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诸暨市红十字医院打美白针多少钱义乌芙洛拉整形美容医院飘眉手术怎么样Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科学出版The price of information信息的价格Academics are starting to boycott a big publisher of journals学术界开始联合抵制某个大型期刊出版商SOMETIMES it takes but a single pebble to start an avalanche.有时一块小卵石就足以使冰山崩裂。On January 21st Timothy Gowers, a mathematician at Cambridge University,一月二十一日,剑桥大学数学家Timothy Gowers写了一篇文,wrote a blog post outlining the reasons for his longstanding boycott of research journals published by Elsevier.其中陈列了其长期抵制埃尔塞维尔科学出版社的研究期刊的原因。This firm, which is based in the Netherlands, owns more than 2,000 journals, including such top-ranking titles as Cell and the Lancet.这个总部位于荷兰的公司主营的期刊就有2000多,包括《细胞》和《柳叶刀》等世界一流的刊物。However Dr Gowers, who won the Fields medal, mathematicss equivalent of a Nobel prize, in 1998, is not happy with it, and he hoped his post might embolden others to do something similar.然而菲尔兹奖得主Gowers士对它不满,并希望其文可以鼓励他人联合抵制。It did.他目的达到了。More than 2,700 researchers from around the world have so far signed an online pledge set up by Tyler Neylon,Gowers士的同事Tyler Neylon受到该文的鼓舞,在网上发起请愿,a fellow-mathematician who was inspired by Dr Gowerss post, promising not to submit their work to Elseviers journals,目前已有来自世界各地的2700多名研究者签名,他们承诺不会投稿到Elsevier的期刊,or to referee or edit papers appearing in them.也不会推荐或编辑上面刊登的文章。That number seems, to borrow a mathematical term, to be growing exponentially.签署的人数—借用数学术语来说—似乎呈指数增长。If it really takes off, established academic publishers might find they have a revolution on their hands.如果这真的形成一股风气,那已成立的学术出版社可能面临一场大变革。A bundle of trouble麻烦不断Dr Gowerss immediate gripes are threefold.Gowers士的不满可以分为三点。First, that Elsevier charges too much for its products.首先,Elsevier的产品要价太高。Second, that its practice ofbundling journals forces libraries which wish to subscribe to a particular publication to buy it as part of a set that includes several others they may not want.其次,它将几种刊物捆绑出售,这就让想要订阅其中某种刊物的图书馆不得不将囊括了他们不想要的刊物的系列刊物全买下。And third, that it supports legislation such as the Research Works Act, a bill now before Americas Congress that would forbid the government requiring that free access be given to taxpayer-funded research.第三,它持研究工作法等立法,该法案无须通过美国国会,就可以阻止政府为纳税人资助的研究小组提供免费通道。Elsevier insists it is being misrepresented.Elsevier坚称自己是被误解了。The firm is certainly in rude financial health.无疑该公司的财务状况很强健。In 2010 it made a 724m profit on revenues of 2 billion, a margin of 36%.2010年其收入有20亿欧元,热利润只有7.24亿欧元,利润幅度达36%。But it charges average industry prices for its products, according to Nick Fowler, its director of global academic relations,然而其全球学术关系部门领导Nick Fowler认为其开价属于行业平均价格,and its price rises have been lower than those imposed by other publishers over the past few years.而且过去几年来,其价格涨幅要比其它出版商要低。Elseviers enviable margins, Dr Fowler says, are simply a consequence of the firms efficient operation.Fowler士称,Elsevier那让人眼红的盈利幅度,只是该公司高效运转的结果。Dr Neylons petition, though, is symptomatic of a wider conflict between academics and their publishers—a conflict that is being thrown into sharp relief by the rise of online publishing.然而,Neylon士的请愿不过是学术及其出版商之间矛盾扩大化的一种象征——由于网络出版业的崛起,这种矛盾已经得到大大的缓解了。Academics, who live in a culture which values the free and easy movement of information have long been uncomfortable bedfellows with commercial publishing companies,学术,能生长于一个重视信息传播的自由性与方便性的文化环境中,同时也是一个愿意无偿编辑和评判文章的事物。which want to maximise profits by charging for access to that information, and who control many of the most prestigious scientific journals.但长期以来,学术与商业化出版商就格格不入,后者希望通过向信息获取者收费从而使利润最大化,此外还掌控着大多数最负盛名的科学刊物。This situation has been simmering for years.这种局面已经酝酿多年了。In 2006, for example, the entire editorial board of Topology, a mathematics journal published by Elsevier, resigned,比如,2006年Elsevier出版一本数学期刊《地志学》时,整个编辑委员会都提出辞呈,citing similar worries about high prices choking off access.并对高价掐断信息来源的行为表示类似忧虑。And the board of K-theory, a maths journal owned by Springer, a German publishing firm, quit in 2007.而德国某出版公司Springer旗下的一本数学期刊《扭结理论》的编辑委员会也于2007年辞职。To many, it is surprising things have taken so long to boil over.酿就一件事花费如此长的时间让很多人大跌眼镜。Academics were the internets earliest adopters, with all the possibilities for cutting publishers out of the loop which that offers. And there have indeed been attempts to create alternatives to commercial publishing.学术界是最早采纳互联网的。却是有人试图为商业出版提供更多选择。Cornell Universitys arXiv website was set up in 1991.康奈尔大学的arXiv网站于1991年成立。Researchers can upload maths and physics papers that have not been published in journals.研究员可以上传一些还没在期刊上发表的数学及物理文章。Thousands are added every day.每天添加的文章成千上万。The Public Library of Science was founded in 2000.公共科学图书馆于2000年成立,It publishes seven free journals which cover biology and medicine.它会免费出版7种涵盖生物学和医学的刊文。But despite the enthusiasm for such operations, there are reasons for the continued dominance of traditional publishers.然而,尽管人们有热情去做类似事情,但传统出版商主导地位依旧屹立不倒也有其理由。ArXivs papers, though subject to merciless post-publication commentary, are not formally peer-reviewed before they are posted.ArXiv的文章,尽管遭受到出版后的无情抨击,但他们在发表之前并没有接受同行审评。Their quality is thus rather uneven.因此其质量相当不平衡。PLoS relies partly on donations, but also charges publication fees of up to ,900 per paper.PloS的部分经济来源于捐赠,但每篇文章也收取高达2900美元的发表费。These must be paid by the authors, a significant expense for cash-strapped university departments.这些费用必须由作者承担,对于囊中羞涩的大学部门来说这是笔很大的费用。And there is also a lingering prejudice against electronic-only publishing.此外,关于只有电子版的刊物的偏见一直存在。Web-based alternatives often seem less respectable than their dead-tree counterparts.通常,相比网络版刊物,人们更尊重那些过时了的纸质版刊物。That matters, because university departments are rated both by the number of papers they publish and the reputation of the journals those papers appear in.这至关重要,因为大学部门是以他们所发表的文章数量及其所在刊物的名气程度来评级的。Youngsters, who might be expected to embrace new ways of doing things, must therefore publish in existing, reputable journals if they want recognition and promotion.因此,可能接受新方式的青年如果想要得到承认与升迁,就必须在有名气的实体刊物上发表文章。And the definition ofreputable changes slowly, since journals with the best reputation get the pick of new papers.由于新报刊能够成为最有名气的报刊,名气的定义也在逐渐改变。Commercial publishers have begun to experiment with open-access ideas, such as charging authors for publication rather than ers for ing.商业化出版商已经开始尝试开放式获取理念,比如收费对象从读者转向发表文章的作者。But if the boycott continues to grow, things could become more urgent.然而,如果抵制情绪持续增长,问题将变得更为紧迫。After all, publishers need academics more than academics need publishers.毕竟,需要学院的出版商多过需要出版商的学院。And incumbents often look invulnerable until they suddenly fall.而且往往出版商在倒下的前一刻还看起来坚不可摧。Beware, then, the Academic spring.那么,当心学术的春天到了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245146义乌双眼皮手术 Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的的《科学一刻》栏目组,I hate going to the dentist. In fact, I openly fear it.我很讨厌看牙医。真的,我对此感到很恐惧。Yet Ive never actually had a really bad orpainful experience with a dentist.可是我实际上并没有看牙医的糟糕经历。So why do I fear it so much?那我为什么会对此感到如此恐惧呢?Youre certainly not alone.有此感受的不仅仅是你一个人。Quaking in your boots at the mere thought of a dental check up-letalone having a cavity taken care of-is a time honored tradition.一想到要检查牙齿,腿脚就哆嗦,更别说补牙洞了。这种感受由来已久。And it doesnt necessarily derive from a bad dental experience.对牙医的害怕不一定来自您糟糕的看病经历。New research shows that fear ofthe dentist is often passed down from parents to their children.如今有研究表明,对牙医的恐惧感常常可以通过父母传递给子女。Fathers are especially involved.父亲们的因素很关键。Previous studies found a link between parentsattitudes toward thedentist and kids fear.过去的研究表明,父母对牙医的态度和子女对看牙医的恐惧感有关联。But the new study reveals that kids pay even closer attention to how theirfathers react when the dentist is involved.不过现在有研究发现子女们会密切关注父亲看牙医的反应。Apparently, when fathers display fear and anxiety, kidsare most likely to pick up those cues and see dental visits as something to fear.明显的例子是,当父亲表现出恐惧和焦虑的时候,子女很可能受到这些心理暗示,把看牙医当作恐怖的事情对待。Why fathers carry so much weight in influencing how their kids think about the dentist is not clear.父亲们为何会如此大程度地影响子女对牙医的看法,原因尚不可知。At least the study doesnt really offer an explanation.至少这项研究没有给出合理解释。But it does suggest that fathers can play animportant role in what psychologists called positive emotional contagion.不过研究指出,父亲在被心理学家称为积极情绪传导的过程中举足轻重。If fathers fear of the dentist can contaminate their kids, the opposite might also be true.如果父亲们对牙医的恐惧会传染给他们的子女,那么反之亦然。In otherwords, dads behaving positively and not displaying fear could orient their kids towards not fearingthe dentist.换句话说,父亲们正面的言行,不带恐惧的表现可以引导他们的子女不再害怕牙医。So the researchers call for parents, and fathers in particular, to beinvolved in dentist fearprevention campaigns.因此研究人员呼吁父母们,尤其是父亲们,行动起来,帮助子女防治牙医恐惧症。 201402/276300Love on the lam爱在潜逃路A rare thing: a deeply moving thriller奇葩:惊悚小说也催泪Schroder. By Amity Gaige.《父亲的罪》作者艾米蒂·盖奇ERIC is the unlikeliest of characters to charm a er. His life is a tabloid drama: man abducts daughter, gets arrested and confesses in a letter to his estranged wife. It is to the credit of Amity Gaige, an American writer, that her third novel, “Schroder”, transforms this thriller plot into a deeply moving tale.埃里克的人生就像通俗小报刊登的故事:他拐跑亲生女儿,为此锒铛入狱,随后写信向分居的妻子表示忏悔。这种人物最不可能赢得读者的青睐。多亏美国作家艾米蒂·盖奇,她用妙笔将惊悚情节演绎成一个感人至深的故事,这就是盖奇的第三部小说《父亲的罪》。Erics story is one of multiple deceptions. At the age of eight, and named Erik Schroder, he landed in America with his father from East Germany. Six years later he assumed the name Eric Kennedy and never minded if people presumed he was related to the slain president. These primordial lies set the stage for his later unravelling. His marriage to Laura, which brought a happiness he hardly dared believe, breaks up when their daughter, Meadow, is four years old. Knowing that divorce will expose his pretence and endanger contact with his child, Eric flees with her into the wooded mountains of northern New York.层层叠叠的谎言构成了埃里克的生活。八岁时以埃里克·施罗德的化名,跟随父亲从东德搬迁至美国。六年后,他更名埃里克·肯尼迪,有时被误认为那位惨遭暗杀的美国总统的亲戚,他也丝毫不介意。这些谎言为他日后的遭遇埋下祸根。和劳拉的婚姻生活竟然是如此的幸福,不过一切就在女儿麦朵四岁时烟消云散。一旦离婚,他不得不暴露真实身份,还有可能承受失去女儿的痛苦。想到这里,埃里克带着小麦朵逃匿到纽约州北部的森林里。The description of the next six days, written by this serial liar, self-inventor and troubled, possibly dangerous man, is riveting. Ms Gaiges main achievement is to inhabit her protagonist so thoroughly that the er cannot help but empathise. Eric is by turns insightful, funny, bizarre and irresponsible, at once self-deceiving and self-aware. Explaining his decision to cut and run, he writes: “I couldnt take it any more, the way the wind went out of the world whenever my daughter left.” In his apologetic, heartfelt voice, the novel becomes an intense, often beautiful meditation on the desperate love of a parent for a child.这名落魄的父亲虽然满嘴谎言,善于编造身份,也许是个危险人物,他将跑路六日娓娓道来,语言却也赏心悦目。女作家不惜笔墨,主角形象丰满,读后令人同情,此乃小说最大亮点。她笔下的埃里克时而富有远见卓识,时而滑稽古怪不负责任,时而自欺欺人,时而头脑清醒。提到下定切断过去远逃异乡的决心时,埃里克如此解释:“每次我的女儿离开时,世界了无生机,我再也受不了了。”他的叙述充满歉意和真诚,成就一部深刻思考绝望亲情的惊悚小说,其中不乏美丽的语言。Eric regards the kidnapping as a fairy-tale adventure; his daughter, wryly intelligent, is swept along. But Lauras lawyer accuses him of “bizarre, neglectful parenting”. On the lam he lets Meadow wade into a freezing lake, feeds her junk food and leaves her unattended. The question is not if he will be caught, but how and when.明白一切的女儿嘲讽地看着事情发展的态势,跟着父亲匆匆赶路,而在埃里克眼里,这次绑架就是一次童话般的冒险。然而劳拉的律师指责他“行为古怪,缺乏为人父的责任心”。途中,他用垃圾食品喂养小麦朵,带她涉过冰冷的湖水,甚至留她孤身一人。他总会被逮捕,关键是何时以何种方式。What distinguishes “Schroder” is its insight and language. Rain is “not rain but the liquid redistribution of collective conflict.” Laura has “such a careful way with the truth”. Ms Gaige excels at landscapes; her writing has the still, clear beauty of a mountain lake. Equally, she understands the terror of potential loss. Eric realises that there is only “one thing that really deranges us and that is the disappearance of love.” Linking too obviously to the symbolism of the cold-war Germany that Eric left behind, with its metaphors of flight and division, is the only misstep. Readers do not need such neat explanations to follow this flawed yet caring father.《父亲的罪》脱俗之处不仅在于思想深刻,更在于语言奇妙。天上下的“不再是雨水,而是蒸发后重新分配的集体冲突。”劳拉“谨慎地认知真相”。女作家盖奇女士不仅擅长于描写景致,赋予笔下的山中湖一种静谧透彻的美,而且深谙可能失去某些人或事时的恐惧。埃里克认识到,“世上真正使我们疯狂的仅此一物,那就是爱的消逝。”唯一不足之处是,小说充斥着飞行和分裂的意象,影射主人公逃离的东德,这一比喻太露骨,反而减少品读并不完美却舐犊情深的父亲形象的乐趣。 /201405/300214义乌做白瓷娃娃哪家医院好

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义乌美容养生会所脱毛多少钱 New fiction新小说Fatty issue胖子是个大问题A thoughtful new work by an American original.具有独创精神的美国作家带来富有创见的新作Big Brother《老大哥》LIONEL SHRIVER knows the drawbacks of using her own family in her fiction. Famous for the bestselling “We Need to Talk About Kevin”, which won the Orange prize for fiction in 2005, she once lamented that her parents had not yet forgiven her for an unflattering portrait in an earlier book. The rift was unfortunate, even sad, Ms Shriver noted, but that did not mean she would not do it again. “Real-life people are like carcasses thrown to a carnivorous pet,” she observed.兰诺丝薇佛明白,拿自己家人作为小说人物原型问题多多。于2005年获英国柑橘文学奖小说奖的畅销书《凯文怎么了》使丝薇佛声名鹊起,她曾慨叹,因为自己在一部早期作品中对父母描述直白,双亲一直耿耿于怀。丝薇佛表示,与父母产生嫌隙是令人遗憾的,甚至是令人伤心的,但那并不意味着她不会故技重施。她说,“现实中的人物就像抛给食肉动物的畜体,有血有肉。”“Big Brother”, Ms Shrivers 12th novel, may be her most plainly autobiographical. The author has written publicly before about her own big brother, an “obscenely smart” man who ultimately ate himself to death. The experience left her with not a few unresolved questions. What moves someone to eat to grotesque excess? Why is it so hard to deal with food in a healthy way in the overabundant 21st century? And what is the duty of kin when it comes to helping someone bent on self-destruction? These concerns drive her new novel, which considers the fate of a morbidly obese man and his sensible, successful 40-something younger sister. Ms Shriver, who has reviewed fiction for The Economist, has a knack for conveying subtle shifts in family dynamics, but this book feels uniquely personal, and is more poignant for it.《老大哥》是丝薇佛的第12本小说,也可能是她自传痕迹最明显的一部小说。作者在以前公开发表的作品中就曾提到她的老大哥,说他“聪明到让人吃惊”,最后把自己给吃死了。如此经历给丝薇佛留下了不少困惑。是什么动力使一个人暴饮暴食到近乎荒唐的地步?在物产过剩的21世纪,为何健康饮食如此之难?如果要向一个执意自我毁灭的人施以援手,其亲属又肩负哪些责任?对这些问题的关注推动她完成了这部小说,对一个肥胖病患者和他理智、成功、四十来岁的的命运做出了思考。丝薇佛曾为《经济学人》撰写过小说,擅长巧妙传达家人互动时的微妙变化。但这本书似乎更关怀个人,而且更加切中要害。Pandora Halfdanarson, the heroine, leads a staid life in Iowa, where ambitions are as modest as the plains are flat. She has a thriving toy business, a contented marriage and a good relationship with her teenage stepchildren. But these dulling comforts have her craving the “splash of anarchy” that a visit from her cool, jazz-playing brother, Edison, would bring.小说女主人公潘多拉?哈夫达纳森在爱荷华州享受着安稳的生活,那里土地平坦,人们甘于平凡。她的玩具店生意兴隆,婚姻美满,和十几岁的继子女们相处融洽。但波澜不惊的安逸生活让她对“混乱的波澜”心生向往,这份波澜,将由爱迪生—她玩爵士乐的哥哥—带给她。After years of limited contact, however, the sight of him comes as a shock. Her once handsome and sylphlike brother has become a mountain of flesh in a double-wide wheelchair, his jazz-pianist fingers bulging like bratwurst just before the skin splits. “It was rude to stare, and even ruder to cry.” Struggling, Edison hopes to stay with Pandora and her family for a little while. But his presence is outsized and disruptive, his appetites epic, his boastful stories tinged with resentment (“Hey Ive played with some heavy cats, dig?”). Edisons bombast strains Pandoras marriage and disturbs the balance of her life, especially after she hatches a dramatic plan to slim him down in order to save him.兄间多年少有联络,再见面时,被哥哥吓了一跳。她原本相貌英俊、身形窈窕的哥哥如今成了一座瘫在加宽轮椅上的肉山,曾经弹奏爵士钢琴的手指如今鼓胀得像肠衣即将爆裂的德式香肠。“瞪眼直视俨然成了无礼冒犯,泪流满面则更甚。”爱迪生努力想同潘多拉一家人待一段时间。但他身形庞大,到处添乱,胃口惊人,自吹自擂的故事里还捎带着忿恨爱迪生的胡吹乱侃让潘多拉的婚姻关系变得紧张,扰乱了她平静的生活。为了挽救哥哥,潘多拉想出了一个戏剧性的方案来帮他减肥,之后一切更是乱了套。With “Big Brother”, Ms Shriver offers some sage observations on the pleasures of eating, the link between fat and shame and the struggle to lose weight—a “distinctly bourgeois form of suffering”. She suggests that the fundamental problem of food may be that it is “more concept than substance”, an idea of satisfaction if never quite satisfaction itself. The highlight of ingestion is the moment between one bite and the next; actual eating never quite delivers on the tantalising contentment promised between bites.丝薇佛在《老大哥》中提出了一些富有哲理的看法,涉及饮食的乐趣、肥胖和羞耻的关系以及减肥的努力—她称减肥为“典型的中产阶级痛苦”。她认为食物最根本的问题也许在于它“更多的是一个概念,而非物质”,强调的是满足感而非满足本身。摄取食物最令人满足的时刻在咬一口和下一口之间,而两口之间那诱人的满足感并不能通过实际的吃来获得。But this book is not just about bingeing and purging. Ms Shriver writes tenderly about marriage, and also about the potency of blood ties, which are wonderful and horrible for the same reason: there is “no natural limit to what these people can reasonably expect of you”. Her interior monologues are pitch-perfect; her dialogue less so. Yet her main gift as a novelist is a talent for coolly nailing down uncomfortable realities—like the feelings of regret that haunt a sister who asks if she did right by her big brother.但这不只是一本探讨暴饮暴食和心灵净化的书。丝薇佛充满温情地描绘了婚姻,也将血缘亲情的力量娓娓道来,这份力量既美好又可怕,因为“家人以为对你的期待合情合理,而这份期待其实无边无际”。丝薇佛笔下的内心独白精异常,对话稍逊一筹。不过,作为小说家,丝薇佛的天赋在于能够从容地把握令人不安的现实——比如潘多拉不确定自己对哥哥所做的一切是否正确时,那份困扰她的懊悔之情。 /201405/294996义乌除疤医院在哪诸暨妇幼保健院治疗青春痘多少钱

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