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来源:安心门户    发布时间:2018年03月21日 09:22:23    编辑:admin         

Science and technology科学技术Fundamental physics基础物理学Antimatter of fact反物质现状Researchers at CERN have held on to anti-atoms for a full quarter of an hour欧洲核子研究中心的研究人员已经让反原子停留了十五分钟。READERS who were paying attention in their maths classes may recall that quadratic equations often have two solutions, one positive and one negative.关注数字课的读者们或许会想到二次方程通常会有两个解,一个是正值,一个是负值。So when, in 1928, a British physicist called Paul Dirac solved such an equation relating to the electron, the fact that one answer described the opposite of that particle might have been brushed aside as a curiosity.因此在1928年,一个名叫保罗·狄拉克的英国物理学家给出了有关电子的一个方程的解,然而事实上,这个结果表达的是一种相反的粒子,这个结果或许会被考虑后舍弃。But it wasnt.然而事实并非如此。Instead, Dirac interpreted it as antimatter—and, four years later, it turned up in a real experiment.相反,狄拉克将其解释为反物质—并且在四年后,在现实的实验中验了它的存在。Since then antimatter—first, anti-electrons, known as positrons, and then antiversions of all other particles of matter—has become a staple of both real science and the fictional sort.从那时起,反物质—最初是反电子,也就是俗称的质子,接着就是其他粒子的反物质—这已经成了现实科学和虚构类别之间的主要组成部分。What has not been available for study until recently, however, is entire anti-atoms.这样的研究一直以来没有突破直到最近的完全的反原子的出现。A handful have been made in various laboratories, and even held on to for a few seconds.在各个实验室已经有一小部分的反原子被发现,即便它们仅仅存在了几秒钟的时间。But none has hung around long enough to be examined in detail because, famously, antimatter and matter annihilate each other on contact.不过没有一个停留了足够长的时间用以仔细地研究他们,众所周知,反物质与物质只要相遇就会湮灭。But that has now changed, with the preservation of several hundred such atoms for several minutes by Jeffrey Hangst and his colleagues at CERN, the main European particle-physics laboratory near Geneva.然而随着在欧洲核子研究中心这个在日内瓦附近主要的欧洲粒子物理实验室里,该机构的杰弗瑞?汉斯特与其同事让数百个这样的原子维护了几分钟,原来的情况现在已有所改观。The reason this is important is that Diracs equation is misleading.狄拉克方程是一种误导这个原因是很重要的一点。Antimatter cannot be the perfect opposite of matter, otherwise neither would exist at all.反物质并不是完全的反物质,否则它将无法存在。If they truly were perfect opposites, equal amounts of the two would have been made in the Big Bang,如果实际上它们是完全相反的,那么相同的数量的反物质早在大爆炸产生时就已经互相湮灭了,and they would have annihilated each other long since, leaving only light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation to fill the universe.它们只以电磁波的形式留在宇宙中。That galaxies, stars and planets—and physicists to ponder such things—exist therefore means there is a subtle asymmetry between matter and antimatter, and that nature somehow favours the former.星系,恒星以及行星——物理学家在在仔细思考这样的事情—它们都已经存在了,这意味着在物质与反物质之间有着一些不可思议的不对称性,自然界在某种程度上是偏爱于前者。Two such asymmetries have indeed been found. But neither is big enough to explain why so much matter has survived. Being able to look at entire anti-atoms might give some further clue.两个这样的不对称性实际上已经被发现了。不过二者都不足以解释为什么如此多的物质存活了下来。对于整个反原子的研究或许能够提供进一步的线索。Last November the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, which Dr Hangst leads, managed to put positrons into orbit around 38 antiprotons—thus creating anti-hydrogen atoms—and then held on to them in a magnetic trap for a few tenths of a second.去年11月,欧洲核子研究中心由汉斯特士领导的阿尔法项目成功地将正电子放入了38个反质子周围的轨道中—因此形成了反氢原子—接着将它们放入了一个磁阱,持续了零点几秒。Now, as they report in Nature Physics, the researchers have used their device to preserve anti-hydrogen for 16 minutes .随着他们在《自然—物理学》发布报告,研究人员又利用他们的设备维持了反氢原子16分钟。This gives the anti-atoms plenty of time to settle into their ground state, the most stable condition a particle or atom can attain.这让反原子有充足的时间待在基态—这是一个粒子或原子能够达到的最稳定状态。As a result, Dr Hangst and his colleagues can look in a leisurely manner for novel ways that antimatter might differ from the common-or-garden variety.因此汉斯特士和他同事凭这种新奇的方式有充足的时间来观察反物质—这或许不同于平日的各种状态。Their first experiment will involve nudging the trapped anti-atoms with microwaves.他们的第一次实验将会用不同频率微波轻推被困的反原子。If the frequency of these microwaves is just right, they will flip an anti-atoms spin.如果这些微波的频率恰到好处,他们将会使这些反原子产生自旋翻转。That reverses the polarity of the atoms magnetic field and ejects it from the trap.这就会改变原子原来的极性和磁场,原子就会从磁阱中弹出去。The frequency needed to do this can then be compared with that which flips the spin of an ordinary hydrogen atom.这些测试的频率将会与翻转普通氢原子的频率作对比。If the two turn out to be different, it will point towards the nature of the mysterious cosmic asymmetry.如果两个频率是不同的,那么它将会指向神秘的宇宙不对称性。Besides being of huge interest, such a result would also have a pleasing symmetry of its own.除了巨大的兴趣外,这样的结果对于本身也将是一个值得欣喜的对称。The original discovery of antimatter was a nice example of theory predicting an undiscovered fact. This would be a fact that repaid the compliment by predicting an undiscovered theory.反物质的独特发现是理论预示未知世界这一说法的一个极好说明。这使得预测未知理论来获得人类的满意将成为一个事实。 /201304/235727。

l!mmC*RJ270sd|-09D*0Nbq1S|3H@KJzA lone wolf weighs as much as four coyotes,一只狼的体重是草原狼的四倍,but one on one its still no match for a bison.但是一对一,狼还是敌不过野牛%^|u4O#4~0s[%m.J5q|。Wolves, though, live and hunt in packs of up to 15不过成员数最多可达15只的狼群,and when they launch a cooperative attack, theyre devastating.只要同心协力发动攻击,将会无往不利eJWxrN~D6T。First they get the bison on the run, then filter out the weak一开始先让野牛开始狂奔,从中筛选出虚弱的,and vulnerable and select the perfect target.在挑选完美的目标*N@;Gbe~D2],。Striking together, wolves can bring down prey many times their own size.群起而攻的狼群,可以绞杀打他们数倍的猎物;z]So)D5nZFqBnQ6Q。A million such chases must have taken place across these plains像这样的追逐在大草原上,必定发生过百万次,and we can still find echoes of these distant life-or-death encounters.我们仍然可以发现这些远古生死际遇的回生[[^A5-k(H%o*WxQ)dB。Not all evidence lies locked in bone and rock.并非所有据都封存在骨头或石头中DanvhjPKod。These pronghorn antelopes among the great survivors of the ice age reveal a lot about the distant past.这些叉角羚也是雄奇的冰河期生还者之一,揭示着许多远古的记忆U6a~SE.kMPF#5P8。As well as being tough enough to stand extremes of temperature, theyre famous for their speed.他们坚毅强悍,足以撑过极为严寒的气温,并以它们的速度闻名|*|2#Q[y^U。A sprinting pronghorn can top 60 miles an hour and cruise at 30 for several hours.飞奔中的叉角羚时速可快达60英里,还能以30英里的时速续跑数个小时4,B5]YY3zA^DM。This kind of speed requires a very finely tuned physique.这样的奔驰速度需要非常优越的完美体格BQ1;(Ge49;WGj。Pronghorn have a massive heart and run with their mouths gaping open,叉角羚拥有巨大的心脏V[eOfN2f(BMR_[7。奔跑的时候,长大着嘴,forcing extra air into their huge lungs.吸入更多的空气进入巨大的肺部55xo;ZhE)@i%G7~@。But whats the point? No predator can run this fast.重点何在呢?没有掠食者能跑这么快.eA~g,ceRIOQ|。Even the wolves can only manage 40 miles an hour.就连狼跑起来最快也只有时速40英里o;47aoe+0Vs8Z。So why do pronghorn feel this need for speed?为什么叉角羚需要这样的速度呢?This is why—once there was a predator here that could outrun the pronghorn a cheetah.这就是: 这里曾经有过一种掠食者,可以追的上叉角羚和猎豹C@3pb]Kc!KtO2F+!o+。69pr)x1ka;FIsnYbZq5#s87VSnOkmwMn#Eb9WhHuyf201304/236985。

The spying trade间谍这一行Success by stealth“隐”者为赢What business executives can learn from intelligence officers企业管理者所能从情报官身上学到的Work Like a Spy: Business Tips From a Former CIA Officer. By J.C. Carleson.书名:《像间谍一样工作:前 CIA 特工教你“生意经”》作者:J.C. CarlesonTrading Secrets: Spies and Intelligence in an Age of Terror. By Mark Huband.书名:《行业秘密:恐怖时代的间谍和情报》作者:Mark HubandSPIES are often wrongly presumed to work in a shadowy and exotic world. In fact they are more like unusually crafty bureaucrats than James Bond. Their skills would be quite handy for business executives, according to J.C. Carleson, a former CIA officer. In “Work Like a Spy”, her gripping laymans guide to spycraft, she shows how adopting an intelligence officers mindset can make managers more efficient and better at handling people.人们常常认为间谍这份工作神神秘秘、认为他们总是活动于异国他乡,其实这种想法是错误的。实际上,与詹姆斯-邦德相比,他们更像是狡诈非凡的官员。前CIA 特工J.C. Carleson认为,间谍所掌握的技巧对于企业管理者来说相当受用。在《像间谍一样工作》一书中,她为大众介绍了间谍所掌握的技能,内容十分引人入胜。她为我们讲述了运用情报官的思维方式是如何会让管理者更有效率、更好地管理人力资源的。In her eight years undercover, Ms Carleson ran agents in hostile countries, getting them to risk their lives to steal secrets for America. Targeting and recruiting such people offers lessons in what might be called “strategic networking”: gaining information about customers and competitors. How do you make contact without seeming pushy? What is the hook, and what are the incentives? It turns out that offering consultancy fees and lavish entertainment rarely works; appealing to the ego is far more effective.在她八年的卧底行动中,Carleson带领特工在敌国活动,她让手下冒着生命危险为美国窃取机密。这些特工人选的寻找过程和招募过程会给我们些许启示,这些启示在管理中可被叫做“战略性人脉网”,即了解有关顾客和竞争者的信息。如何在不显得莽撞的前提下与人沟通?引鱼上钩的“钩”是什么?鼓励对方进一步配合的措施是什么?结果明:提供好处费或奢侈的款待很少能奏效;投其所好远远更加有效。While steering clear of real secrets, Ms Carleson gives an accurate account of how intelligence officers operate. Her “strategic elicitation exercise”, in which she pushes ers to get random information from a stranger, is particularly well described.尽管Carleson绕开了真正的秘笈不谈,但她准确地描述了情报官是怎么工作的。她对“战略导出练习”的描述尤其出色,在这种练习中,她迫使读者从陌生人那里获取任意信息。In a trade in which deceit is a tool, knowing when to be honest is important. Ms Carleson describes the ideal CIA officer as a “Boy Scout with a secret dark side”. Her terse remarks on ethics sound convincing, not preachy. She explains, for example, why fiddling expenses leads to instant dismissal in the CIA: if you cheat your country out of money, you may betray its secrets too. Readers doing business in places where sleaze is endemic will find these points instructive. It is wise to work out in advance the red lines you and your company will not cross—and make sure everyone involved knows what they are.在以欺骗为手段的间谍行业中,知道何时诚实很重要。Carleson把理想的中央情报局官描述为“表面老实,但有着不为人知的阴暗面”。她对伦理学所做的简洁听起来很有说力,但并无说教意味。比如说,她解释了为什么在中央情报局,如果一个人在公司开上做手脚,就会被立即开除—因为如果一个人骗了国家的钱,他就可能也会泄露国家的机密。如果你经商的地方欺诈行为泛滥,你就会感觉这些观点很有启发性。事先制定好你和你的公司不会超越的“红线”—并且确保所有规定涉及到的人知道这些“红线”是什么,才是明智的做法。While Ms Carlesons book highlights the skills of individual intelligence officers, Mark Hubands “Trading Secrets” gives a glimpse of what spy agencies actually do and how they are evolving to combat new 21st-century threats. A former journalist who now runs a security consultancy, he argues that undercover agents are often most useful not when they are spying on a countrys enemies, but when they are talking to them. He gives new details about the role that Britains Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, commonly called MI6) played in opening channels of communication with the IRA in Northern Ireland, and with Colonel Qaddafis regime in Libya.Carleson的书突出了单个情报官的技能;至于间谍机构到底是干什么的、又是怎样参与到打击21世纪人们所面临的新威胁中的,Mark Huband所著的《行业秘密》让读者得以一窥其貌。曾经是一名记者的Mark Huband现在正经营一家安全咨询公司。他认为通常来说,卧底最有用的时候,不是他们暗中监视一个国家的敌人之时,而是他们与其交谈的时候。对于英国秘密情报局在与北爱尔兰的爱尔兰共和军和与利比亚的卡扎菲政权打开了信息交流的渠道中所起的作用,作者给出了新的细节。Mr Huband also deals with fiascos, such as the political misuse of the sketchy intelligence available about Saddam Husseins weapons programmes. Spies rarely provide solid answers, he says, but offer confusing bits of a jigsaw puzzle of unknown size and shape. At best, secret intelligence removes an element of surprise from foreign affairs, but it rarely makes it clear what to do.Huband也会谈到失败的例子,像对于萨达姆的武器计划,情报人员得到的情报并不完全,结果这些情报被政府误用了。他说,间谍很少会提供可靠的,他们只会提供零零碎碎的令人困惑的信息,至于那些零零碎碎的信息所拼成的“拼图”有多大、是什么形状,谁也不知道。至多,秘密情报能让外事工作少遇到一些意料之外的事情,但很少会让人清楚该做什么。The picture he paints is tantalisingly incomplete. His reporting, based on his years as a journalist, hops across decades and between fronts, chiefly in the “war on terror” . He concludes that spooks are “awash with more information, insight and knowledge than ever before”, but that the “intrinsic power” of intelligence has waned. One reason is that some of the finest spies are being lured away by the private sector. It greatly rewards those with a background in secret government service—and not only because spycraft has given them exceptional people skills.Huband所描绘的图景并不完整,但很有诱惑力。他的报道基于他多年当记者的经历,内容跨越数十年、穿梭于不同的战线、主要集中在“反恐战争”方面。他得出的结论是:“现在的间谍所能获取的信息、所具备的洞察力和知识比以往任何时候都要多”,但是情报的“内在力量”已经衰减。原因之一是有些最出色的间谍被私营部门挖走了。私营部门会特别奖励那些有在秘密政府机构工作背景的人—不只是因为间谍工作赋予了他们超乎常人的与人相处的技巧。 /201405/301197。

So the other day I told you what I did over this summer. And I forgot to mention something pretty important,pretty big, I can describe it in one word, Oscar.昨天呢我跟大家分享了一下我的假期,然后我发现我忘了一条很重要很重要的消息 用一个词来形容呢 就是 奥斯卡My neighbor Oscar finally got his braces off. He has perfect teeth so he only has to wear the retainer for two years, so thats good.我邻居osca终于把他的牙套给取下来了 他现在牙非常整齐 所以只用再戴两年的固定架就行了 对他来说是个好事and in addition to that, I actually agreed to host the academy awards again this year.另外我确实答应了再次主持奥斯卡颁奖典礼So...I hosted in 2007, it was fun, it was an honor,and its a big decision,you know ,and I...I really...they called and said我2007年主持过一次 挺开心的 觉得很荣幸 当然啦这也是一个很重大的决定 所以他们来电问我是否愿意再度出山时how about it this year,and I was like,ehhh,its a big decision,and I want to think about it.我说 额 这是一个很重大的决定 我得需要点时间考虑考虑And the way I deal with big decisions is,I think a lot of people do this, I make a pros and cons list.我在做重大决定的时候一般都会列一个利弊清单 我相信很多人也都是这样的吧And I thought I would take you on a journey inside of my mind, which is scary, hold on.我本打算带你们到我得思维深处去逛一圈 可是太吓人了 先hold住And I though Id you some pros and cons from my list that I... so umm...我还是晒出清单 把主持奥斯卡的利弊念给大家听听好了This is my cvs receipt, this is not...这是CVS商店的购物小票 不是我的清单Thats...sorry.不好意思I keep that with me in case I have to return anything,at all times,always,even during...when I do a show, I always have it with me.我一般都会随身携带小票以防要退货 随时随地哦 哪怕是在录节目 也不例外Now its in my sock.不在兜里就肯定在袜子里了Thats where I keep my pros and cons list.我的利弊清单一般都藏在这Now Im gonna have to change my hiding place,because...不过现在我得再找个新地方藏了 因为Ok, so heres a pro: I get to perform in fromt of 60 millon people.好了 第一个好处是 我将会在六千万观众前一展迷人风采Con: Oh my god, 60 million people watch that thing.弊:额滴神呐 六千万人要看这个 压力好大pro: Ill be invited to all the cool oscar after parties.利:颁奖礼后我会受邀参加各大欢庆派对con: Id like to be tucked in by 7:30.弊:可是我想在7点半前就上床睡觉pro: Meryl Streep could get a record 17th Oscar Nomination.利:Merry streep有可能创造17次奥斯卡提名的逆天记录con: Hashtag were over it,Meryl.弊:我们已经无感了pro: A lot of fancy designers will wanna approach me and want me to wear a beautiful,expensive gown of theirs.利:到时候会有很多高端设计师来找我 想让我穿他们设计的大气上档次礼con: Aint no way in hell Im wearing a gown.弊:头可断血可流裙子不可穿pro: Ive done that before,the second time should be even better.利:我以前主持过一次 那么第二次的话应该会更受欢迎con: My second sitcom got canceled after five minutes.弊:我的第二部情景喜剧当年只播了5分钟就被砍了pro: If Im on stage hosting,I wont be sitting on my couch drinking margaritas.利:如果我在台上主持的话 我就不会窝在沙发里喝玛格丽特了con: If Im on stage hosting,I wont be sitting on my couch drinking margaritas.弊:如果我在台上主持的话 我就不会窝在沙发里喝玛格丽特了pro: The theater holds 3000 seats.利:整个剧院配了3000个观众席con: Its gonna take 45 minutes to dance throught all those aisles.弊:我得花45分钟才能在所有过道里都跳一遍Which is crazy,cause... look how... It doesnt take me that long to dance through here.那也太折腾了吧 因为 你们看看 在这里跳舞就用不了多久注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201310/259798。

South Korea’s education system韩国的教育体制The great decompression大减压There are perils for a country in having all your children working too hard for one big exam对一个国家来说,让所有孩子都为一场大型考试而精疲力尽是很危险的Oct 26th 2013 |From the print editionFEW countries have done better than South Korea over the past half-century. Within the span of a single working life, its economy has grown 17-fold, its government has evolved from an austere dictatorship into a rowdy democracy, and its culture, once scarred by censorship, now beguiles the world with its music, soap operas and cinema. Scholars enthuse about the speed and precocity of its “compressed development”.在过去的半个世纪,几乎没有国家表现得比韩国更好。在仅仅一代工作人口的时间跨度里,韩国经济增长了17倍。韩国政府也从严厉的独裁政权进化成了热闹的民主政体。韩国的文化原来被审查体制弄得千疮百孔,现在韩国的音乐、连续剧和电影席卷世界。学者们对这种快速且早熟的“高压发展”非常关注。The only people unimpressed by South Korea’s accomplishments may be South Koreans themselves. As our special report notes, the prosperity they enjoy has not relieved the competitive pressure they endure. To them, the country’s development is compressed in a different way. Its success is confined to a few big employers and industries. The country’s manufacturers are more impressive than its service firms, although these now generate most jobs. And in manufacturing its big, family-owned conglomerates (the chaebol) do far better than their small, hard-pressed suppliers.唯一对韩国的成就不以为然的大概只有韩国人自己了。正如本刊特别报道里所说,韩国人所享受的繁荣并没有缓解其承受的竞争压力。对韩国人而言,国家发展是通过其他方式实现的。韩国的成功仅限于几家大企业和大产业。韩国制造业表现要比务业好得多,虽然现在后者提供大部分的工作岗位。而在制造业中,几家大型的家族式企业集团(即财阀)的表现要比拮据的小型企业好得多。Unsurprisingly, ambitious young South Koreans crave employment in the thriving bits of the economy. Medicine, law, finance and government remain popular, but the chaebol now take the cream. Like the civil service and the professions, Samsung, Hyundai and their peers tend to hire people straight from the best universities, with little chance of entry later in life. This creates a double bottleneck in the labour market. There are only a few appealing employers to choose from, and only one realistic chance to join them. So youngsters spend ages padding out their CVs and prepping for exams—especially for the test taken at 18 which determines your university.毫无疑问,雄心勃勃的韩国年轻人都渴望能在经济中的强势方谋一份职业。制药、法律、金融以及政府职位依旧受欢迎,但财阀才是最。跟公务员和专业人士招聘一样,三星、现代等大集团喜欢直接从顶尖大学中挑人,不给年纪稍大的人留下多少机会。这就给劳动市场造成了双瓶颈现象。有吸引力的雇主就这么几家,而想加入他们,比较现实的机会仅有一种。于是,年轻人花大把时间炮制自己的简历,不停备考,尤其是准备18岁时参加的大学入学考试。This seems like a small thing, and many Western countries would kill to have South Korea’s problem: it is hard to imagine British or American parents fretting that their teenagers work too hard.South Koreacomes at or near the top of most international comparisons of ing, maths and science. But there are costs. A lot of effort goes into costly credentialism, rather than deep learning. The system excludes late-developing talent: blossom at 25, and it’s too late. And in the very long term it means a smaller country. The expense of educating children for the test is one reason why South Korean women give birth to so few of them. With the lowest fertility rate in the OECD rich-country club,South Korea’s greying threatens to be as rapid as its growth.这看起来没什么大不了的,许多西方国家对韩国能有这种问题羡慕得要死:很难想象英国或美国的家长抱怨自己的孩子太努力了。在阅读、数学以及科学方面的国际对比中,韩国人就算不是最优,也是名列前茅。但这是有代价的。大量的精力花在了追求文凭,而不是深入学习。这种体制排斥了那些大器晚成的人:25岁才开窍,太晚了。从长远来讲,这会导致国家人口减少。孩子应试花费过大是韩国女性少生育的原因之一。韩国的生育率在经合组织发达国家中是最低的,老龄化威胁的增长跟经济增长一样快。The indirect cure for education fever教育狂热的间接疗法Other education-obsessed countries in Asia face a version of the same problem. In the pastSouth Korea’s government tried to help parents by banning out-of-class tutoring. (The president of Seoul National University had to resign after letting his own child dodge the ban.) But such pedagogical prohibition is illiberal, and was anyway ruled unconstitutional in 2000. The answer lies not in the schools but in the overall economy—and in creating a more open labour market where more firms are interested in hiring people later.亚洲许多对教育偏执的国家都有类似的问题。之前,韩国政府想帮父母一把,制订了禁止课外补习的政策。(首尔国立大学校长违反规定,让自己的孩子补习,最后只能辞职。)但是,这种针对教学方式的禁令是违背自由精神的,而且在2000年还被判为违宪。要解决问题,关键不在学校,而在整体经济——要构建更开放的劳动市场,让企业有兴趣雇佣年纪稍大的人。 The government should do three things. First, scrap regulations that divide the jobs market into permanent employees, paid more than they are worth, and temporary workers, paid less. Second, it should encourage more firms, including foreign ones, into industries now dominated by the chaebol, expanding the range of alternative employers. And third, it should push the chaebol to expand into services, which they have diplomatically refrained from doing. Retailing, tourism, local transport: all these need some chaebol clout and efficiency.政府能做的有三点。第一,现在就业市场里有长期雇员和临时雇员之别,长期雇员能得到与其能力不相称的高薪,而临时雇员的薪资则达不到应得的水平,必须消除造成这种差别的规矩。第二,政府应鼓励更多企业,包括外国企业,进入目前为财阀所掌控的行业,扩大求职者可选择的雇主范围。第三,政府要推动财阀进入他们目前不想插手的务业。零售、旅游、本地交通等行业都需要一些财阀参与,增进效率。South Korea has astonished the world with its compressed development. For the benefit of hard-pressed parents and hard-working youths, it needs a bout of decompression.韩国已经以其高压发展让世界刮目。为了那些钱包紧张的家长和紧张学习的年轻人,韩国需要减一减压。201310/262699。

Science and technology科学技术What dinosaurs ate恐龙吃什么The belly of the beast腹中发现A chance discovery from China suggests some dinosaurs lived in trees在中国的一次偶然发现暗示着有些恐龙在树上生活WHAT dinosaurs ate is,恐龙吃什么?of course, a question as interesting and illuminating as what ate dinosaurs.当然,这个问题与什么吃恐龙?一样有趣,一样具有启发性。In the case of one particular dinosaur,Microraptor, the matter was addressed in a presentation to the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology by Jingmai OConnor of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, in Beijing.但就小盗龙吃什么这一问题,北京中国科学院古脊椎动物和古人类研究所的Jingmai OConnor在古脊椎动物学会年会上发表了演说。Microraptoris one of many small, feathered dinosaurs found in what is now China that were alive during the Cretaceous period more than 66m years ago.小盗龙,生活在距今六千六百多万年前的白垩纪,是现今中国境内发现的众多体型娇小、长有羽毛的恐龙之一。Being feathered, it and its kind were cousins to birds.这一种恐龙身着羽毛,是鸟类的近亲。The actual split between the two groups, though, had happened much earlier, during the Jurassic period, and by the late Cretaceous there were many species of bird around.尽管,这两种物种早在侏罗纪时期就已分道扬镳,而且,到了白垩纪后期,已出现了许多种的鸟类。What Dr OConnor and her colleagues have found is the remains of one of those birds, of an as-yet-unidentified species, in the stomach of a specimen of Microraptor.士OConnor和她同事在小盗龙样本的胃中发现了那时期鸟类的残骸,但其种类还未得到鉴别。That is interesting.那是非常有趣的。Discovering direct evidence of what a fossil animal ate,找出古生物吃什么的直接据是有价值的。rather than having to infer it from details such as the shape of its teeth, is always valuable.比起根据其牙齿形状等细节来推测出结果,But the finds true significance is a small detail of the preys anatomy:但是,这个发现真正重要之处却是其骨骼的一个细微之处:the third toe of its foot.它脚掌的第三个脚趾。The size of the preys third toe is important because, among birds, long third toes are helpful for grasping branches and perching in trees.捕食者第三个脚趾的大小是很重要的,因为,对于鸟来说,长长的第三趾可以帮助其抓紧树枝,在树上栖息。Indeed, the trait is so useful for arboreal life that it is used by many avian palaeontologists to decide whether newly excavated species of fossil birds lived in trees or on the ground.的确,对于树栖生物这一特点是相当有用的,而许多鸟类古生物学家也利用这一特点来确定新挖掘出的鸟类化石是栖息在树上还是生活在地面上。And the last meal of this particular specimen of Microraptor did, indeed, have a long third toe.而小盗龙的最后一餐显然长有长长的第三个脚趾。That elongated toe suggests to Dr OConnor that Microraptor, too,那细长的脚趾暗示着OConnor士小盗龙也是树栖的。was arboreal, and hints that its feathers may have helped it to move through an environment where hops, jumps and flaps between branches were a regular part of its daily activity.在一个需在枝桠间跳跃、滑行的生活环境中,它的羽毛可能对它的日常活动有所帮助。Whether the first birds evolved from arboreal or terrestrial ancestors is a matter of lively debate among palaeontologists.关于第一只鸟是从树栖还是陆生的祖先进化而来,一直是古生物学家激烈争论的话题。A fossil formed so long after birds emerged does not, in truth, shed much light on that debate.事实上,一个在鸟类出现很久之后形成的化石并没有使得这一论战明朗化。But it does suggest feathers may have helped promote life in the trees, even for creatures that could not actually fly.但是,这的确说明对于居于树上、即使是那些根本不能飞的树栖生物来说,羽毛可能真的有助于它们的生活。 /201306/242694。

The portraits of Edouard Manet爱德华·马内的肖像画Bold and strange勇辟蹊径,立异标新He worked to imbue his paintings with life as no photograph could马内画笔下的人物生动形象,照片难以匹敌THREE portraits share a wall. In one a dark-eyed, forthright beauty stares at the viewer; another features a scarlet-lipped, tormented woman ringed by an inky sea of grief. The final image is of a wary creature with a pert nose who shivers in her furs. Each is so different in mood and technique that it is remarkable that they were all painted by Edouard Manet between 1868 and 1874. More remarkable still, the sitters are the same woman: Berthe Morisot, a fellow painter. These paintings and others make a show of Manets portraits at the Royal Academy in London one not to be missed.面墙,三幅肖像画。第一幅,一位黑眼睛美人凝视前方,神情真挚,仿佛盯着观众;另一幅中,一位女子唇如烈焰,神情痛苦,四周弥漫着浓浓的悲伤。最后一幅,画中人鼻子小巧笔挺,一副小心谨慎的样子,在皮草里瑟瑟发抖。这三幅作品的基调与技巧迥然相异,却都是爱德华·马内在1868年至1874年间所创作的,实在了不起。更厉害的是,画中的模特儿是同一位女子:马内的同行—画家贝尔特·莫里索。这三幅画还有其他一些作品正在伦敦皇家艺术院的一个马内肖像画展览中展出,实在不容错过。On view are some 50 paintings and works on paper. Inspired by the dramatic masterpieces of Francisco Goya and Diego Velázquez (all those luscious blacks), and Frans Halss genius for portraying people with a gusto for life, these works trace Manets influences and his efforts to master a vision of his own. Grouped by theme, the portraits are spotlit against dark walls as if each was a jewel. Many are, though the curators could have exercised more discretion. A stronger show would have been a smaller one; arranged chronologically, it could have revealed more about the artist.展览有大约50幅油画及素描。这些作品是马内被弗朗西斯科·戈雅、迭戈·委拉兹开斯出色的大作所感染,又受佛兰斯·哈尔斯画人物栩栩如生的本领所启发而创作的,从中可以看出马内受到哪些前辈的影响以及他为追求个人风格所做的努力。这些肖像画按主题展出,挂在黑暗的墙上用聚光灯照亮,仿佛每幅画都是一件珠宝。其中很多确实被视为珠宝,不过馆长考虑得还不够周到。如果规模小些,展览会更有感染力,如果作品按时间顺序展出,人们就可以更加了解马内。Seductive, witty and intelligent, Manet was also financially independent. Few of these portraits were commissions. His pianist wife can be seen in several glowing, affectionate works, and Manet painted some arresting portraits of his friends. The canvasses of Victorine Meurent, a professional model, radiate a sexual charge. This is as true when she is wearing a simple shirt as when she is seen naked at a picnic in the company of fashionably dressed men in his famous painting “Le dejeuner sur lherbe”. Meurent inspired haunting and unforgettable works, including Manets greatest one, “Olympia”, which is unfortunately not in this show.马内本人迷人、诙谐、睿智,经济也比较宽裕。这些肖像画往往不是受人委托而画的。好几幅色鲜艳、充满深情的作品里,都可以看见马内那位钢琴家妻子的身影,马内还为朋友们画了一些出的肖像画。有些油画画的是职业模特维多利安·莫涵,在画中她散发着一种性感的魅力。这种魅力不论莫涵只穿一件简单的衬衣,还是像马内另一幅著作《草地上的野餐》那样一丝不挂地与衣着入时的男子们野餐,你都能感受得到。莫涵激发了马内的灵感,使他画出了许多深入人心的作品,其中包括最著名的《奥林匹亚》,可惜这幅画不在本次展览中。Manet hated the thought that his paintings would be seen jammed together. Here the hanging could not be more generous; a cynic might say stretched out. One gallery is devoted to a map of Paris. “Music in the Tuileries Gardens”, a freely painted park scene from 1862, has a room to itself. This crowded vision of men in top hats and women in fashionable bonnets is not actually a portrait, but viewers can make out the figures of Manet and Charles Baudelaire, a poet. Unstaged and exuberant, his evocation of the bourgeoisie at play has been called “the first truly modern picture”. It was brutally attacked at the time.马内不喜欢自己的作品被挂得密密麻麻地展出。而这次,展览场地可谓宽敞至极,有人可能会挖苦说简直是空旷。有个展厅专门用来展览一幅巴黎地图。《杜乐丽花园中的音乐》也有一个专门的展厅,画中人山人海,男士们戴着大礼帽,女士们戴着时尚软帽。其实这幅不算肖像画,不过观众可以从中认出马内和诗人查尔斯·波德莱尔。这幅活泼随性的资产阶级玩乐图如今被尊为“第一幅真正的现代画”,但在当时却遭到猛烈抨击。The critics shredded Manet. They mocked his inconsistent style; his refusal to respect conventions. Their vicious words were like “lashes of a whip”, Manet once wrote. Yet he had contemporary champions, including Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, a symbolist poet, and Emile Zola, a novelist. Younger artists, such as the nascent Impressionists, also admired him. Pierre-Auguste Renoir observed that Manet was as important to them “as Cimabue or Giotto were to the Italians of the Quattrocento.” His influence continues. Rineke Dijkstra, a photographer, credits Manet with helping inspire contemporary large-format portraits.那时,人士将马内批得体无完肤。他们讥讽马内的画风前后矛盾,笑话他不尊重传统。他们的毒舌就像“鞭子的抽打”,马内曾写道。但也有一些同时代的人拥护马内,包括波德莱尔、象征主义诗人斯忒法·马拉美及小说家埃米尔·左拉。年轻一代的画家也很崇拜他,如早期的印象派画家。皮埃尔-奥古斯特·雷阿诺说,马内之于其拥护者,就如契马布埃或乔托之于十五世纪的意大利那样重要。时至今日,马内的影响力依然未减。摄影师日尼科·迪克斯特拉认为,马内是现代大幅肖像画发展的功臣。As it happens, Manets own style was in part a response to the rise of portrait photography. By the time he was in his 30s it seemed “everybody” wanted such a photograph, himself included. He understood this presented a challenge for painters, and so he set out to make his portraits “boldly strange”, argues Carol Armstrong, an art historian. This show may not be without disappointments, but it offers ample evidence of why Manet is revered.当时恰逢人物摄影兴起,马内自己的画风多少受此影响。在马内三十多岁那个年代,似乎“每个人”都想要一张自己的照片,马内也不例外。美术史家卡罗·阿姆斯特朗认为,马内深知摄影给画家带来了挑战,于是他打算创作出“大胆而新奇”的肖像画。这次展览可能会有不尽人意之处,但也能充分说明为什么马内如此备受推崇。 /201406/302916。