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2018年02月24日 17:56:51|来源:国际在线|编辑:每日搜索
Britain英国Studying languages学习语言Shout louder再大声一点A woeful approach to language education continues苟延残喘的语言教育THE last time she was recruiting for her export-sales team, Sarah Grain hired a Lithuanian who speaks Russian, Polish and German. Her two previous hires for Eriez Magnetics, which makes industrial equipment in South Wales, were an Italian who also speaks French, and a Venezuelan who speaks Spanish and Portuguese. All of them speak fluent English. “There were no British applicants who had the requisite language skills,” she says.最后一次为自己的海外销售团队招聘,Sarah Grain聘用了一位可讲俄语、波兰语和德语的立陶宛人。她为艺利磁铁—位于南威尔士的一家制造工业设备的公司—先前两次聘用的人分别是会讲法语的意大利人和会讲西班牙语与葡萄牙语的委内瑞拉人。而他们都能说流利的英文。Sarah表示,“没有符合必备语言技能的英国求职者。”Ms Grains conclusion is not unusual for a British company. In 2012 a European Commission survey tested the foreign-language proficiency of 54,000 students aged 14 and 15, in 14 nations. Sweden came top, with 82% of pupils reaching an “independent” or “advanced independent” standard. The average for all 14 states was 42%. England came bottom, with just 9%.Grain女士对一家英国公司的此般结论已经让人见怪不怪了。早在2012年,欧盟委员会就针对来自14个国家、14到15岁年龄不等的54000名学生进行了外语熟练程度的测试。瑞典学生以其中82%的人可达到“灵活使用”和“驾轻就熟”的程度而位居榜首。所有14个国家的平均人数为42%。英国垫底,仅仅有9%。Part of the explanation is that many peoples second language is English, while many Britons continue to believe that, as native speakers of the lingua mundi, they do not need to bother with foreign languages. They may be right—in terms of communication. But it means that, not only are they missing out on much cultural interaction, they may also be harming their own job prospects.部分原因是许多人的第二外语就是英语,这也是大部分英国人始终坚信的事,而作为以lingua mundi为母语的人,他们着实无需为外语而烦心。他们可能是对的——从沟通方面来说。但这却意味着他们不仅会错失多文化交流机会,也会危及到他们的工作前景。They have not been helped by the educational policies of successive governments. In 2004 Tony Blairs Labour government abolished the requirement to learn a language after the age of 14, causing the numbers taking a language GCSE exam at 16 to fall by half in state schools over the next seven years.历届政府的教育政策并未使他们获益。2004年,托尼布莱尔的工党政府废除了年满14岁就要学习一门语言的要求,此举直接导致之后的七年,公立学校的学生在语言方面GCSE(普通中等教育书)考试的通过率直降一半。Concerned about this rapid decline, the coalition government brought in a new performance indicator called the English Baccalaureate, or EBacc, in 2011. A modern language was one of its five core disciplines. Language teachers—an embattled breed—rejoiced. The number of students entering a GCSE language exam in 2013, the first year the changes took effect, rose by 20% (see chart).考虑到人数骤降,联合政府在2011年颁布了一项名为英国文凭书(EBacc)的技能指标。现代语言是5个核心学科之一。语言老师——随时严阵以待的一群人—都欣喜若狂。新指标颁布后第一年就见成效,2013年参加GCSE语言考试的学生人数增长了20%。Now, however, those gains could be lost, as the government has seemingly loosened the requirement. From 2016, under a new initiative called Progress 8, it has extended the number of core subjects to eight, appearing to make learning a language voluntary. This has pleased some teachers, who felt the EBacc was too narrow, but linguists are aghast.但是现在,随着政府对此项要求的逐渐放松,这些成绩可能会慢慢丢失。自2016年起,在一项名为Progress 8(8步走)的新倡议下,核心学科扩展至8门,这一举措使得语言学习更自主化。这让部分老师十分欣喜,他们认为Ebacc范围狭窄,而语言学家却对此举大为震惊。The decline of languages at GCSE has inevitably had an effect higher up the academic food chain. Though the number of those studying languages to A Level—the exams taken at 18—will increase thanks to the GCSE cohort of 2013-14, it is likely to fall back again. French and German are half as popular as they were 20 years ago. The number of universities offering language degrees has fallen, too: by 50% for German and 40% for French since 1998. The number offering Spanish has also fallen. Degrees in other languages, such as Chinese and Arabic, are becoming more popular, but they are still rare.GCSE中语言的减少,不可避免的会对提高学术竞争有所影响。尽管随着2013-14年GCSE的人气回温,那些语言学习高达A级—18岁方可参与的考试—的人数将会增加,但它仍可能再次降低。相较于20年前,法国和德国的人数已降了一半。提供语言学位的大学数量也已减少:自1998年起,德国减少了50%,法国减少了40%。提供西班牙语学习的学校也已减少。其他语种学位,比如汉语和阿拉伯语,正变得越来越多,但它们依然很稀缺。The economy and the labour market bear the consequences. In 2012 the British Chambers of Commerce found, in a survey of 8,000 British companies, that 96% had no foreign-language speakers. First-time exporters cited language as a barrier to entering international markets.经济和劳工市场直接承担此般后果。在2012年,英国商会发现,在一份涉及8000家英国公司的调查中,有96%的公司都没有会外语的人。首次试水的出口商将外语定为打入国际市场的一大障碍。Though Britain makes up 12% of the population of the EU, less than 5% of EU civil servants in Brussels are British. Not enough Britons can fulfil the language requirement of being able to work in French or German. And even if monoglot Brits can get jobs at multinationals, claims Richard Hardie, non-executive chairman of the British arm of UBS, a bank, “the chances of getting to the top if you only have English are much lower than before”.虽然英国占欧盟总人口的12%,但在布鲁塞尔担任欧盟公务员的英国人却少于总人数的5%。没有完全合格的英国人能够满足可在法国或德国工作的要求。而且即使只会单一语言的英国人在跨国公司工作,来自瑞银集团—一家—英国分公司的理查德·哈迪表示,“若你只会讲英语,那么你能高升的机会相比于以前已经大大降低了。”This lack of language skills also lowers growth. By exactly how much is hard to say, but one estimate, by James Foreman-Peck of Cardiff University, puts the “gross language effect” (the income foregone because language barriers alter and reduce international trade) in 2012 as high as £59 billion ( billion), or 3.5% of GDP.语言技能的缺乏也降低了增长。很难精确到用多少来说明,但是据卡迪夫大学James Foreman-Peck估计, “恶劣的语言效应”(由于语言障碍改变和减少了国际贸易)给2012年带来高达590亿英镑(合900美元),或是3.5%的国内生产总值的损失。In the linguistic gloom, there are a few bright spots. Some British universities are moving away from literature-based degrees towards joint degrees linked to practical subjects such as law or business studies. Some scientists are learning languages outside their course requirements to make themselves more employable.在幽暗的语言世界,有些许明亮之处。部分英国大学正在从以文学导向的学位转变至与类似法律和商业学习的实践学科关联的联合学位。一些科学家正在学习他们学科需求之外的语言,这会使他们更加称职。Meanwhile, in September 2014 the government mandated that all primary schools must teach a language. Getting children started at a young age is admirable. But, with so few language graduates coming out of universities, who is going to teach them ?与此同时,政府在 2014年9月要求所有的小学都要教授语言。让孩子们在幼龄时期接受语言教育是极好的。但是,从大学走出的语言学毕业生几近为零,谁又能来教他们呢?译者:张娣 校对:石海霞 译文属译生译世 /201503/362466

Ebola in Spain西班牙出现埃拉疫情Europes first victim欧洲境内首例患者A Spanish nurse who caught Ebola causes consternation across Europe一西班牙护士感染埃拉病毒,引起全欧洲恐慌Taking precautions, after the event事后预防FEAR sps faster than disease. News on October 6th of a case of Ebola in Madrid, the first contracted outside west Africa, where the disease has killed 3,400 people since March, caused Spaniards to worry not only about its sp but also about the competence of their health authorities.恐惧的传播速度要比病毒快得多。10月6日马德里出现了第一位在西非之外感染埃拉病毒的患者,埃拉病毒自3月以来已致3400人死亡,消息一出,不仅引起西班牙人对疫情传播的担忧,还导致民众对卫生当局工作能力的怀疑。The victim is a 44-year-old hospital worker, Teresa Romero, who had volunteered to help when two Spanish missionaries were flown home from west Africa and later died of the disease. Health workers in Africa are among Ebolas most frequent victims. But in the developed world hospitals have elaborate protocols to minimise the danger of contagion. Ms Romero should have been wearing the right protective clothing, have known the safety protocols properly, and been quickly spotted as a danger to public health once she fell ill.患者特蕾莎·罗梅罗是一名44岁的护理人员,曾经志愿参与护理感染埃拉病毒两名西班牙传教士,这两例患者均在西非感染埃拉病毒然后被空运回国(接受治疗),但是随后因(医治无效)而去世。最容易感染埃拉病毒的患者就是在非洲工作的医务工作人员。但是在发达国家,医院是能够通过制定详细的条款将传染病的传播危险最大程度地降低的。罗梅罗本应该穿上正确的防护衣,本应该适当了解安全协议,本应在感到不适的第一时间被列为隔离对象(然而事与愿违)。Yet after Ms Romero caught the virus, she spent ten days on holiday in Madrid, sat a public exam and visited a health centre and hospital with her early symptoms to seek help. Ms Romero wore protective clothing at work and claimed that she had followed the protocols. She even rang the hospital where she had worked to ask for advice on dealing with her symptoms, but her temperature was not deemed high enough to cause concern. Eventually she was taken by ambulance to her local hospital rather than to one that specialises in Ebola cases, requiring a further move some hours later. Full isolation protocols were reportedly only applied some time after her arrival at the first hospital.在罗梅罗感染病毒之后,她还在马德里休了十天假,期间参加了一次公开考试,并在出现早期症状后在健康中心和医院寻求过帮助。罗梅罗声称自己在工作期间穿上了防护衣并遵守了安全协议。她甚至曾向她工作的医院打电话咨询解决症状的建议,但是因为体温不够高而没有引起注意。最终她被救护车拉去了当地一家医院而不是专门负责埃拉疫情的医院,只因后者路程遥远还需几个小时才能到。据报道称,在她到达第一家医院一段时间之后隔离条款才真正落到了实处。Ebola is not easy to contract. It usually requires contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. Doctors say that Ms Romero recalled touching her face with a gloved hand after changing a nappy for one patient. They think the risks of further contagion are small, though six people, including her husband, were in isolation as The Economist went to press. Some 50 health workers who had been in contact with her are being closely monitored. The couples dog was also put down.埃拉并不容易被感染。只有与感染者进行体液的接触后才能传染上。医生称罗梅罗回忆起在给一位患者换尿布后她曾经用带着手套的手触摸过自己的脸。虽然他们认为二次传染的危险性是很小的,但是包括她的丈夫在内的六名相关人员在《经济学人》出版时都已经被隔离。曾与罗梅罗接触过的50几名医务人员也被严密监控。这对夫妇的宠物同样被监控起来。Hospital staff complain that they had only between 15 minutes and half an hour of training on protocols and how to put on protective clothing before dealing with Ebola patients. In some cases duct tape was used to seal clothing. The authorities admit that Ms Romero should perhaps have been isolated earlier.医院工作人员抱怨称,就隔离条款内容和如何穿戴防护衣的学习他们只接受过15分钟到半个小时的培训。有些情况下人们会用强力胶带来给衣物封口。当局承认罗梅罗本应该尽早隔离。Medical staff point to cuts in Madrids health service, where spending has fallen by 2% over the past three years. The authorities deny that training was slack and accuse Ms Romero of failing to give doctors full information. Jaume Ribera at IESE, a business school, says Spain should have fewer but better-prepared people treating victims of Ebola.医务人员指出马德里在公共医疗卫生务方面的出有所削减,过去的三年中,相关出减少了2%。当局否认培训的缺失并控告罗梅罗未能向医生传达出全部的信息。IESE商学院的豪梅·里韦拉认为西班牙应该减少护理埃拉患者的人员但是要提高人员质量。翻译:朱大素 校对:邵夏沁 /201410/336259

On Monday, health officials confirmed Arizonas first case of the Zika virus in a Maricopa County woman. 周一卫生官员实,亚利桑那州马里科帕县出现首位寨卡病毒病例。The state Department of Health Services and county Department of Public Health said that the unidentified adult woman traveled outside the U.S. to a Zika-affected area before developing symptoms. 该州健康务和县公共卫生部表示,不明身份的成年女子出现症状前,到寨卡病毒感染的美国境外旅行。Cara Christ, director of the Arizona Department of Health Services, said in a statement, ;While this is a first, the risk of this virus sping throughout Arizona is very low.; 亚利桑那州卫生务部主任卡拉在一份声明中表示,“尽管这是首列,这种病毒在整个亚利桑那州蔓延的风险非常低。”Authorities add that the states public health system aly has a plan in place to combat the sp of the virus.当局补充道,州公共卫生体系已经有计划应对病毒的传播。译文属。201603/434458

Including the Chester crash in Pennsylvania, in about 12 hours, there were three train accidents in the ed States on Sunday.包括宾夕法尼亚切斯特撞车事故,周日约12个小时内美国发生三起火车事故。An Amtrak spokesman said another Pennsylvania incident occurred in Bucks County, in which a trespasser was struck and injured Sunday evening.美国铁路公司一名发言人表示,另一起宾夕法尼亚事件发生巴克斯县,周日晚上一名入侵者被撞并受伤。And authorities said, in the small Illinois town of Somonauk, a 28-year-old was killed when an Amtrak train struck a vehicle at a roadway crossing.当局表示,在伊利诺斯小镇索莫诺克,道口的一辆火车与汽车相撞致一名28岁者死亡。Amtrak initially said it was providing limited service between Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware, as the Federal Railroad Administration and NTSB investigate. 美国铁路公司起初表示,正为费城、威尔明顿以及特拉华间提供限制务,随着联邦铁路和国家运输安全委员会进行调查。A later statement said that trains will run as regularly scheduled but that there would be some delays between Philadelphia and Wilmington.随后的声明称列车将定期运行,但在费城和威尔明顿间有延迟。译文属。201604/435499

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