福州/省力医院做产检价格

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年11月24日 04:24:56
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Glow In The Dark Cats, Monkeys, And HIV荧光猫、猴子和艾滋Have you heard the one about the jellyfish, the monkey, and the glow in the dark cat?你听说过关于水母、猴子和在荧光猫的事情吗?Actually, its no joke: scientists are experimenting with ways to combat HIV and AIDS by injecting cats with genes taken from macaque monkeys and jellyfish the latter of which makes the felines glow green or red.事实上,这不是一个玩笑:科学家们正在试验研究防御艾滋病的方法。他们向猫体内注入从恒河猴和水母体内获得的基因,水母的基因能使猫发出绿色或红色的光。What, you may wonder, do glow in the dark cats and monkey genes have to do with treating HIV?你可能会好奇,荧光猫、猴子的基因和治疗艾滋有什么关系?Like humans and many types of monkeys, cats are susceptible to being infected by an HIV like virus called feline immunodeficiency virus, or FIV. Like HIV, FIV makes cats sick by destroying their infection fighting T cells. Millions of cats die each year from FIV related diseases.正如人类和很多种类的猴子一样,猫也容易被一种名为猫类免疫缺陷病毒的类艾滋病毒的感染。同艾滋病毒一样,猫类免疫缺陷病毒通过破坏猫的T细胞使它们患病。每年都有数百万的猫死于FIV相关的疾病。The good news for cats, though, is that rhesus macaque monkeys have a gene known to block infection by FIV.尽管如此,对猫而言,好消息是恒河猴体内有可以抵抗FIV感染的基因。So scientists have experimented with inserting the macaque genes into cats with FIV, to study both how well it protects them against the virus and how well the genes are passed on to the catsoffspring.因此,科学家们把恒河猴的基因注入猫体内,来研究这种基因是是否能很好地保护它们抵抗病毒并且是否能够传递给下一代的。Which is where the jellyfish gene comes in. The cats are also injected with a glow in the dark gene from jellyfish to allow scientists to track how well the genes are passed on. If the catsoffspring glow, then they’ve gotten both genes.这就是注入水母基因的作用之处。科学家们在猫体内注射水母能发光的基因来追踪基因的传递。如果猫的后代同样能够发光,那么它们就获得了这两种基因。So far, cats and their kittens whove received the monkey gene are doing well the monkey gene seems to be doing its job to protect them from FIV.迄今为止,拥有恒河猴基因的猫和它们的后代能和恒河猴一样,能够很好地抵抗FIV。This type of gene therapy isnt y for use in clinics to treat people with HIV or cats with FIV. But the research will help scientists better understand how genes can be used to fight AIDS and other viral diseases.这种疗法目前还不够成熟,还不能临床应用来治疗艾滋病毒携带者或携带FIV的猫。但是,这项研究将会帮助科学家更好的了解基因在治疗艾滋病和其他病毒性疾病中的作用。 /201207/190124Dear Yael and Don: I know that imaging tests like CT scans and MRI and nuclear imaging are great tools because they allow doctors to see inside the body. But dont they also expose people to radiation? And if so, isnt this a bad thing?亲爱的雅艾尔和唐:我知道像CT扫描和核磁共振成像等影像学检查是很好的医疗设备,因为它们能协助医生看见身体内部。但它们不会让人受到辐射吗?如果是,这难道不是件坏事?Yael: Yes. And no. Some imaging tests do expose people to radiation. But just to be clear, MRI, which stands for magnetic resonance imaging, does not use radiation. So if you have an MRI, theres no risk of exposure.雅艾尔:是,也不是。有些影像学检查确实对人体有辐射作用。但你要清楚,MRI扫描,也就是核磁共振成像却并不涉及到辐射。因此如果你做MRI扫描,并不会有接触辐射的风险。Don: But other types of imaging tests do use risk of exposure. Like nuclear imaging, which is used to look for heart disease. And CT, or CAT scans, which use x-rays to take 3D pictures inside the body. And, unfortunately, over time these tests do sometimes expose people to dangerously high levels of radiation. High enough to cause cancer, in some cases.唐:但其它类型的影像学检查确实有辐射,比如用来检查心脏病的核成像,CT或CAT扫描,利用X光线拍摄人体内部的3D影像。但不幸的是,时间长了这些扫描确实会让人们暴露在高水平的、危险的辐射中去。在某些情况下,辐射的水平高到足以致癌。Yael: But why would doctors order tests that put people at risk for getting cancer?雅艾尔:但为什么医生还要求病人冒着患上癌症的风险做检查呢?Don: Well, mainly because the tests are often very useful. For example, mammography is the best way to look for early signs of breast cancer. But its not as clear that other tests, such as nuclear imaging, are as useful for detecting heart disease. It may be, but theres not enough hard evidence to be certain.唐:好吧,主要原因是这些检查非常有用。例如,乳房X光检查是寻找乳腺癌早期症状的最佳方法。但其他的一些检查却不明确,比如核成像是否对检测心脏病有用。或许有用,但没有足够的据来明。Yael: So, the risks of radiation exposure from a CT scan or a nuclear imaging may outway the benefits.雅艾尔:那么,进行CT扫描或者核成像的益处可能要超过它所带来的辐射风险。Don: Right. Its not that people should always avoid these imaging tests. But they should be aware of the risks.唐:对。人们不应该总是去回避影像学检查,不过也应该意识到它的风险。原文译文属!201302/225933

  Science and Technolgy科技Another Earth?另一个地球?Home away from home远离家乡的家The existence of the most Earthlike planet yet has just been confirmed类地球行星的存在已刚被确认ONE of the more memorable slogans to come out of the climate-change talks in Durban over the past few days is: ;there is no planet B;. But what if there were? Over the past couple of decades astronomers have logged thousands of so-called ;exoplanets;—worlds which orbit stars other than the sun. On December 5th the scientists in charge of Kepler, a space telescope designed to look for such planets, confirmed their instruments discovery of its first Earthlike world. It is dubbed, rather unromantically, Kepler 22b.在过去几天的Durban气候变化会谈上提出的较难忘的口号之一就是;没有星球B;,但是如果有呢?在过去的几十年内,天文学家记载了数以千计的所谓的;外行星;---饶太阳以外的星球轨道运行的宇宙。12月5号,负责开普勒号的科学家确认他们的仪器发现了第一个类地球星体,开普勒号是专门为寻找这样的类地球星体而设计的太空望远镜。The existence of this planet, which circles a star 600 light-years away, in the constellation of Lyra, had previously been suspected. Kepler, which belongs to NASA, Americas space agency, works by observing dips in a stars brightness as a planet passes in front of it. It flags likely looking reductions as ;candidate planets;, of which Kepler 22b was one. But three passes are needed to confirm a planets existence, and Kepler 22b has now passed this test. Crucially, it orbits well within its stars ;Goldilocks zone;: neither too close nor too far away for liquid water (and therefore, perhaps, life) to exist on its surface.存在这么一个行星,它环绕天琴座星系中一颗600光年远的恒星运行,之前被怀疑的不存在,开普勒号,隶属于美国国家航空与宇宙航行局,即美国航天局,它通过观察当行星通过时恒星光亮度的变化来工作。它标识显现的光度弱化可能为候选行星,开普勒22b就是一个。但是一个行星的确认需要通过三个检测,开普勒22b现在已经通过检验。最重要的是,他环绕着其恒星的;适居带;很好地运行;不会太近也不太远(因此,可能,生命)液体水可能存在在上面。It joins two other Earthlike planets-Gliese 581d and HD 85512 b-discovered by another instrument within the past few years. In truth, the term ;Earthlike; is a stretch. Kepler 22b has a radius 2.4 times that of Earth, and if it is made from roughly the same stuff its surface gravity will also be about 2.4 times as strong. But NASAs astronomers remain unsure whether it is predominantly gaseous, liquid or solid.它加入了另外两个类地球行星——Gliese 581d 和HD 85512 b—在过去的几年里被另外的仪器发现的。事实上,;类地球行星;这个词言过其实,Kepler 22b半径是地球的2.4倍,如果它和地球的组成大致相同,它的表面引力也将大约高达地球引力的2.4倍。但是美国国家航天与宇宙航行局的天文学家仍不能确定它主要是气体的、液体的或是固体的。Nevertheless, Kepler 22b is the most promising exoplanet yet found. Unlike the others, which skirt the edges of their stars Goldilocks zones, Kepler 22b orbits comfortably within its own. NASAs researchers reckon its surface temperature is about 22°C, compared with 15°C (at least for now) on Earth. Its parent star is similar to the sun, again unlike those of the other two candidates, both of which orbit cooler, dimmer stars. Indeed Gliese 581ds parent is a red dwarf-the tiniest stellar species. That means its Goldilocks zone is so close to it that the planet may be tidally locked, as the moon is to the Earth. If that were the case, one side of Gliese 581d would be permanently lit (and heated) while the other experienced unending darkness.然而,Kepler 22b 是目前发现的最有希望的外行星。不像其他行星不在恒星的;适居带;,Kepler 22b 在它的;适居带;舒适地运行。美国国家航空与宇宙航行局的研究人员通过与地球表面温度15°C(至少现在是)比较,估算出它表面的温度大概是22°C。它的母恒星与太阳相似,这又与其他两个候选外行星不同,其他两个候选外行星都环绕较冷的、较昏暗的恒星运行。Gliese 581d的母恒星确实是一个红矮星---最小的星系。那意味着适居带;非常接近它以至于行星可能被潮汐力锁住,就像月亮对于地球一样。如果是那样的话,Gliese 581d的一面将会是常年光亮的(并很热),而另一面将会是无尽的黑暗。These three potentially habitable exoplanets may soon be joined by many more. In the two and a half years since its launch, Kepler has spotted 2,326 candidate planets. About 650 others have been discovered by other instruments. That plethora allows astronomers to start drawing conclusions about how common various sorts of planets are. Of Keplers haul, 9% seem to be of a similar size to Earth (though not all are in the Goldilocks zone of their star); a further 29% are Super Earths-planets substantially larger than Earth that are nevertheless rocky. Forty-eight of Keplers unconfirmed candidates look as if they orbit within their stars habitable zones; of those, ten seem to be Earth-sized.很快可能有更多的外行星加入这三个可能适合居住的外行星中。Kepler自发射以来的2年半里已经发现了2,326候选行星。其他仪器大约发现了另外650个行星。大量的行星使天文学家开始得出行星种类繁多的结论。Kepler捕获的行星中9%大小与地球相似(尽管不是所有的都在他们恒星的;适居带;);Kepler 发现的行星29%是超级地球---实质上比地球大,不过地球是岩石类行星。Kepler未能确认的候选行星48%看起来似乎是在;适居带;运行;其中,有10个与地球大小类似。The ultimate goal, of course, is to let astronomers make a plausible estimate of the total number of planets in the galaxy, of the number that could conceivably support life, and of the fraction of those that could (at least in theory) sustain human colonists. If only a few of Keplers possible Earthlike planets turn out to be real, that third number is likely to be in the millions.当然最终的目标是让天文学家对系的行星总数、确定可以维持生命的行星数和那些可以维持人类殖民者生命(至少在理论上)的行星比例做出一个接近可信的估算。如果Kepler类地行星中只有很少被明是真的,第三个数可能是数百万。Such knowledge will mark an historic transition, says Chris Lintott, an astronomer at Oxford University who is giving the Kepler team a hand with the data analysis, since the uncertainties around the question of whether life exists elsewhere will cease to be astronomical (how many suitable planets are there?) and become purely biological (how easy is it for life to get going, and how easy is it for it to become intelligent?). Based on the preliminary data, it looks as if there are numerous suitable planets. The science of exobiology may soon cease to be an oxymoron一位牛津大学的天文学家Chris Lintoot说这些知识是历史转变的标志,他对Kepler团队给以数据分析的援助,从此关于其他地方是否存在生命问题的不确定性将不再是天文学问题(有多少合适的行星),而是变成了纯粹的生物问题(生命开始难不难?进化到聪明难不难?)基于这些初始数据,似乎有许多合适的行星,外空生物学将不再是一个矛盾修饰。 /201210/202879

  So a lot of rumors were: would it have Xbox live? Would it have a zune interface: would it have the pulling down from Facebook and has all of those?有许多传言,这款手机包括在线Xbox,zune界面吗,适用于Facebook,是这样吗?Yes, that is correct. And so I can show you those today. Whats that of your Xbox live? So here the one thing weve done here is we integrated Xbox live into the phone and so you can see all different games you want to play. This is your collection once youve downloaded from the Internet or put from your PC.是的,你说得没错。今天我可以向你展示。我们在这款手机中加入了Xbox,因此你能看到所有的游戏。只要从网络上下载,或从电脑上拷贝,你就可以收藏这些游戏。And there is also its information that you want to see about your games in sort of thing, you know some insider tricks about how to play the games.此外,你还能看到一些你下载游戏的相关信息,比如教你如何过关的游戏攻略。This is your Avatar. So my kids actually spent hundred tons of time customizing their Avatar. And there is like lots of people love being able to do things with your Avatar, also shows how many points you have in Xbox live. But here is where it gets really interesting. So you and I can be playing a game of Scramble. And I can be here in Barcelona and you can be back in London and through our Internet we can play turn-by-turn based games. So thats the Xbox live experience.它就是你的头像。我的孩子们花了很多的时间在他们的头像上。许多人喜欢用头像,头像也能显示出用户在Xbox中的积分。但这里才是更有趣的地方。也许我在巴塞罗纳,你在伦敦,但我们能玩双人游戏。这才是在线Xbox的最棒体验。And here I will show you the zune experience. So we have brought zune to the phone, and its like what you would think. Essentially, anything with the play button can be played here. So, all of your music, all of your s, podcasts and podcasts, FM radio or radio, wifi sync is interesting for a couple of reasons. One is lets say if I have subscribed to a specific channel. So my kids like Taylor Swift. (OK.) So they have...there is a technology called smart DJ, so they have Taylor Swift come in and music thats like her comes over the phone. And anytime this phone comes into my wireless at home, new music will come over the phone. So that is actually exposed not here but in new section. So anything thats new, it just comes over wirelessly. You dont have to connect it anymore, it shows up there.接下来我要带你体验zune界面。就和你想的一样,我们已经购买了zune到手机中。基本上任何需要播放按钮的文件都可以被应用,比如音乐,视频,视频客,有声杂志,广播。无线同步功能受到广大欢迎,原因之一是它有一项叫做智能DJ的功能,如果你订阅了一个频道,比如我的孩子们喜欢泰勒·斯威夫特,所有泰勒·斯威夫特和其他类似歌曲都会在手机上提示。一旦手机回到我家的无线网络环境中,新的音乐就会下载到手机中。因此,这项功能并不是在这里应用的,一旦有新歌,有无线网络,它就会开启,你不用再去手动连接,在这里就能显示。While wifi sync also works really well is on the camera. So when I take pictures on the camera, they will automatically be sent back to my PC. So now I can just be wandering in my house taking pictures and dont have to worry about plugging it in because its automatically sent back to my PC.无线同步功能也能应用于手机相机上。当我用手机相机拍照,照片会被自动传送到电脑上。现在我只要在家里等照片,而不用传输线传输照片了。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/183687。

  

  Business.商业。Nightclubs.夜店。Getting down globally.全球来袭。Western nightclubs eye Asia, and clever technology.西方国家的夜店在盯上亚洲的同时,也在完善相关技术。FEW businesses are as local as nightclubs. Or so you might think. But a few hardy entrepreneurs are trying change that. In 2010 Matt Hermer, the owner of Boujis, a trendy London nightspot, opened a pop-up club (a temporary one) for three days in Hong Kong. Something clicked. Fun-seekers thronged through his doors. Mr Hermer will open a permanent venue in Hong Kong in September.少有企业会像夜店一样具有地方特色。或许你也可能会这么想。不过一小撮坚韧的企业家正试图改变这一局面。2010年,Matt Hermer,伦敦时髦夜店波吉斯的老板,在香港开了一家临时性(不在专门场子,临时租一个地方办几场派对)夜店。虽然该店的营业仅维期三天,但它引起了极大反响,寻求快乐的人们蜂拥而至。这便使得Hermer计划9月在香港开一家永久性的夜店。No big Western club has cracked Asia, but Pangaea and Avalon, two American brands, recently launched spin-offs in Singapore. Marquee, another American chain, just opened in Sydney. ;There are only so many opportunities to grow,; says Marquees co-founder, Noah Tepperberg.尽管西方国家的大型夜店尚未成功打入亚洲市场,但来自美国的夜店潘吉亚和阿法伦最近就在新加坡开了分店。另一家美国连锁夜店马奎也刚好在悉尼开了分店。;这里的市场就只有这么些发展机会了,;马奎的合伙创办人Noah Tepperberg说。Global data on the nightclub industry are patchy. Clubs tend to be privately owned and deal a lot in cash. Many last little longer than a pint of lager at a stag party. IBISWorld, a research group, estimates that bars and nightclubs make profits of 0m on takings of billion-25 billion a year in America, where data are most reliable.全球范围内关于夜店的资料零星不齐。夜店常为私人所有,大多以现钞交易。不少人在夜店的单身派对上喝完一品脱淡啤酒后,呆不了多久就离开了。研究机构IBISWorld估计,美国的酒吧和夜店一年200亿~250亿美元的营业额中,利润有8亿美元,而且美国酒吧和夜店提供的资料其可信度相当高。Asia could offer equally rich pickings. Pangaeas Singapore venue, for instance, is aly claiming receipts of 0,000 a night. Michael Ault, Pangaeas owner, says that the key in Asia is to have ;the most expensive of everything;.在亚洲市场也能轻轻松松地赚那么多钱。举例来说,位于新加坡的潘吉亚分店表示,其一晚的营业额已达16万美元。潘吉亚的老板Michael Ault说,在亚洲开夜店的秘诀在于提供的;一切东西都要是最贵的;。Otherwise, the operating model is much the same as in the West. Raise money, find a dramatic space, befriend celebrities, promote, promote and promote. ;First you go for the A crowd,; says Mr Ault. ;You spend all your money on DJs and celebrities to build the brand. Then the A crowd moves on. So you go from the A crowd to the B crowd. Then you have to ask yourself: do you want the C crowd?;除此以外,亚洲夜店的经营模式与西方的大同小异。募集资金,装修豪华,与名流交朋友,然后推广,推广,再推广。;首先你要争取到A类人,;Ault说,;你得在DJ和名流身上下重金,从而打造夜店的品牌。那么这些A类人便会成为常客。之后你的目标会从A类人转向B类人,接着你得问问自己:你还想要C类人成为你的消费群吗?;Nightclubs are a risky business. Sping your bets across regions ought to mitigate that risk. But venturing into unfamiliar cities can mean dealing with unfamiliar undesirables. As one nightclub owner puts it: ;Anyone can walk in and say: ‘Get out, or your head is in the trunk of a car.;开夜店存在着风险。不过在各个地区全面撒网应该能够降低这种风险,但冒险在不熟悉的城市开夜店便意味着需和不速之客打交道。正如一位夜店老板所说:;任何人都能进来说:滚出去,否则让你脑袋搬家。;Anita Elberse of Harvard Business School predicts that more clubs will do deals with hotels to penetrate emerging markets. A rooftop club can make more money for a hotel than its rooms. Morgans Hotel Group, a luxury chain, last year bought the Light Group, a big American nightclub operator, for this reason. Andy Masi, the Light Groups boss, says that working with a hotel helps him meet the right people as he expands abroad.哈佛商学院的Anita Elberse预计,会有更多的夜店与酒店联手打入新兴市场。酒店内的顶层夜店为其带来的利润远超其客房利润。正因如此,奢华连锁酒店根酒店集团去年买下了美国大型夜店莱特集团,该集团董事Andy Masi说,在他寻求海外扩张之际,与酒店联手能帮助他认识需要认识的人。Some bars and clubs are using a novel technology to help partygoers decide where to party. SceneTap, an American start-up, uses cameras to scan the faces of those who enter and leave participating establishments. Its software then guesses each persons age and sex. Aggregated data are streamed to a website and mobile app. This allows punters to see which bars are busy, the average age of revellers and the all-important male-to-female ratio.一些酒吧和夜店正运用新技术来帮助派对参加者决定去哪儿参加派对。美国软件新贵SceneTap使用摄像头扫描进出派对者的面部表情。随后,该软件便会分析猜测每个被扫描者的年龄及性别。数据汇总后会传输到网站和手机应用软件上。这便能使顾客了解哪家酒吧热闹,去酒吧的人的平均年龄以及最重要的男女比例。Bar owners gain publicity and intelligence about their customers. Did a promotion aimed at women attract many? Since drinks are often paid for in cash and by men, it used to be hard to tell.酒吧老板在为酒吧宣传的同时也获得了顾客的信息。针对女性做的宣传会吸引来更多的人吗?这很难说,因为饮品由男性以现金付。SceneTaps cameras are watching more than 100 American watering holes. But they are controversial. The app could make life irksome for large groups of women, by summoning hordes of predatory males. So SceneTap has fixed its software to mask extreme sex imbalances. That will please bar owners, who would prefer not to admit when they are packed with men. But it will disappoint precisely the people most likely to use the app.美国有超过100家酒吧都安装了SceneTap的摄像头。但这些摄像头也引起了一些争议。因为该款软件会引来大批寻求伴侣的男性,这会令不少女性感到厌烦。因此SceneTap已对其软件作了改动,从而掩盖极端的性别失衡。这会受到酒吧老板的欢迎,因为酒吧老板们往往不会承认自己的店里都是男人。但是改动后的软件也会让最有可能使用该软件的人失望。 /201209/202230Migraine or Face Pain?偏头痛还是脸部疼痛?If youve ever had a migraine headache, you dont need me to tell you it hurts. Doctors report that about twenty million people suffer from serious headaches, and ten percent of these have intractable pain–meaning it doesnt go away. But heres a surprise: the problem isnt always a migraine. Sometimes very similar symptoms are caused by damage to a nerve of the face, which results in the nerve itself sending nonstop “ouch” signals.如果你曾经有过偏头痛的经历,就不需要我告诉你那有多痛苦。医生报告,大概有2千万人患有严重头痛,并且他们之中百分之十患有顽固性疼痛——那意味着疼痛不会消失。但医生们有一个惊奇发现:问题不总是偏头痛。有时,类似的症状是由脸部神经受损引起的,受损的神经会不间断地疼痛信号。What can be done?我们可以做些什么呢?A new treatment being tried out by a few doctors, including Dr. Robert Levy, a neurosurgeon at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, involves zapping with electricity certain nerves that innervate the face. Its like a marathon in which thousands of runners are crossing the Brooklyn Bridge. Someone sends up a firework nearby and for a moment all the distracted runners stop and stare. By hitting the nerves with a mild electrical jolt, you can “distract” the signal-carriers–that is, the pain signals stop crossing the nerves for as long as the electrical charge is on.有几个医生正试验一种新的治疗,包括罗伯特莱维士,他是西北纪念医院的一位神经外科医生,参与到用电流破坏那些刺激脸部的神经。就像一场马拉松,数千名奔跑的人穿越布鲁克林大桥。有的人在附近放烟火,这会儿所有的跑步的人都停下来看。通过一个轻度的电力震动击打神经,你就可以转移信号载波——就是说,疼痛信号停止穿越神经,只要电荷一直处于连接状态。So how to do that? Levy and others have inserted a little battery under patients collarbones, connected it to a wire that runs under the scalp, and stuck the end directly into the misfiring nerve. Odd as it may sound at first, it works. Patients report that when the device is turned on they are pain-free, sometimes for the first time in years. This kind of nerve stimulation is still in its early days, but the results so far look very promising. For chronic headache sufferers, a little wire can make for blessed peace of mind…not pain of head.那么如何做到这一点呢?莱维和其他医生在患者锁骨下面插入了一个小电池,并与头皮下的电线连接,然后把末尾插入神经。起初也许听起来有点奇怪,它能管用。患者报告说,当设备接通时,他们感觉不到疼痛,这是多年来第一次。这种神经刺激仍处于初期,但到目前为止的结果看起来是很有前途的。对慢性头痛患者来说,一小节电线得到内心的平静……而不是头痛。 /201301/223527

  The Anatomy of Fear解剖学的恐惧One nice day youre walking along a wooded path. You come around a corner and there, coiled in the path, is a huge rattlesnake, its rattles abuzz. You are deathly afraid of snakes.天气不错的一天,你漫步在林荫小道。走到小道拐角一处,你突然发现一条巨大的响尾蛇就蜷缩在那!它还嘶嘶地吐着蛇信。你可是怕蛇怕得要死。Various parts of the brain signal the nervous systems and organs to prepare to take action. The pupils of the eyes dilate, the thyroid gland raises the resting metabolic rate. The bronchioles in the lungs dilate to admit more oxygen, hairs stand on end. Heart rate and blood pressure rise to supply the body and brain with fuel.多个大脑部位传送出采取措施的信号给神经系统和各个器官:瞳孔放大,甲状腺加快新陈代谢,肺部的气管扩张吸进更多氧气,毛骨悚然,心率加快,血压上升以便供给身体和大脑能量。The liver begins to break down sugars for quick energy, blood vessels in the skin contract causing chills and sweating. The spleen pumps out white blood cells in case there is an injury. Stomach and intestine enzyme secretion and muscle activity needed for digestion stop, and blood vessels in the stomach and intestines contract to divert blood to the muscles.肝脏加速分解糖分供能。皮下血管收缩,身体发冷出汗。脾脏产生更多白细胞抵抗受伤。肠胃酶的分泌及肌肉活动引起食欲不振。肠胃的血管收缩,血液传输到肌肉组织。The bladder and colon prepare to empty, the central portion of the adrenal medulla floods the bloodstream with adrenaline and noradrenaline, constricting the blood vessels, breathing quickens. The entire body is in a state of high alert, y to stay and fight or say ;Feet dont fail me now;.大小便可能失禁哦。血液随肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素汇聚到肾上腺髓质的中部,血管收缩,呼吸加快。整个人都处于高度戒备,要么呆在那不动,或者人蛇大战,再或者告诉自己“我一点都不怕”。Did you follow all that? Of course not, but all that, and more, happens in your body within seconds of your sensing a threat.受到惊吓,身体会做出上述所有反应吗?当然不是所有咯!但是,当你遭遇惊吓,身体会在仅仅几秒内产生更多反应。It makes us tired just to think about it!光是想想就怪累人的! /201212/212442The story of these arts and culture remains shockingly neglected.这些艺术和文化的故事仍然被惊奇的忽视。But I think its the key to understanding the whole of Spanish art and its unique intensity.但我认为这是理解整个西班牙艺术和独特的密度的关键。The first great flowering of Moorish culture took place in the new capital city of Cordoba.第一次伟大的尔文化繁荣发生在新首都城市科尔多瓦城。By the late eight century, the Moors had turned Cordoba into the brightest, wealthiest and busiest city in Europe.8世纪晚期,尔人使科尔多瓦成了欧洲最具智慧,最富有且最繁忙的城市。Its fame reached as far as a quiet Christian Saxony where a Christian nun described the city as the brilliant ornament of the world. 它的名声远达一个安详的基督教萨克森,那里的一位基督徒修女描述这个城市是由辉煌所点缀的世界。This glittering city was all the work of one young man.而这个金光闪闪的城市都是由一位年轻人所缔造。His name was Abd-ar-Rahman and he was an exile.他的名字是阿卜杜拉曼,而且他是一位被流放者。 注:听力文本来源于普特201211/208983

  

  Business商业News Corporations travails新闻集团的阵痛Rising Sun, setting son《太阳报》冉冉升起,太子爷黯然退场James Murdoch quits the newspaper business. Will News Corp too?詹姆斯.默多克不再插手报纸行业,新闻集团会停止该业务吗?WHETHER James Murdoch can ever succeed his father, Rupert, at the helm of News Corporation after resigning on February 29th as head of its scandal-ridden newspaper arm, News International, is not clear.2月29日,詹姆斯辞去了深陷丑闻的新闻国际公司首席运营官一职。他是否能继承他的父亲,鲁伯特.默多克成为新闻集团,即新闻国际公司的母公司的掌舵人,目前还尚不清楚。The firm, of course, is depicting the change as almost trivial: he will still be deputy chief operating officer of News Corp and overseer of its international businesses,新闻集团称这次只是一个小小的人事变动:他将仍然是新闻集团的副首席运营官以及其国际业务的监督人。and it was first announced nearly a year ago that he would move to New York.况且,早在近一年以前,已经有消息称他要搬到纽约。In theory he can now make a fresh start: one of his main responsibilities will be pay television, a business in which he did well before taking over the newspapers in 2007, the move that marked him as heir apparent.理论上,他现在可以重新来过:他将主要打理收费电视业务,在2007年接管新闻国际公司之前,他把这个业务搞得有声有色,人们因其接管了新闻国际公司而认为他是默克多最有可能的继承人。And he will be insulated from the poisonous atmosphere in London, where it was confirmed this week that the victims of phone-hacking by News of the World (NOW) journalists included none other than Mr Murdochs disgraced former sidekick,他还可以避开在伦敦的压抑气氛。伦敦本周确认,《世界新闻报》记者窃听事件的受害人(注:这里可能是villain;的笔误,布鲁克斯应该是指使这次丑闻的人之一)居然还包括默多克不光的前任下属兼密友丽贝卡.布鲁克斯(Rebekah Brooks)。Rebekah Brooks, who at the time was editor of NOWs stablemate, the Sun.她当时是《太阳报》的编辑。《太阳报》与《世界新闻报》同属新闻集团。All the same, James Murdoch will be remembered as the man who closed Britains biggest Sunday paper and claimed not to have known how deep the rot was despite warnings from underlings.尽管如此,詹姆斯.默多克被记得最多的将是,他关闭了英国最大的周日报,并且宣称他本人并不知道该报有多腐败,虽然下属曾经提醒过他。When Rupert Murdoch appeared in London in February to launch the Sun on Sunday, it was without James but with his elder son, Lachlan, prompting speculation that the latter, formerly out of favour, is back in the running to take over.2月10号,鲁伯特.默多克到伦敦筹办《星期日太阳报》办报事宜,陪伴一旁的是他的大儿子拉克兰,而不是次子詹姆斯。这引起了人们的猜想:一度失宠的后者如今又将重新加入到新闻集团的继承权之争中。Rupert Murdoch may be in the habit of anointing his successors with printing ink,鲁伯特.默多克或许习惯于让报刊业为他的接班人镀金。but to the markets his newspapers matter little.但是,他的报刊业务在他所有的市场中所占的份额根本是无足轻重。In 2010, the last year News Corp reported earnings separately for the papers (plus some online-information services), they brought in less than a fifth of the companys revenue and only an eighth of its profits.2010年,也就是新闻集团单独公布报纸盈利(包括一些网络务的盈利)的最后一年,所公布的收入还不足新闻集团盈利的五分之一,其利润也仅仅占了八分之一。Investors welcomed the seventh-day Sun, which should win back some of NOWs lost ers, but in general they see newspapers as an ;asset-intensive, slow-growth, marginally profitable business;, says Todd Juenger of Sanford C. Bernstein, an investment bank.来自桑福德伯恩斯坦(Sanford C. Bernstein)投资的托德.容格(Todd Juenger)说,投资者青睐《星期日太阳报》,这应该有助于集团挽回一些《世界新闻报》流失的读者。但是一般而言,他们认为报业是一个;资产密集型,增长缓慢,盈利极小的行业;。Though its shares are at a four-year high the firm is still widely reckoned to be undervalued.虽然新闻集团的股价达到了四年来最高的水平,但是很多人都估计,该集团的价值被低估了。They even rose slightly the day James Murdoch resigned, and the day after his boss, Chase Carey, the chief operating officer, acknowledged at a conference that executives had discussed selling the newspaper business.甚至在詹姆斯.默多克辞职当天,股票还轻微上涨了;还有他的上司,首席运营官切斯?凯里(Chase Carey)在一次会议中实高管们曾经讨论要把报纸相关的业务卖出去的那一天,股票也上涨了。That may mean investors think the papers eventual sale is now more likely, or that the hacking affair has taken its last senior scalp, or both.股票上涨可能意味着投资者认为,集团旗下的报纸现在将很有可能被卖出去,又或者是窃听事件已经告一段落,又或者是两者兼有。But celebrating either would be premature. It would be hard to get a good price for the tainted News International, Mr Juenger points out,但是,容格指出,现在就要庆祝以上两件事任何一件都还为时过早,如今想要声名狼藉的新闻国际公司卖个好价钱,并不容易。and any buyer would probably insist that News Corp indemnify it against the effects of possible future revelations.况且任何买家可能都会坚持要求新闻集团为报纸将来可能受到的指控负责任。And if the investigation in Britain finds evidence of bribery, News Corp could face stiff fines in America under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and more heads could roll.如果英国的调查小组发现有关贿赂的据,根据美国的《反海外腐败法》,新闻集团很有可能面临巨额赔款,还将有更多的人受到影响。Even if James Murdoch can redeem himself, likely rivals for the top job will include not just his siblings but also Mr Carey, widely seen as one of the most competent media executives in America.即使詹姆斯.默多克能够挽回自己的声誉,跟其竞争总裁这一职位的潜在对手除了他的兄长和,还有凯里,后者被认为是美国最有能力的媒体管理者之一。But he has time yet. And a News Corp without newspapers might be the perfect company for him.但是他还有时间。如果新闻集团停止有关报刊的业务,对他来说才是最好的。 /201211/207627。

  Business商业Physical attractiveness and careers体貌魅力和事业Dont hate me because Im beautiful美丽不是错Attractive women should not include a photo with a job application魅力女性不应在其申请表中添加照片AT WORK, as in life, attractive women get a lot of the breaks.工作场和生活中一样,魅力女人总是占有优势。Studies have shown that they are more likely to be promoted than their plain-Jane colleagues.研究表明,她们总是比相貌平平的同事更容易获得升职机会。Because people tend to project positive traits onto them, such as sensitivity and poise, they may also be at an advantage in job interviews.因为人们倾向于将正向的优点投加到她们身上,比如敏感,镇静。漂亮女人在工作面试中也处于优势地位。The only downside to hotness is having to fend off ghastly male colleagues; or so many people think.热辣魅力十足的唯一不足就是她们不得不试图避开病态的的男同事;至少很多人这样认为。But research by two Israelis suggests otherwise.但两位以色列学者的研究表明,情况恰恰相反。Bradley Ruffle at Ben-Gurion University and Zeev Shtudiner at Ariel University Centre looked at what happens when job hunters include photos with their curricula vitae, as is the norm in much of Europe and Asia.班古里昂大学的Bradley Ruffle和艾瑞尔撒马利亚中心大学的Zeev Shtudiner研究了,在简历中添加照片的求职者的境遇,而添加照片在欧洲和亚洲都是惯例。The pair sent fictional applications to over 2,500 real-life vacancies.研究组给超过2500个职位空缺发送虚构的申请。For each job, they sent two very similar résumés, one with a photo, one without. Subjects had previously been graded for their attractiveness.每个职位,研究员都发送了两份相似的简历,一份有照片,一份没有。而发送之前,会根据简历照片的漂亮程度打分。For men, the results were as expected.对男性来讲,研究结果是意料之中的。Hunks were more likely to be called for an interview if they included a photo.富有魅力的健美男子如果添加照片则更容易进入面试阶段。Ugly men were better off not including one.丑男不添加照片则会有更好的结果。However, for women this was reversed.但是,对女性来说,结果恰恰相反的。Attractive females were less likely to be offered an interview if they included a mugshot.漂亮女人如果贴上靓照, 则更不容易进入面试阶段。When applying directly to a company (rather than through an agency) an attractive woman would need to send out 11 CVs on average before getting an interview; an equally qualified plain one just seven.在直接申请进入公司(而不是通过中介)的情况中,漂亮女性平均需要递送11份简历才得获得机会面试,而姿色平平的女人只用递送7份简历就可以了。At first, Mr Ruffle considered what he calls the ;dumb-blonde hypothesis;—that people assume beautiful women to be stupid.首先,Ruffle考虑了他自己称为;美女低智商假说;--人们认为漂亮女人是愚蠢的。However, the photos had also been rated on how intelligent people thought each subject looked; there was no correlation between perceived intellect and pulchritude.但是,照片也对其看起来是否聪明进行评分;发现在所谓的看起来的聪明和魅力之间并没有联系。So the cause of the discrimination must lie elsewhere.所以偏见的根源肯定来自于其他方面。Human resources departments tend to be staffed mostly by women.人力资源部主要由女性雇员组成。Indeed, in the Israeli study, 93% of those tasked with selecting whom to invite for an interview were female.事实上,在以色列的这项研究中,肩负挑选简历,确定申请人是否进入面试阶段工作的93%都是由女性担任的。The researchers unavoidable-and unpalatable-conclusion is that old-fashioned jealousy led the women to discriminate against pretty candidates.研究人员不得不得出一项令人不快的结论,那就是老套的嫉妒心使女性对漂亮的申请者产生偏见。So should attractive women simply attach photos that make them look dowdy?所以漂亮女士就应该在简历里贴上自己的邋遢照片吗?No. Better, says Mr Ruffle, to discourage the practice of including a photo altogether.不要。 Ruffle 认为更好的办法是不在简历中添加照片。Companies might even consider the anonymous model used in the Belgian public sector, where CVs do not even include the candidates name.多家公司甚至认为,比利时公共部门招聘采取的匿名模式更好,那就是在简历中甚至连名字都不写。 /201210/205408

  When these great ice sheets retreated, they left pulverized rocks in their wake, the foundation for fertile soil and some of the richest natural grasslands in America.当这些大冰原消散,它们离开岩石,肥沃的土壤和一些最富饶的美国自然草原展现的一览无余。But in May this year, in the heart of Yellowstone, that grass is still beneath thick snow—something this ground squirrel was clearly not expecting.但今年5月,在黄石国家公园的中心,草仍在厚重的雪下—这显然不是地松鼠所希望的。But as the suns strength returns, spring bulbs start to push through the late snow—at last a sign that winter is losing its grip.而随着太阳强势回归,春天开始融化最后的雪—而最后一个迹象表明,冬天正失去其掌控。Bluebirds, too delicate to survive deep winter here, now return to take advantage of the fist hatch of stone flies from the thawing river.蓝知更鸟,太过精致以致于不能在这深冬里生存,现在回来利用其身体独特的优势从解冻的河流中觅食。注:听力文本来源于普特 201209/201726

  THE night before Republicans in Alabama and Mississippi voted in their primaries, Newt Gingrich and Rick Santorum made their final appeals at a forum in an ornate old theatre in downtown Birmingham. Mitt Romney, whom Mr Gingrich has relentlessly derided as ;a moderate from Massachusetts;, did not attend; nor did the libertarian Ron Paul. Both candidates were asked how they would ;lead our nation back to God;. Mr Gingrich railed against ;anti-Christian bigotry; among Americarsquo;s ;elites;. Mr Santorum boasted that he would ;talk about the importance of faith in public life;. In other words, they delivered a solid hour of conservative red meat to a ferociously carnivorous audience. A poll released earlier that day showed a majority of voters in both states believing that Barack Obama was a Muslim (he is a Christian) and doubting evolution. Eight in ten voters in both states identified themselves as evangelical Christians, the highest proportions so far.阿拉巴马州和密西西比州共和党人在投票选举总统参选人的前夜,在伯明翰城区装饰一新的老剧院里,Newt Gingrich和Rick Santorum进行了最后的造势演说。而被Gingrich嘲笑为;马萨诸塞州温和派;的Mitt Romney并没有到场,自由派的Ron Paul也没来。当两位候选人被问到如何;把国家带回上帝面前;时,Gingrich把美国;精英;中的那些;反基督教偏执狂;责备了一通,而Santorum则吹嘘他会;讨论信仰对公众生活的重要性;。换句话说,他们花了整整一个小时,在保守派观众面前大谈保守议题,如同给凶猛的野兽喂食红肉。根据先前的民调显示,这两个州的大部分选民都认为奥巴马是穆斯林(其实他是基督徒),并且不相信进化论,而80%的选民把自己定义为福音派基督徒,创下了历史新高。Both candidates drew huge cheers, but Mr Gingrich needed them more. He had won only two states, South Carolina and his home state of Georgia. Last week Mr Gingrichrsquo;s spokesman said he needed to win ;everything from Spartanburg [South Carolina] all the way to Texas.; On March 13th, however, Mr Gingrichrsquo;s Southern strategy failed: Mr Santorum eked out victories in both Alabama and Mississippi, capturing 34.5% to Mr Gingrichrsquo;s 29.3% and Mr Romneyrsquo;s 29% in the former and 32.8% to Mr Gingrichrsquo;s 31.2% and Mr Romneyrsquo;s 30.6% in the latter. The wins capped a good week for Mr Santorum; he had won the Kansas caucuses three days earlier by 51.2% to Mr Romneyrsquo;s 20.9%.虽然两位候选人都获得了大量的喝,但明显Gingrich需要的更多,他只赢得了两个州的持,也就是南卡罗来纳州和他的家乡乔治亚州。上周,他的发言人说他需要赢得;斯帕坦堡(位于南卡罗来纳州)到德克萨斯州的一路持;。然而Gingrich的南方战略失败了,到3月13日,Santorum竭力维持了在阿拉巴马州和密西西比州的胜利,在阿拉巴马州获得了32.8%的持率,而Gingrich为31.2% Romney为30.6%,在密西西比州Santorum为34.5%,Gingrich为29.3%,Romney为29%。这场胜利为Santorum愉快的一周开了个好头,接下来他又以51.2%对Romney的 20.9%赢得了堪萨斯州的核心会议。Mr Gingrich lost despite lavishing attention on both states. In the week leading up to election day he held 15 rallies in Alabama and Mississippi, more by far than either of his rivals. But the advertising war was predictably fierce, with the vast majority of ads funded by so-called Super PACs (political action committees) rather than the campaigns themselves. In that battle the efforts of Restore Our Future, the Super PAC backing Mr Romney, dwarfed those of its rivals. Still, Mr Romneyrsquo;s few campaign appearances were token and awkward, and the Massachusetts moderate continues to struggle with the partyrsquo;s conservative base. In Mississippi he won less than a quarter of voters who described themselves as ;very conservative;.尽管Gingrich在阿拉巴马州和密西西比州获得了大量的关注,但还是失败了。他在选举日前一周举行了15次造势集会,远远多于竞争对手,但是,广告战争还是和预见的一样惨烈,绝大多数广告赞助来自所谓的政治行动委员会(Super PACs),而不是他们自己,在这场战役中,持Romney的超级政行会;重塑我们的未来;所花的经费大大超过了他所有的对手。尽管如此,Romney仅有的几次竞选也只具有象征意义并且显得笨拙不堪,与此同时,这位马萨诸塞州的温和派(Romney)在争取共和党保守基层这一点上依然困难重重。在密西西比州内自称为;非常保守;的选民群体中,Romney只赢得了不到四分之一的选票。(选民认为Romney不是真正的保守派)A plurality of those broke for Mr Santorum. Even so, his trifecta did little to alter the direction of the race. Mr Romneyrsquo;s delegate lead remains formidable, and he has padded it during the past week by sweeping the board in Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the US Virgin Islands and American Samoa, all of which send delegates to the party conventions even though their citizens cannot vote in the general election. He crushed Mr Santorum in Hawaii, which also voted on March 13th. Overall, in the week after Super Tuesday on March 6th, Mr Romney added more delegates to his haul than Mr Santorum did. His total now stands at 496, comfortably more than all his rivals combined, though with only 24 states (plus Washington, DC) yet to vote he is still a long way off the 1,144 he needs to win the nomination outright.虽然Santorum在三连胜中获得了多数选票,但这对选举的大趋势却没什么影响。Romney在代表人数上的领先地位依然巨大。他在过去的一周里一步一个脚印,在关岛、北马里亚那群岛、美属维尔京群岛和美属萨亚都大获全胜,即使那里的选民不能在大选中投票,他们依然派了代表去参加政党代表大会。3月13日,在夏威夷的投票中,他继续秒杀了Santorum。在总统竞选初选日的后一周(3月6日),Romney比Santorum增加了更多的代表,达到了496个,比他竞争对手的总和还多。虽然现在仅剩下24个州(包括华盛顿特区)还没有投票,但赢得党内提名需1144票,这依然还很大一段距离。Mr Gingrich will now come under heavy pressure to withdraw: if he does, and his voters switch to Mr Santorum, Mr Romney could be in difficulties. On election night, however, Mr Gingrich said that the media has declared him dead before, and that he is no closer to quitting now than he was then. In a jubilant speech in Louisiana;which holds its primary on March 24th, after Missouri, Puerto Rico and Illinois;Mr Santorum predicted he would win the nomination outright. That is mathematically nigh-impossible. But his campaign and Mr Gingrichrsquo;s released memos on Tuesday detailing their similar strategies: stay in the race, deny Mr Romney a majority of delegates and then prevail at a contested convention in August. Or, as Mr Romney himself might put it, continue dividing the conservative vote, and grease his path to the nomination.现在Gingrich在是否退出的问题上面临着巨大的压力:如果他退出,他的持者会转向Santorum,Romney就会受到影响。在选举的那一晚,Gingrich说媒体在之前已经宣布他会失败,而他现在退出初选的可能并不比当时更大。在密苏里州、波多黎各和伊利诺斯州之后,Santorum又来到路易斯安那州,这里在3月24号会进行提名竞选。在充满喜悦的演讲中,他称自己会赢得党内提名,但这几乎是不可能事件。Santorum和Gingrich发布的消息显示他们的竞选活动有着相似的策略:一路坚持,让Romney无法获得超过半数代表,然后在8月的竞选大会上获胜。或者,用Romney的话来说,他们(Gingrich和Santorum)会继续分化保守派的投票,让他可以顺利走向提名。201203/174851

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