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义乌市人民医院减肥瘦身多少钱东阳红十字医院祛疤多少钱义乌佛堂赤岸镇蓝光祛痘多少钱 The original language of Michigan is dying in the state.Anishinaabemowin was the language of the Great Lakes for millennia—spoken by the Chippewa/Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi tribes—known as the Anishinabek.One of the biggest impacts on the language, that affected generations of families, was Native American boarding schools.The last fluent speakers are dying offEighty-year old Marcella Keller is a member of the Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians. She was raised traditionally by her parents who knew how to fish, gather, live off the land, and turn wild plants into medicine.Keller has lived in Cross Village her whole life. Its about 20 miles south of the Mackinac Bridge and sits on a bluff overlooking Lake Michigan.;Just a beautiful place where the Indians lived up in here,; she says. ;Everybody spoke [the language growing up]... I was one of the fluent speakers.;Keller is only one of an estimated three people in this area with the Little Traverse Bay Band that are still fluent in Anishinaabemowin, and those numbers are dropping.Keller says she used to have some people she could talk to in her native language, but says ;all the Indians that spoke it are dying off. They never taught it to their kids.;One of the biggest reasons why they didnt teach it, was because of Native American boarding schools.Holy ChildhoodTwenty miles south of Cross Village is Harbor Springs.In the summer, the harbor is filled with yachts and downtown is marked with boutique shops. At the end of Main Street stands a church, and that church led one of the longest-running Native American boarding schools in the nation. It was called Holy Childhood.Eric Hemenway, director of archives and records for the Little Traverse Bay Band, says the Odawa actually helped build the mission school in 1829.He says back then, ;lessons were taught in Anishinaabemowin -- the kids were encouraged to speak Anishinaabemowin.;But fast forward 60 years, and things at Holy Childhood looked much different.Around the late 1880s the federal government stepped in to control Native American education. They created assimilation policies that looked to wipe out native languages and culture, and that effort continued for decades.Deleta Gasco Smith works for the Little Traverse Bay Band. She attended Holy Childhood for three years of elementary school.;When we were in the school we were actually completely forbidden to speak the language and if we were caught the punishment was swift and it was severe.;;When we were in the school we were actually completely forbidden to speak the language, and if we were caught, the punishment was swift and it was severe,; Gasco Smith says.Gasco Smiths father was fluent in Anishinaabemowin, but he was careful not to teach his daughter the language. Gasco Smith says her Dad went to the same boarding school and knew she would be beaten for speaking Anishinaabemowin.;Thats how we almost lost our language, is because they quit speaking it,; Gasco Smith says.;They wouldnt let us speak it either because they knew that we had to go there and what would happen if we spoke the language when we were there.;Boarding schools aim was to take the Indian out of the IndianFrom the 1880s through the 1920s, Native American children in the U.S. were often forced to leave their families and attend boarding schools.Some—like Holy Childhood—were run by the Catholic Church. Others were run by the government, like a school in Mt. Pleasant that operated until the mid 1930s. Either way, the mission was the same.Sister Susan Gardner is with the diocese of Gaylord;The overall mission of the boarding school was to acculturate the Native Americans into the American culture,; she says. ;They didnt want them to have anything as far as their Native American spirituality, language customs, anything. They wanted to take the Indian out of the Indian.;Assimilation mandates faded around 1930, but Holy Childhood still operated for another 50 years and continued to punish students who spoke their native language.Physical abuse at Holy ChildhoodPhysical and emotional abuse were common.Yvonne Keshick is a member of the Little Traverse Bay Band and went to Holy Childhood for eight years. She says there was a racial element to the abuse from the nuns.;They showed preference, a direct preference to lighter-complected kids,; she says.Keshick says those kids got special treatment, and didnt get beaten and adds, ;The darker you were, the worse you were treated.;Keshick says she was beaten almost every single day. If she got a math problem wrong, the nun would grab her by the head and use her face to erase the math problems on the chalk board.;I have less hair on this side of my head because the nun was right-handed, so she would reach out and grab me on the left side of my head and drag me around, and then use my face and head as the dust eraser,; Keshick says.Sexual abuse at Holy ChildhoodIn the 1960s and early 70s, there was sexual abuse happening at Holy Childhood.Fred Kiogima is a member of the Little Traverse Bay Band.;You could hear the beatings going on. You could hear other things going on in that room that as a child, first grade through eighth grade, you had no right in society to hear those things going on the other side of the room, or in the next bed over,; Kiogima says.Kiogima boarded at Holy Childhood when a nun at the school was sexually abusing some of the boys.;Its like the nuns had their certain key people that they would pick out,; he says. ;Those were the ones that -- the boys group on our side of the house -- we knew who was either having sex with that nun or was making out with her, or doing whatever. Because they got the best treatment. They got the best clothes. They got more food. They got longer TV hours. They didnt get beat.;Church apologizesSister Susan Gardner is the director of the Native American Apostolate for the Diocese of Gaylord and previously worked with First Nations tribes in Canada.She says these stories dont surprise her because shes heard so many similar stories from indigenous people across North America.;I feel badly that this has happened. I do whatever I can to heal them individually, or on a whole, but I certainly dont deny anything that happened to them,; Gardner says.This year, Gardner prompted the Bishop of Gaylord to send a letter to the Little Traverse Bay Band to issue the first apology from the church for what happened at Holy Childhood.Gardner is now leading healing circles. Its a way for people to openly share their thoughts and feelings about what happened at the boarding school.Former Holy Childhood student Deleta Gasco Smith is also helping lead these healing circles.;This letter from the church, and them reaching out, is a very big step,; Gasco Smith says. ;Its like we are going full circle and they want to be a part of the healing process, so that is a good thing.;But she says the boarding schools played a huge roll in the loss of Anishinaabemowin, and when language is lost, so is the connection to the remaining ceremonies and traditions of the Anishinabek.;When you lose that language, you lose your culture completely,; Gasco Smith says. ;Because it is those songs, it is those prayers, and everything that we do in our language that connect us -- not just with each other, and with our community -- but also with everything around us.;201509/401346Psychotherapy精神疗法Expanding the shrinks垂死挣扎The popularity of CBT is freezing out more traditional forms of therapyCBT的兴起威胁着其它心理疗法THE unexamined life may not be worth living, but the overexamined life can be difficult, too. Many people are turning to a relatively young branch of “talking therapy”, called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to get them through the (day and) night. CBT, which teaches people to bypass unhelpful thoughts, has been elbowing aside the talk-about-your-childhood psychoanalysis favoured by believers in Freud and Jung. Up to 43% of all therapy courses in Britain are now CBT, and the practice is increasing: around 6,000 new therapists have been trained since 2007 and CBT absorbs much public funding. In 2012, 213m went on a National Health Service programme delivering CBT, while 172m was spent on all other forms of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy.不经任何检验的生活是无意义的,但是检验过多的生活也并非容易。现在很多人都比较青睐近来出现的“谈话治疗”,又称“认知行为治疗”(CBT),借其顺利度过(白天或)晚上。认知行为治疗(CBT)主要引导患者除去无用的想法,现人气已经大大超过了之前曾得到弗洛伊德和荣格持者的大力吹捧的“说说童年”心理分析疗法。现如今,英国有超过43%的心理疗法课程都采用认知行为治疗方法(CBT),且它的实际运用也越来越普遍:自2007年起,CBT行业已培养6000名治疗专家,并吸收了不少社会资金。2012年,在政府投资的全面健康务项目中,CBT占2.13万英镑,而其它精神疗法总共才得到1.72万英镑。The growing popularity of CBT was consolidated in 2007, when the government adopted the treatment as standard. Three things had swayed it. The newish practice had accumulated a body of evidence proving it worked (students of Freud and Jung have been slower to move from couch to lab). It was very good at getting patients back to the office: a 1997 study found people with psychological problems had significantly higher employment rates after CBT than after traditional psychoanalysis. It was also speedy, getting results after just ten one-hour sessions (psychoanalysis can, expensively, take a lifetime). So CBT therapists were trained up and given all the plum NHS jobs, consigning other therapies largely to private practice.2007年,在政府宣布CBT为标准治疗法后,它的人气再度上涨,地位得以坚实巩固。CBT虽然出现时间较近,但已有大量据明它的功效(弗洛伊德和荣格的学生就没能这么迅速地从诊察台转移到研究室,着手深入调查研究。)此疗法在帮助患者重就业方面效果显著:1997年的研究结果显示,接受CBT疗法的群体的就业率要比接受传统精神疗法高得多。并且,该疗法周期也短的多,每次治疗一小时,持续十次就可以看到效果(而那些精神疗法或许会足足耗费一生)。正因如此,国家大力培养CBT治疗师,并且分配他们NHS(英国国民保健系统)的全部美差,同时还允许他们可以自由行动。As a result couch-based psychotherapy, once dominant, now caters mostly to the rich—an hours session costs between 50 () and 500—and is geographically skewed: there are more psychoanalysts in NW3, a posh London postcode, says Phillip Hodson, a fellow of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, than in the counties of Devon and Somerset combined. CBT therapists, via GP referrals and hospital departments, can now reach anyone nationwide for free. Private practice psychoanalysis is also set to struggle as evidence-based results and regulation become more important. In 2007 non-NHS therapists resisted a proposed regulatory body, claiming it would squash creativity—a mistake in a profession so easily infiltrated by quacks.结果,这种以诊查为主的心理治疗法盛行后,如今主要是为了迎合富贵人家—小时的诊疗收费达50至500英镑—且它的地理分布也是极为不平衡:英国心理咨询和心理治疗协会会员菲利浦·哈德森(Phillip Hodson)称,在繁华地带的NW3地区的心理治疗师比德文郡和萨默赛特两乡村合计还多。CBT治疗师在全科医生和医院有关部门的引荐下,如今已经可以为全国人民免费治疗。个人所开展的心理治疗法也在努力成为有理可循的治疗法,因此制定有关规定显得更加重要。2007年,一名非NHS的心理治疗师强烈反对政府所出台得一套规章制度,认为这会抑制大家的创新力——这是职业通病,却极易被江湖郎中给占便宜。Meanwhile the CBT boost has expanded the British therapy industry: since 2007, spending on psychotherapy has moved from 3% to 7% of Britains mental health budget-the difference mostly spent on CBT. In shrink-happy America, by contrast, the psychotherapy industry is declining. In 1998, 15.9% of Americas depression and anxiety cases were referred to therapists. In 2007 that was down to 10.5%. The British therapy boom is also a triumph for consumer choice: a recent survey showed patients preferred therapy to medication by a ratio of three to one.与此同时,CBT的大兴又促进了英国心理治疗行业的发展:自2007年以来,国民在精神疗法上的出由原来只占心理健康总出的3%升至7%,而多出来的部分主要用于CBT治疗。而相反,在幸福指数下滑的美国,心理治疗行业却日渐下滑。早在1998年,15.9%的忧郁和焦虑患者都会求助心理治疗师。而到了2007年,这个人数降至10.5%。英国心理治疗行业的大兴再次表明现今顾客为大的世道:近期一项调查结果显示,相比药物治疗,75%的患者更倾向于心理治疗。Peter Fogarty of University College, London argues that CBT has entered a virtuous circle: money pours into research, evidence accumulates, more financial support is given to the newly credible treatment and other forms of psychotherapy are excluded. Even if they are not, the complexity of the NHS means it may be hard to switch gears. Policymakers will not be keen to disentangle CBT from the vast NHS machinery, nor to write off years spent training new therapists.伦敦大学学院的教授彼特. 福格蒂认为CBT开始了良性循环:大量资金投入相关研究,研究又积累更多真实数据,带来可靠的研究结果,而后这种新的可靠治疗得到更多财政补助,得到进一步推广,渐渐地把其它心理疗法给淘汰了。即使这些疗法没被淘汰,在NHS这样复杂交错的系统里,它们也很难翻身,扭转当前局势。当局者根本不希望把CBT从庞大的NHS体系中剔除,也不希望这么多年只是在白白地培养新的心理治疗师。CBT is no panacea, and psychoanalysis has been shown to be better in treating illnesses like eating disorders. It is finally launching studies to measure its effectiveness in an effort to regain some ground. Either way, it appears the stereotype of the buttoned-up Brit, unwilling to delve into his or her subconscious, may be eroding.CBT不是万灵丹,实践也实,精神分析法在治疗饮食紊乱等问题上比CBT更见效。CBT最终是会激起社会研究热潮,促进其它治疗法大力研究自身治疗效果,以说大众,保住自己的一席之位。不管怎样,这显示了英国以往沉默寡言和保守不前的内质,不愿意深入研究自己潜意识的想法,而如今这种特质正在不断褪去。 翻译:徐珍 校对:朱大素 译文属译生译世 /201410/336585东阳小腿减肥多少钱

义乌去痣收费Display screens显示屏Going through a phase相转变A new way to create electronic images新的电子图案显示方法Wave of the future?未来之波LIQUID-CRYSTAL displays are a familiar and ubiquitous technology. But if Harish Bhaskaran of Oxford University is right, their days may be numbered. The essential feature of LCDs is that the pixels in them switch between amorphous and crystal-like phases, which changes their optical properties. In a paper in this weeks Nature, Dr Bhaskaran and his colleagues describe something similar in a solid material. At the least, that would stop the messy abstract-impressionist patterns which happen when an LCD is dropped too hard. At most, it might open up a new range of applications, from clothes that change colour to dimmable windscreens.液晶显示屏是一项成熟而广泛应用的技术。但如果牛津大学的Harish Bhaskaran的想法实现,液晶屏的好景也就没几天了。LCD的基本特征是其像素在非晶相和类晶相间转化,因此改变其光学性质。在本周的《自然》杂志上,Bhaskaran士及其同事陈述了一种类似的固体材料。至少该材质可以防止当LCD猛烈坠地后产生麻烦的抽象印象派图案。最理想情况下,它会有新的应用范围,从变色布料到可调光挡风玻璃。Solid phase-change materials are aly used to store data in optical memory disks. They are also being considered for use in memory chips, because the switch between amorphous and crystalline states alters their electrical properties in ways that can store electronic bits of data. Dr Bhaskaran, though, has shown that thin enough films of the right sort of material can be made to change colour, too.固态相变材料已经用于在光储存盘中储存数据。也可能被用于记忆芯片,因为其非晶态和晶态之间的转变也改变了其电学性能,因此他们能储存电子数据。然而,Bhaskaran士展示了一种特定材料膜,在足够薄的情况下也可以改变颜色。This property would make them suitable both for displays that rely on reflected light (so-called electronic paper) and the older, backlit sort that rely on transmitted light. The resulting displays would be thin and could be flexible if printed on the right material—increasing the range of applications they might be used in. And they would consume little power, since energy need be used only when a pixel has to be flipped from one phase to another.这一性能将使其适合于反射光显示(所谓电子纸)和早期的依赖透射光的背光显示。所得显示屏不仅薄,而且铺在合适材料上时非常灵活,增加了其应用范围。而且它消耗的功率更少,因为这种材料只需要在变相的时候消耗能量。The researchers material of choice is an alloy of germanium, antimony and tellurium. Both the crystalline and the amorphous phases of this substance are stable at any temperature a device is likely to experience, and thin films of it are more or less transparent. The power needed to effect the phase change could be fed to individual pixels by electrodes made of indium tin oxide, which is also transparent.研究人员选择的材料是镓、锑和碲合金。这一物质的晶态和非晶态在任何设备适用温度下都很稳定。其薄膜也几乎透明。要激发相转变所需的能量可以由透明的铟锡氧化物电极向单个像素提供。The colour of a pixel would depend not only on its phase, but also on its thickness, which would affect the way light waves being reflected within it interfere with one another, cancelling out some frequencies while amplifying others. (The effect is similar to the creation of colours by a thin layer of oil on a puddle.) Generally, the alloy layer needs to be thinner than 20 nanometres for that to happen.单个像素的颜色不仅取决于其相态,也同其厚度有关。厚度会影响光波在两个像素间界面处的反射,削弱部分频率,加强其他频率。(此效应类似于池塘表面薄油层产生的色。)一般来说,合金层需要薄于20 nm才会发生这一现象。To demonstrate their idea, the researchers sprayed films of their alloy onto pieces of silicon, quartz and plastic. They then used a device called an atomic-force microscope, which has a tip a few nanometres across, to apply appropriate electric currents in a grid pattern across the films surface. This grid mimicked an array of pixels, creating a stable pattern. The result, as their picture of a Japanese wave shows, is a recognisable image—if not, yet, a perfect one.为了明其观点,研究人员将其合金铺覆到硅,石英和塑料上。然后他们使用所谓原子力显微镜的设备来施加合适的电流在横穿膜表面的网格上。原子力显微镜尖端仅有几个纳米大小。网格模仿像素排列,产生稳定的模式。他们对日本电波的拍摄结果是一个可识别的图像,即便不可识别,也是非常完美的。Adding the indium-tin-oxide electrodes is a more complicated process, but to show it can be done in principle, Dr Bhaskaran has made a single pixel this way. Whether his idea will get off the lab bench and into the shops remains to be seen. It is by no means the only suggestion around for a new generation of display screens. But it looks plausible.加入铟锡氧化物电极是更为复杂的过程,但是可以从原理上展示其过程。Bhaskaran用这种方式制备了单个像素。他的想法能否从实验室走进商用还是未知。这绝不是新一代显示屏的唯一方案,但颇得看好。翻译:赵兴昊译文属译生译世 /201505/377287东阳市红十字会医院做隆鼻手术多少钱 义乌美白祛斑哪家医院好

义乌芙洛拉整形整形美容科 North Korea says it has successfully test-fired a ballistic missile from a submarine and strengthened its nuclear attack capabilities. 朝鲜称已从潜艇上成功试射弹道导弹,并加强了其核攻击能力。Hours before the announcement by North Koreas state media Sunday, South Korean military officials said the North had fired what appeared to be a ballistic missile from a submarine off its eastern coast. 周日就在朝鲜官方媒体公布的前几个小时,韩国军方官员表示,在东海岸朝鲜从潜艇上似乎发射了一枚弹道导弹。While South Korean experts say its unlikely that North Korea currently possesses an operational submarine that can fire multiple missiles, 韩国专家称朝鲜目前不太可能拥有一艘可以发射多导弹的作战潜艇,they acknowledge that the North is making progress on such technology.他们承认朝鲜在这些技术上正取得进步。译文属。201604/439163义乌芙洛拉美容医院祛眼袋多少钱义乌市人民医院做隆鼻手术多少钱

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