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福州体检哪个门诊部好北青时评

2017年10月22日 10:49:16来源:千龙分类

It’s incredible that so many birds cram into the tiny spaces underneath the bridge. But the battle for living spaces is now an everyday fact of city life. 这么多的鸟儿拥挤在桥下狭小的空间,真是不可思议。但是,这就是城市中生活的动物的现状——为了生存空间而奋斗。The most populated North American city is New York. 北美人口最多的城市是纽约。Here space is a precious commodity with more than 8 million people fighting for their share. 这里片土如金,800多万人生活、奋斗在这里。With so little ground space left, having a garden can require a head for heights. 这里几乎没有闲余的土地,花园都要建在高楼大厦上。It’s difficult to imagine any animal getting a foothold in this bustling city. But some do. 很难想象有什么动物能在这里找到立足点。但是能做到的动物的确存在。The red-tailed hawk is well known in midtown Manhattan. It manages to survive here, because New York has the ultimate in urban gardens, Central Park. This park created in the mid-1800s has become a focal point for wildlife and the people of Manhattan.红尾鹰在曼哈顿中城广为人知。它们能够在纽约存活是因为纽约有一个“终极城市公园”——中央公园。这个公园始建于19世纪中页,这里是曼哈顿野生动物和人类的聚集地。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201401/273285。

  • Press freedom in Japan日本新闻自由Secrecy and lies保密与谎言A tough new law on secrecy has suddenly become controversial一部事关保密的严苛新法突然间引起了争议Oct 19th 2013 | TOKYO |From the print editionFull of leaks都在泄密“A PARADISE for spies” is how a former agent of the Soviet KGB described Japan in the 1980s. Little has changed, though now the politicians and bureaucrats more often pass information to journalists than to foreign agents. But this autumn Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, is trying to stop the leaks by passing a forceful new secrecy law, even as he seeks to pass economic reforms as part of his programme of measures known as “Abenomics”. He also wants to legislate for a new national security council in order to centralise intelligence information and speed decisions on national security. New rules on secrecy are needed for it to function well, says the government. The media, fearful for press freedom, are crying foul.“间谍的天堂”,在80年代,潜伏日本苏联克格勃特工如此称呼这个国度。到如今,“天堂”依然是“天堂”,只不过相比外国特工,政客与官员现在更多是把消息透露给记者。但这个秋天,安倍晋三首相决意推动一部新的强有力的保密法案,希望以此止住泄密。其认真程度,不下于他推动“安倍经济学”中的经济改革法案。他还想设立一个国家安全委员会,用以集中情报信息,便于对国家安全问题做出快速决策。政府称,国家安全委员会需要新保密法案的持。为新闻自由担忧的媒体界高呼此举违规。Japan is much less punitive than other countries towards leakers. Civil servants who breach rules on confidentiality are currently liable to just one year in prison. Only officials of Japan’s Self Defence Forces face the possibility of stricter punishment: five years for leaking defence secrets, or ten if they are gleaned from Japan’s security pact with America.相比其他国家,日本对泄密者的惩罚较轻。违规泄密的公务员只会被判一年徒刑。只有自卫队的官员会遭受更严厉的惩罚:泄露军事机密判5年,收集日美军事关系情报的判10年。The gap widened after the events of September 11th 2001, when security elsewhere became tighter. This year America used its Espionage Act of 1917 to hand down a 35-year prison sentence to Bradley Manning, a former soldier, for passing information to the WikiLeaks website. Previous Japanese governments have tried to clamp down, but memories of the feared wartime secrecy regime have caused moves to tighten the law to be blocked.2001年9·11之后,全球各地的安全局势变得紧张,而对军人泄密的惩罚也随之加重。今年,美国依照1917年制定的《反间谍法》,判处了布拉德利·曼宁35五年监禁。这位曾经的军人因向维基解密网站提供情报而获罪。日本前几任的政府都曾努力推动类似法案,但由于对战时保密制度的恐惧记忆犹新,法案受到了阻挠。Japan’s allies, especially America, complain that information entrusted to it is too often leaked, says Nobutaka Machimura, a former foreign minister who heads the ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s task-force on the law. If passed, the bill would apply to all civil servants and to high-ranking politicians. “Special secrets” would be designated in three new fields of diplomacy, counter-espionage and counter-terrorism (in addition to defence). The penalty for leaks—also applied to those who encourage breaches, such as journalists—would be up to ten years in prison. Further details are scant, but the bill reportedly lacks important provisions, including independent review of what can be called secret, and a clear limit on the period of confidentiality.前任外务大臣,负责自民党这次立法行动的町村信孝说,日本的盟国,尤其是美国,都抱怨说委托给日本的情报泄密过于频繁。如果法案得以通过,那将适用于所有公务员,包括高级别的政治家。“特秘”情报(除军事以外还)包括外交、反间谍与反恐三方面。对泄密者的惩罚——包括鼓动泄密的,譬如记者——将是十年徒刑。具体细节仍然未知,但据说法案缺少一些重要条款,包括对机密定义的独立审查,以及保密期长的限制。That means the government could keep far more information under the veil than is necessary, says Kiyoshi Gojima, deputy managing director of Sankei Shimbun, a newspaper. The public would have less access to information than before, to some degree reversing a campaign in recent years for greater government transparency.《产经新闻》副社长Kiyoshi Gojima称,这样的法案意味着政府可能会秘密掌握太多信息,超出必要数目。公众知情权更少了,这是对近年来要求更大政府透明度之潮流的一种颠覆。In the field of diplomacy, for instance, the contents and outcome of summit meetings could be kept firmly secret. Last month, Norika Fujiwara, a television celebrity, warned that information relating to radiation from the meltdown at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant in 2011 could be ruled off limits by the new law. An adviser to Mr Abe denied this would happen.以外交领域为例,首脑级会议的内容与结果都将保密。电视明星藤原纪香上个月警告说,与2011年福岛核电站第一反应堆泄露有关的信息也将为新法所禁。安倍的一名顾问否认了这一点。Another risk is that public officials will stop talking to journalists entirely, says Mr Gojima. That would be a big shift from the current system of privileged press clubs, in which reporters have special channels to sources in the government and bureaucracy who pass on inside information. The current system needs reform, says Koichi Nakano of Sophia University, but there is no need to jump to the other extreme.另一风险是,公职官员会完全停止与记者的往来,Gojima如是说。这将极大地改变现有的特权新闻俱乐部体系,记者将再难通过特殊渠道从政府机构获取信息。现有体系是需要改革,但也不需要走到另一个极端,上智大学政治学教授中野晃一如是说。The final bill is expected to state the public’s right to know, and to include a commitment to press freedom. The LDP’s coalition partner, New Komeito, will insist on such amendments. But public opinion seems to be firmly against the law, so Mr Abe may face resistance, even though his government has a majority in both houses of parliament. One unwelcome outcome would be if the bill diverts government attention from economic reforms.法案的最终版本将涉及公众知情权,并包括对新闻自由的承诺。自民党的盟友新公明党将致力于完成这些修正。但公众坚决反对这项方案。即便安倍在国会两院都坐拥多数席位,他的前方仍有阻碍。如果这项法案分散了在经济改革上的专注,那结果就不妙了。201310/262876。
  • Science and technology科学技术Genetically modified tree转基因树木Into the wildwood进军森林A GM species may soon be liberated deliberately一种转基因树木不久或将大量种植,但很审慎ONCE upon a time, according to folklore, a squirrel could travel through Americas chestnut forests from Maine to Florida without ever touching the ground.民间流传有这样的故事:很久很久以前,松鼠在穿过美国缅因州到福罗里达州的栗树林时,可以一直不触碰地面。The chestnut population of North America was reckoned then to have been about 4 billion trees. No longer.估计北美那时的栗树约有40亿棵。现在却不复存在了。Axes and chainsaws must take a share of the blame.必须说,斧头锯子不乏其罪,But the principal culprit is Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight.但栗疫病菌才是罪魁祸首,是这种真菌致栗树感染了栗疫病。In the late 19th century, some infected saplings from Asia brought C. parasitica to North America. By 1950 the chestnut was little more than a memory in most parts of the continent.19世纪后期,一批亚洲来的感染栗疫病菌的树苗把该病菌带到了北美。到了20世纪50年代,北美大陆大部分地区的栗树便全部消失,成为了回忆。American chestnuts may, however, be about to rise again—thanks to genetic engineering.但有了基因工程,美国栗树有望再次繁茂起来。This month three experimental patches will be planted, under the watchful eye of the Department of Agriculture, in Georgia, New York and Virginia.在美国农业部的密切看护下,将于本月在乔治亚州、纽约州和弗吉尼亚州分别栽种一片栗树林进行实验。Along with their normal complements of genes, these trees have been fitted with a handful of others that researchers hope will protect them from the fungus.这些栗树除携带正常的附加基因外,还添加了少数不同寻常的附加基因。研究者希望通过添加这些基因来防止栗树被真菌感染。The project has been organised by the Forest Health Initiative, a quango set up to look into the idea of using genetic engineering to rescue species of tree whose populations have been devastated by fungal diseases or insect pests.该项目的组织者是一个半官方机构—森林健康行动,该机构的创立是为了检查用基因工程来拯救被真菌病或害虫摧毁的树木种群的可行性。It has sponsored research at several universities, and this months trial is the first big field test.FHI已在几所大学发起了研究倡议,并于本月迈出大型实地试验的第一步。If it works, the FHI will ask the government for permission to plant transgenic chestnuts in the wild, with the intention of re-establishing the species in Americas woodlands.如果可行,FHI则会向政府申请在自然环境中种植基因改良栗树,以重建美国林地的栗树林。And if that goes well, it could provide a model for projects to re-establish elm trees, ash trees and a fir tree known, confusingly, as the eastern hemlock.如果这也可行,那就能为榆树、白蜡树和杉树重建项目提供示范。The search for genetic protection for the chestnut was begun in 1990 by William Powell of the State University of New York, in Syracuse, and Scott Merkle of the University of Georgia, in Athens.栗树基因保护研究始于1990年,由锡拉丘兹市纽约州立大学的威廉·鲍威尔和爱森斯市乔治亚大学的斯科特·默克尔共同进行。Dr Powell knew that many of the symptoms of chestnut blight are caused by the oxalic acid that C. parasitica generates as it grows.鲍威尔确信,栗疫病的很多症状都由栗疫病菌生长时产生的草酸引起。He also knew that wheat has an enzyme called oxalate oxidase, which detoxifies oxalic acid.他也清楚,小麦有一种草酸氧化酶,能够分解草酸。He and his team therefore transferred the gene that encodes oxalate oxidase from wheat to chestnut.于是,鲍威尔和他的团队将小麦中能够编码草酸氧化酶的基因转移到了栗树的基因中。Last summer they showed that oxalate oxidase can indeed enhance blight-resistance.去年夏天,他们明了,草酸氧化酶的确能够增强栗树的抗枯萎性。A few years ago the Forest Health Initiative asked Dr Powell and some other researchers doing related studies to look at the work of the American Chestnut Foundation, a group which had been crossbreeding Chinese and American chestnuts.几年前,FHI邀请了正在进行相关研究的鲍威尔士和另一些研究者研究美国栗树研究基金会的工作。Since C. parasitica is Asian, Asiatic trees have evolved resistance to it. The foundation hoped to make a hybrid sufficiently Chinese to be protected, but sufficiently American to pass muster as local.由于栗疫病菌发于亚洲,亚洲树种已经形成了对该真菌的抗性。With the aid of the genomes of the two species, Dr Powell and his collaborators began testing 27 Chinese chestnut genes in the American tree.借助两种栗树的基因组,鲍威尔士及其合作伙伴开始在美国生长的树上测试27种板栗基因。The 800 trees to be planted this month will contain various combinations of these genes, the original wheat gene and six further genes from other tree species.本月将栽种800棵树,这些树包含了原小麦基因以及其他树种6种基因的各种组合基因。And results should come quickly.预计结果很快就可以得出。Field tests for blight-resistance are typically done when trees are a few years old, but Dr Powells team have devised a test of the saplings leaves that they believe can tell whether a tree is resistant when it is less than a year old.抗枯萎性的实地试验一般要当树木生长几年之后才能进行,但鲍威尔士研究小组想出了一个测试树苗叶子的办法,他们认为可以在树龄不满一年的情况下测试出树的抗性。The trial itself will last three years, and the researchers running it will monitor how the modified chestnuts fit in to the local ecosystem, as well as how healthy they are.这项试验会进行三年,进行该试验的研究者将持续观察记录改良过的栗树在当地生态系统的适应程度以及它们的健康状况。If they both do fit and are fit, a decision will then have to be made about whether to release them into the wild. That will be up to the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration.如果能够适应并且长势良好,那是否要在自然环境中大量种植就得由农业部、环境保护署和食品药品监督来决定了。Until now, the genetic modification of trees has had strictly commercial aims: speeding up the growth and extending the environmental tolerance of species intended for plantations.迄今为止,改良树木基因带有明确的商业目的:一是催长,二是为了造林增加物种对环境的容忍度。This use of genetic modification has been opposed by environmentalists, who fear that such supertrees may escape and damage wild forests.为达到该商业目的使用转基因,遭到了环保主义者的反对,他们担心这样的超级树会疯长进而危害到野生丛林。The Forest Health Initiatives goal, though, is to heal wild forests, not hurt them.但FHI的目标是为了恢复而不是危害野生丛林。If its experiments do produce a strain of chestnut that could do the job, it will be interesting to see how enthusiastically greens embrace it.如果试验成功,真能培育出抗栗疫病菌的新品种,那看看环保党在欣然接受时会表现出怎样的欢欣鼓舞,还挺有意思的。 /201311/266596。
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