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时间:2017年12月17日 15:48:43

UN: Africa Falling Behind In Export Growth非洲贸易自由化解除许多贸易障碍  A U.N. report finds two decades of trade liberalization have successfully removed many of the barriers that used to limit trade from the continent. But, the report by the U.N. Conference on Trade and Development says progress has been less than expected. 联合国贸易和发展会议的一份报告发现,非洲大陆进行了二十年的贸易自由化已成功地解除了以前限制贸易的很多障碍。但是,联合国的报告说,进展不如预期的那么快。The report says trade liberalization in Africa has led to a slight increase in exports. But, it says these increases are far below those achieved in other developing regions. 这份报告说,非洲的贸易自由化使出口略微上升。但是报告指出,这些出口增长远低于其它发展中地区的出口增长。UNCTAD Senior Economist and report author Charles Gore says Africa's share in world agricultural trade stood at 3.2 percent in 2006. He says this was lower than in 1985 when agricultural exports stood at 5.4 percent. 联合国贸易和发展会议资深经济学家和这份报告的撰稿人查尔斯-戈尔说,在2006年的世界农产品贸易中,非洲所占份额为3.2%。他说,这比1985年还低。非洲1985年的农产品出口占全球总量的5.4%。"Even more worrying from the point of view of the report, is that there has been little diversification in the export composition. Diversification into high-value agricultural exports has only been successful in a few countries, notably Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia. And there has also been very little diversification into manufactures exports," he said.  他说:“从这份报告的角度出发,更加令人担忧的是,非洲农产品出口几乎没有任何多样化。高价值农产品出口的多样化仅在几个国家取得成功,他们是科特迪瓦、埃塞俄比亚、加纳、肯尼亚、乌干达和赞比亚。而且制造业的出口也几乎没有任何多样化。”Gore says diversification of African economies could ensure more robust and stable growth, but this has not occurred. He says the manufacturing sector could potentially yield higher profits and higher living standards. 戈尔说,非洲国家经济的多样化能确保更强劲和稳定的增长,但是这种情况却没有出现。他说,制造业可能会获得更高的利润和更高的生活标准。He says governments must take effective steps to reverse several worrisome trends. These include decades of relative neglect of agriculture that have hindered African countries at a time of climbing commodity prices. "After trade liberalization, imports have increased as a share of GDP much more quickly than exports. And thus African countries have experienced a worsening trade balance. Overall, one may therefore characterize the export performance as modest, though in value terms this has been masked by the recent commodity price boom," he said. 他说,各国政府必须采取有效的措施扭转一些令人忧虑的发展趋势,包括数十年来对农业的相对忽视。在当前商品价格上升的局势下,这阻碍了非洲国家的发展。他说:“在贸易自由化之后,非洲国家的进口在国民生产总值中所占比重的增加,远比出口快得多。因此,非洲国家一直在经历着日益恶化的贸易平衡。整体而言,非洲国家的出口情况适度,尽管最近商品价格猛涨掩盖了这种适度增长的实际价值。”The report says Africa is experiencing a food crisis mainly because of the negligence in development policies pursued during the past 25 years. U.N. Economists say a number of factors are hindering African agricultural performance. 这份报告说,非洲正经历粮食危机,其重要原因是过去25年来推行的忽视农业发展政策。联合国的经济学家说,一些因素在妨碍着非洲农业的发展。Key constraints include poor physical infrastructure, inefficient product markets, lack of credit, and weak land and labor markets. They say gender division of labor and constraints on access for women to land also create problems. 主要的约束包括农业基础设施差,产品市场低效,信贷不足,土地贫瘠,劳动力市场不景气等。他们说,劳动分工的性别化,以及妇女在获取土地方面受到的限制,也都是问题。The report says developed countries have an important role to play in helping African countries improve their export performance, notably through aid-for-trade initiatives. 这份报告说,发达国家在帮助非洲国家改善出口情况方面能发挥重要的作用, 特别是通过贸易援助计划。200809/48906

Downing Street will receive a special delivery from postmasters this afternoon, the country's biggest ever petition in modern times. Four million people have backed a campaign, urging the government to save Britain's post offices. More than four thousand post offices have closed since 1999; the rest are losing up to a quarter of a billion pounds a year. Now the National Federation of Sub-Postmasters fears lost income from key services like the planned withdrawal of the Post Office card account in 2010 will threaten the network's future. James Blake reports.The Saint Levan Valley Post Office near Plymouth faces closure. It is one of thousands that are not commercially viable and cost taxpayers over a hundred and fifty million pounds a year in subsidies. And yet the customers here don't care if the post office makes money, they say it's a social lifeline for the community.We've had people moved to tears here at the very thought of losing their post office. And we won't fail to express that to the government, we, it's such a vital part of the community.That's why hundreds of sub-postmasters have descended on London this morning to protest against what they call a death by a thousand cuts. The government has removed so many services from branches that many would be forced to close.Instead of saying we are going to shut everything, to shut things down, and we're going to deprive communities of their post office, we need, we need to do what we are doing, and that's look at innovative new ways of delivering the service, particularly out in the rural network where there are far less people to be able to generate the income for sub-postmasters to run full time offices.This afternoon they'll hand in a petition signed by four million people which they hope would preempt any government announcement on cuts.Now the post office is losing three million pounds a week, and no one I've spoken to here really believes that can go on. This lobby wants reform and modernization, but not the piecemeal destruction of the network they say the government is inflicting on them.And at the top of the list of grievances: the planned withdrawal of the Post Office card account, used by millions to access pensions and benefits.There're many, many people who still want, and who budget on being able to get their money from their pension and other benefits each week in cash at post office, and that is the bottom line, the government has given a commitment in the past that would always be able to happen.They have to be viable .We, what we wanna do is make sure that they can be viable. So in the same way as a pub used to be tied to one brewery, we want to free up, eh, sub-post offices to have lots of products, so they can have a much better income flow, and therefore, stay open.There are fourteen thousand post offices in Britain; only four thousand are commercially viable. Here in Plymouth, as across the country, they are collecting hearts with messages of support.But post offices need more than supporters to keep such a huge network alive. They need customers 200805/39454

Bush Arrives in Slovenia for US-EU Summit布什抵达斯洛文尼亚参加美欧峰会 U.S. President George Bush is in Slovenia for talks with the leaders of the European Union. The agenda includes economic and security matters. 美国总统布什正在斯洛文尼亚同欧盟领导人举行会谈。会谈的内容包括经济和安全议题。These trans-Atlantic summits have traditionally focused on economic issues. And President Bush says he is eager to discuss money matters with the leaders of the European Union. 跨大西洋的首脑会议历来注重经济议题。布什总统说,他渴望同欧盟领导人讨论货币议题。"The U.S. economy has continued to grow in the face of unprecedented challenges," he said. "We [have] got to keep our economies flexible; both the U.S. economy and European economies need to be flexible in order to deal with today's challenges." 他说:“美国经济虽面临前所未有的挑战,但仍在增长。我们必须保持经济的灵活性。为了应对当今的挑战,美国和欧洲经济都需要具有灵活性。”He says he wants to talk to them about joint action to address the high cost of energy. He says currency issues will also be discussed, including concerns about the strength of the U.S. dollar. 他说,他想和欧盟领导人讨论如何采取共同行动解决高能源价格问题。他说,他们还将讨论货币问题,包括对疲软美元汇率的担忧。"I will talk about our nation's commitment to a strong dollar," said President Bush. "A strong dollar is in our nation's interests. It is in the interests of the global economy." 布什说:“我将谈到,美国承诺保持美元的强势。美元坚挺符合美国的国家利益,也符合全球经济的利益。”In recent years, these summits have also begun to tackle trans-Atlantic security concerns. And the White House says the talks at a castle just outside Ljubljana will cover efforts to ease tensions in the Balkans and bring peace to the Middle East. 最近几年,美欧峰会也开始着手应对跨大西洋的一些安全忧虑。白宫说,这次会晤在卢布尔雅那郊外一座城堡里举行,将涉及为缓解巴尔干地区紧张关系和实现中东和平所作的努力。President Bush has made clear he is eager to talk about Iran's nuclear program. And as he left the White House, he left no doubt he wants to talk to the Europeans about stepping up their commitment to the young democracy in Afghanistan. 布什总统清楚地表示,他迫切希望讨论伊朗的核项目。布什在离开白宫时曾明确表示,他想对欧洲国家说,他们要为帮助阿富汗年青的民主政府承担更多义务。"The countries I am going to have committed troops to Afghanistan, and I, of course, want to thank them, and remind them there is a lot of work to be done," he said. 他说:“我即将访问的国家向阿富汗派遣了部队。我当然要感谢他们,并要提醒他们,还有许多工作要做。”White House officials say they expect no dramatic announcements following the president's talks with European Union leaders in Slovenia, which currently holds the six-month rotating E.U. presidency. 白宫有关官员说,他们预计,布什在斯洛文尼亚同欧盟领导人会谈之后不会宣布什么出人意料的消息。斯洛文尼亚目前担任欧盟轮值主席国,任期六个月。In addition to Slovenia's prime minister, European Union participants in the talks will include European Commission President Jose Barroso, and E.U. security chief Javier Solana. 除斯洛文尼亚总理外,参见会谈的欧盟领导人还包括欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐和欧盟安全政策高级代表索拉纳。Experts in trans-Atlantic relations say they have seen a shift in President Bush's attitude toward dealings with Europe that is bearing fruit at the end of his term.John K. Glenn is head of the foreign policy program at the German Marshall Fund of the ed States.He says President Bush has made a concerted effort since his re-election in 2004 to move beyond differences with Europe over Iraq."And so we kind of set aside Iraq off the trans-Atlantic agenda as a way to look at these other issues because there is certainly enough to be done and enough pressure on both the ed States and Europe," said Glenn.After the summit talks with E.U. leaders, President Bush will head to Germany where he will mark the 60th anniversary of the implementation of the Marshall Plan and the Berlin airlift. He will then travel to Italy, France and the ed Kingdom. 200806/41613


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