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2017年10月18日 17:00:36来源:QQ互动

  • WASHINGTON President Barack Obama has started initiatives to study the brain and gene-based diseases. He has led attacks on the Ebola virus and antibiotic resistance. Last month, he wrote an academic article in a prominent medical journal.华盛顿——美国总统贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)发起了研究大脑和遗传类疾病的计划。他领导着针对埃拉病毒和抗生素耐药性的攻坚战。上个月,他还在一本一流医学期刊上发表了一篇学术论文。But the science event many in the White House remember most powerfully was the kid with the marshmallow cannon.但对白宫许多人而言,最令人印象深刻的科学事件,要数那个带来了棉花糖大炮的小男孩。“So would it, like, hit the wall up there?Obama asked during the 2012 White House Science Fair when he came upon Joey Hudy, 14, standing before his homemade Extreme Marshmallow Cannon.“那么,它会击中那边的墙壁吗?”在2012年的白宫科学White House Science Fair)上遇4岁的乔伊·胡迪(Joey Hudy)时,奥巴马这样问道。胡迪当时站在自己制作的“超级棉花糖大炮”前。“Yeah,Joey answered.“是的,”胡迪回答。“Would it stick?”“它会黏在上边吗?”“I don’t know.”“我不知道。”“Let’s try it,Obama said with glee.“让我们试试吧,”奥巴马兴高采烈地说道。And so, for what may have been the first time since the British burned the house down in 1814, a fast-moving projectile hit the State Dining Room wall. The marshmallow did not stick.于是,一枚高速射出的炮弹击中了国宴厅的墙壁——自英国人在1814年火烧白宫之后,这种事或许还是第一次发生。棉花糖炮弹并未黏在墙上。Obama has changed in many ways since winning the presidency. His hair is speckled with gray. He is more skeptical of military solutions to intractable foreign problems. His teenage daughters, he has said many times, no longer think he is cool.赢得总统大选以后,奥巴马在很多方面都发生了变化。他的头发染上了霜华。他愈发怀疑能否以军事手段解决棘手的外交问题。再有,他说过好些遍,两个十几岁的女儿再也不觉得他有多酷了。But another change that has received far less attention has been Obama’s embrace of science.但还有一个关注度小得多的变化,那就是奥巴马开始涉足科学领域。He began an annual tradition of science fairs, arguing that if he celebrates the nation’s top athletes at the White House, he should do the same for the best young scientific talent. He often mentions the students he has met at the fairs, including Elana Simon, who at age 12 survived a rare form of liver cancer and before graduating high school helped discover its genetic cause.他创立了每年举办科学展的传统,他的理由是,既然他会在白宫祝贺美国的顶级运动员,就应当为最优秀的年轻科学人才做同样的事情。他经常提及自己在科学展上遇到的学生,其中包括埃莱娜·西蒙(Elana Simon),她2岁时成为一种罕见肝癌的幸存者,并在高中毕业前帮助发现了这种疾病的遗传基因。Obama’s presidential science advisory committee has been the most active in history, starting 34 studies of subjects as varied as advanced manufacturing and cybersecurity. Scientists on the committee said they worked so hard because Obama was deeply engaged in their work.奥巴马总统的科学顾问委员会是有史以来最活跃的,总共启动4项研究,涉及从尖端制造技术和网络安全的多种课题。该委员会的科学家说,他们如此勤奋工作是因为奥巴马深度参与其中。In a recent interview with Bloomberg Businessweek, Obama listed science as one of the few subjects he intends to pursue after the presidency.近日接受《彭商业周刊Bloomberg Businessweek)采访时,奥巴马表示,科学是他在总统任期结束后想要追寻的几个目标之一。“The conversations I have with Silicon Valley and with venture capital pull together my interests in science and organization in a way I find really satisfying,Obama said. Of the potential breakthroughs in genomic sequencing, “That’s just an example of something I can sit and listen and talk to folks for hours about,he said.“通过与硅谷人士以及一些风险资本家交谈,我对科学和组织的兴趣被点燃了,这让我有一种真正的满足感,”奥巴马说。谈及基因测序取得突破的可能性,他说,“这就是那种可以让我坐下来倾听和交谈几个小时的话题。”Obama has always loved science fiction he was a “Star Trekfan as a kid, and grew up ing comic books like “Spider-Man.His favorite movie last year was “The Martian,according to the White House.奥巴马一直都很喜欢科幻小说——他从小就是《星际迷航Star Trek)的拥趸。《蜘蛛侠Spider-Man)之类的漫画书陪伴他长大成人。来自白宫的消息称,他去年最爱看的电影是《火星救援The Martian)。After Leonard Nimoy, the actor who made the character Spock famous in the original “Star Trekseries, died last year, Obama released a statement: “Long before being nerdy was cool, there was Leonard Nimoy.”出演最初的《星际迷航》电视剧,并让斯波克(Spock)一角闻名遐迩的演员伦纳德·尼莫伊(Leonard Nimoy)去世后,奥巴马发表了一份声明:“早在书呆子气被视为一种酷之前,我们有伦纳德·尼莫伊。”Obama described Spock with many of the same adjectives often used to describe Obama: “Cool, logical, big-eared and levelheaded, the center of Star Trek’s optimistic, inclusive vision of humanity’s future.”人们常常用来形容奥巴马的很多言辞,都被奥巴马用来描绘斯波克:“酷,有逻辑,耳朵大,头脑清醒,是《星际迷航》关于人类未来的乐观包容愿景的核心。”“I loved Spock,Obama concluded.“我爱斯波克,”奥巴马总结道。Obama’s ing lists are peppered with science and science fiction titles such as Elizabeth Kolbert’s “The Sixth Extinction,Atul Gawande’s “Being Mortaland Liu Cixin’s “The Three-Body Problem.”奥巴马的阅读书目中,穿插着一些科学读物和科幻小说的名字,比如伊丽莎白·科尔伯特(Elizabeth Kolbert)的《第六次灭绝The SixthExtinction),阿图尔·加万Atul Gawande)的《身为凡人Being Mortal),以及刘慈欣的《三体》。But Obama’s grasp of real science before becoming president was sketchy. He once admitted to a room full of scientists to not doing “well enough in chemistry or physics to impress you much on those topics.And some scientists who met Obama before the presidency said they were not wowed by his grasp of their fields.但当上总统前,奥巴马对真正的科学只有粗略的了解。有一次,他在一屋子科学家面前承认,他的“化学或物理”并未“好到在谈论这类话题时能让你们印象深刻的程度”。和出任总统前的奥巴马有过接触的一些科学家说,那时候,他对他们所在领域的了解,是让他们不以为然的。“His views at the time were just sort of developing,said Michael Oppenheimer, a professor of geosciences and international affairs at Princeton.“当时,他的观点在某种程度上还处于形成阶段,”普林斯顿大Princeton University)地球科学及国际事务教授迈克尔·奥本海默(Michael Oppenheimer)说。But he was always enthusiastic, several top government scientists said. Within days of his election in 2008, Obama became enmeshed in selecting those who would serve on his science advisory board.但政府的几位首席科学家说,他一直充满热情008年当选总统不久后,奥巴马就开始沉迷于为他的科学顾问委员挑选成员。“I was really surprised by the avidity of his interest,said Dr. Harold Varmus, who was a chairman of the board in its early days and was the director of the National Institutes of Health during the Clinton administration.“他的兴致勃勃让我十分惊讶,”曾在奥巴马的科学顾问委员会运行之初担任主席、还在克林顿治下担任过国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)院长的哈罗德·瓦默Harold Varmus)士说。Researchers on the campus of the National Institutes of Health were abuzz for months after Obama’s visit there in December 2014, when he spoke extemporaneously about a lab he had just visited using such terms as “gel electrophoresis,“microplateand “multiparameter flow cytometer.The crowd gave a quiet science roar.奥巴马曾0142月到访国立卫生研究院,此后好几个月,那里的研究人员都在谈论他的来访。当时,他即兴谈及刚刚去过的一个实验室,口中不时冒出“凝胶电池”、“微孔板”、“多参数流式细胞术”之类的词语。人群发出了科学界特有的那种不甚响亮的惊呼。“I’d seen his speech, so I knew his remarks were impromptu,said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “Boom, he starts talking like a fundamental basic scientist, and he just blew everybody away.”“我看过他的演讲,因此我知道他的发言是即兴的,”国家过敏及传染性疾病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)所长安东尼·S·福奇(Anthony S. Fauci)士说。“忽然间,他开始像个地地道道的基础科学家一样说话,让所有人都大为惊讶。”来 /201608/458134。
  • Union leaders have warned the government that Britain’s steel industry faces “catastropheunless ministers block Chinese attempts to achieve “market economy statusat the WTO later this year.英国工会领导人警告政府,如果政府官员们不能阻止中国在今年晚些时候获得世界贸易组WTO)“市场经济地位”,英国钢铁业将面临“灾难”。The warning came as Britain’s biggest steelmaker said it was cutting more than 1,000 jobs, prompting recriminations that the UK was failing to stand up for the steel industry in the face of a deluge of cheap Chinese imports.发出这一警告之际,英国最大钢厂宣布将削减1000多个工作岗位,此举引发指责称,面对中国低价倾销的洪流,英国政府未能维护钢铁业的利益。Tata Steel said 750 positions would go at its Port Talbot plant, the UK’s biggest steelworks by output and workforce, along with 100 jobs at mills in Trostre, Corby and Hartlepool and 200 support roles.英国以产量和员工队伍计最大的钢厂塔塔钢铁公司(Tata Steel)表示,塔尔特港钢厂将裁50个岗位,特罗斯特尔钢厂、科比钢厂和哈特尔浦钢厂将裁00个岗位以00个辅助岗位。The decision underlines the evisceration of Britain’s steel industry, which during the past year has either shed or outlined plans to cut more than 6,000 jobs from a workforce that was 30,000-strong at the start of 2015.这一决定突显了英国钢铁业遭到的重挫,2015年初时钢铁业就业总人数为3万人,过去一年该行业已裁减或宣布计划裁减6000多个工作岗位。It also feeds into a roiling debate over China’s place in the global economy as Beijing pushes for market economy status at the World Trade Organisation.该决定还为围绕中国在全球经济中的地位的激烈辩论提供了素材,北京正争取在世贸组织获得市场经济地位。来 /201601/424032。
  • Mr Buffett said he had paid income tax every year since 1944 following Mr Trump’s assertion that he had taken a ;massive deduction; during Sunday’s TV debate with Democrat Hillary Clinton.在上周日的总统电视辩论中,川普声称巴菲特得到了“大量减税”,而随后巴菲特则表示说他从1944年以来,每年都缴纳了个人所得税。In 1995, Mr Trump claimed losses of 6m (736m pound) to reduce his tax burden.1995年,川普声称自己亏损.16亿美约合7.36亿英,从而减小自己的税务负担。There is no evidence he did anything illegal.没有据显示川普做了任何违法的事。Mr Trump was asked during the debate by moderator Anderson Cooper if he had taken advantage of the ;carryforward; rule, which allows businesspeople to offset a big loss incurred one year against income made in subsequent years for tax purposes.在总统辩论中,主持人安德森·库珀询问川普是否利用了“亏损预报措施”,这一条例使得商人可以用某一年的巨额亏损来抵消随后几年的应纳税额;Of course I do. Of course I do, and so do all of her donors, or most of her donors,; he said, referring to Mrs Clinton’s supporters, before going on to name Mr Bufffett.川普说道:“我当然这样做啦。我的确这样做了,希拉里所有或者至少大部分捐助者们也这样做了。”川普在回应中指出了希拉里的持者,但是那时还没有说出巴菲特的名字。Mr Buffett said he had never taken advantage of the carryforward rule, in a statement on Monday.在周一的一份声明中,巴菲特表示他从未利用过亏损预报措施这一便利;I have paid federal income tax every year since 1944, when I was 13. I have copies of all 72 of my returns and none uses a carryforward,; he said.他说道:“从1944年以来我每年都缴纳了联邦个人所得税,那时我3岁。我保存着2年来所有的纳税凭,都未使使用过亏损预报措斀?”Mr Buffett said his 2015 federal income tax payment had been .8m after calculating gross income of .5m from which deductions of .5m, including .5m of charitable donations, were then subtracted. He also said he had given away a further .85bn to charity.据巴菲特称,015年的全部个人所得为1150万美元,减去包括350万美元慈善捐赠在内的550万资金之后,他一共缴纳了180万美元的联邦个人所得税。巴菲特还表示他将进一步向慈善机构捐赠28.5亿美元的资金。He suggested Mr Trump make his own tax details public, something the Republican candidate has so far refused to do.巴菲特还建议川普公布他自己的详细纳税记录,此前川普曾一直拒绝这一要求;I have no problem in releasing my tax information while under audit. Neither would Mr Trump - at least he would have no legal problem,; Mr Buffett said.巴菲特说道:“我完全可以向审计公布我的纳税信息。而川普则不可能这样做--至少他不会有法律问题。”Mrs Clinton has released her 2015 tax return, showing that she and her husband Bill paid a 34% rate of federal tax and a 9% rate of state tax on a total income of .5m.希拉里已经公布了015年的纳税信息,数据显示希拉里和其丈夫比尔·克林015年共收入1050万美元,他们为此一共付了34%的联邦税%的州税。来 /201610/470563。
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