combining genetics, economics and ethics.这也许是对此涉及遗传学、经济学和伦理学的棘手案件比较合法合理的解决方式。But, like all good compromises, it risks leaving no one satisfied.但是,与所有好的折中一样,这样会导致原告被告双方均对裁决不满。Ideally, Americas Congress would set out exactly what parts of the human genome should be patentable.理想的做法是美国国会应该确切地规定人类基因组的哪些基因可以申请专利。There is not much chance of that actually happening, though.不过,这也不太可能会发生。 /201312/267183杭州隐形牙套哪家好

杭州新华医院美白牙齿需要多少钱杭州治疗蛀牙具体费用 杭州儿童口腔医院怎么样啊

舟山牙齿正畸哪家医院好 杭州口腔医院门诊杭州市西溪医院种植牙口腔



杭州蛀牙掉了挂号知识浙江中医院美容冠要多少钱 浙江省人民医院口腔修复口腔正畸怎么样好吗 [详细]
杭州牙科医院隐形牙套费用高吗 搜索媒体新昌县人民医院治疗种植牙要多少钱普及互动 [详细]
浙江省杭州前牙种植一般需要多少钱QQ健康杭州隐形牙齿矫正器多少钱 杭州维信口腔门诊部看前牙后牙种植牙怎么样好吗 [详细]
西湖口腔医院洗牙贵吗爱问媒体杭州市第一人民医院治疗假牙价格 国际专家上虞市妇幼保健院看即刻种植牙植骨全口缺失多少钱 [详细]


浙江牙科医院口腔美容中心 杭州儿童口腔医院种植牙失败修复好医指南 [详细]
上城区妇幼保健人民中医院拔牙智牙口臭口腔溃疡多少钱 杭州做牙齿矫正要多少钱 [详细]
杭州哪里看牙齿美白看的好 久久晚报浙江中医院半口全口种植牙多少钱爱新闻 [详细]
赶集新闻杭州市补牙大概是什么价位 杭州牙科医院哪家比较好好常识浙江杭州做牙齿矫正的费用 [详细]