时间:2018年03月18日 12:16:35

So, graduates毕业生们I hope that you understand that this day is not just the culmination of your own dreams我希望你们理解 今天并不只是你们自己梦想的实现but the realization of the dreams of so many who came before you今天同时也是很多前人梦想的实现And you should be so proud, and so happy, and so excited about your futures你们应当对自己的未来感到自豪 高兴和激动But what you shouldnt be is satisfied但你们不能够就此满足See, because原因在于while it is a wonderful thing that all of you are here today没错 你们今天都取得了很棒的成就we have to ask ourselves但你们需要想想what about all those geniuses who never get this chance那些没能得到这种机会的人们Im talking about the young people from right here in New Orleans我说的是新奥尔良以及全国范围内and across the country who arent part of a commencement like this one today没有机会参加这种毕业典礼的年轻人kids no different from all of us, kids who never made it out of high school他们很多人同我们一样 但却没有成功读上大学The fact is that today, the high school graduation rate for black students is improving现如今 黑人学生的高中毕业率正在改善but it is still lower than just about any other group in this country但相比国内其它群体仍然较低And while college graduation rates have risen for nearly every other demographic尽管所有群体的大学毕业率数字都在提高including African American women包括非裔美国女性the college graduation rate for African American men has flatlined但非裔美国男性的大学毕业率却仅与之前持平See, and the thing is, when our young people fall behind like that in school年轻人一旦在学校里落后they fall behind in life就会在生活中落后Last year, African Americans were more than twice as likely as whites to be unemployed去年 非裔美国人的失业率比白人高一倍有余They were almost three times as likely to live in poverty贫困率是白人的三倍And they were far more likely to end up in prison or be the victims of violent crimes成为暴力犯罪受害者或罪犯的比率也比白人高很多201503/366304

So how can a hormone ultimately affect the rate of aging?那么,激素到底是怎样影响衰老的速度呢?How could that work?原理是什么呢?Well it turns out that in the daf-2 mutants,原来在daf-2变异体中a whole lot of genes are switched on in the DNA有大量的基因被转变到DNA里面that encode proteins that protect the cells and the tissues,蛋白质编码保护细胞和组织and repair damage.和修复损坏基因的功能And the way that theyre switched on同时基因被转变的途径is by a gene regulator protein called FOXO.是被一个基因调节器的蛋白质叫FOXOSo in a daf-2 mutant --所以在daf 2的变异体中you see that I have the X drawn here through the receptor.你可以看到这个X型绘制图的受体The receptor isnt working as well.这个受体也运转得不怎么好Under those conditions, the FOXO protein in blue在这些条件下,蓝颜色的FOXO蛋白质has gone into the nucleus --已经转移到核心里面了that little compartment there in the middle of the cell --这个小小的隔室在细胞的最中间and its sitting down on a gene binding to it.同时也坐落在基因的粘合物上You see one gene. There are lots of genes actually that bind on FOXO.你看到一个基因。这里有大量的基因实际上捆绑在FOXO上And its just sitting on one of them.并且坐落在它们其中的一个上面So FOXO turns on a lot of genes.所以FOXO开启着大量的基因And the genes it turns on includes antioxidant genes,同时这些基因也开启着抗氧化的基因genes I call carrot-giver genes,这些基因我称呼它为胡萝卜者基因whose protein products这些蛋白质产物actually help other proteins to function well --实际上帮助其他的蛋白质的机能运转顺畅to fold correctly and function correctly.同时也帮助蛋白质融合和运转准确And it can also escort them to the garbage cans of the cell同时也给它们护航到细胞中的垃圾场and recycle them if theyre damaged.并且回收被损坏的蛋白质DNA repair genesDNA修复基因are more active in these animals.在这些动物身上更活跃And the immune system is more active.免疫系统也更活跃And many of these different genes, weve shown,我们展示的许多这些不同基因actually contribute to the long lifespan of the daf-2 mutant.实际上都作用于daf 2变异体的延长寿命So its really interesting.所以这是很有趣的These animals have within them带有这些基因的动物the latent capacity to live much longer than they normally do.比起普通的有活得更久的潜力They have the ability它们有能力to protect themselves from many kinds of damage,保护自身免于很多的伤害which we think makes them live longer.我们认为这使得它们活得更长So what about the normal worm?那关于正常线虫呢Well when the daf-2 receptor is active,当daf-2受体是活跃的then it triggers a series of events它引发了一系列that prevent FOXO来阻止FOXOfrom getting into the nucleus where the DNA is.进入到DNA所处的中心So it cant turn the genes on.所以基因不能激活Thats how it works. Thats why we dont see the long lifespan,这就是运作的方式。也就是我们看不到延长寿命的原因until we have the daf-2 mutant.除非有daf 2变异体But what good is this for the worm?但对线虫来说有什么好处吗Well we think that insulin and IGF-1 hormones胰岛素和IGF-1激素are hormones that are particularly active是特别活跃under favorable conditions -- in the good times --在有利条件下--好的时机下--when food is plentiful and theres not a lot of stress in the environment.当食物是充足的,没有很多压力的环境下Then they promote the uptake of nutrients.然后它们促使营养品的产生You can store the food, use it for energy,可以储存食物,用它来补能量grow, etc.成长等But what we think is that, under conditions of stress,但我们认为在压力条件下the levels of these hormones drop --这些激素水平会下降for example, having limited food supply.例如在有限的食物供给时And that, we think,我们认为那is registered by the animal as a danger signal,对于动物而言是个危险信号a signal that things are not okay预示什么不对头and that it should roll out its protective capacity.它们的保护功能就开启了So it activates FOXO, FOXO goes to the DNA,所以它激活了FOXO,FOXO进入DNAand that triggers the expression of these genes引发这些基因显现that improves the ability of the cell来带动细胞能力to protect itself and repair itself.从而保护和修复自身And thats why we think the animals live longer.这是我们认为动物活长久的原因So you can think of FOXO你可以想象FOXOas being like a building superintendent.为一个大楼的看门人So maybe hes a little bit lazy,或许他有点懒but hes there, hes taking care of the building.但他在那儿掌管着大楼But its deteriorating.但这是不好的And then suddenly, he learns that theres going to be a hurricane.突然,他了解到将有一场飓风So he doesnt actually do anything himself.所以他自己实际不做任何事He gets on the telephone --但他打起电话--just like FOXO gets on the DNA --就像FOXO进入到DNA--and he calls up他打电话给the roofer, the window person,修屋顶的人,修窗户的人the painter, the floor person.油漆工,修地板的人And they all come and they fortify the house.他们都来了,加固了房屋。And then the hurricane comes through,然后飓风穿过and the house is in much better condition than it would normally have been in.房屋比起它原本的要更加稳固And not only that, it can also just last longer,不但如此,它也可以很久矗立不倒even if there isnt a hurricane.甚至不是飓风来临So thats the concept here所以这的概念for how we think this life extension ability exists.就类似我们认为生命延长力的发生情形Now the really cool thing about FOXO关于FOXO真正有趣的is that there are different forms of it.是有不同种的FOXOWe all have FOXO genes,我们大家都有FOXO基因but we dont all have exactly the same form of the FOXO gene.但我们不是完全拥有同一种FOXO基因Just like we all have eyes,如同我们都有眼睛but some of us have blue eyes and some of us have brown eyes.但有些人是蓝色的眼睛,有些是棕色的201508/390792

Hi, everybody. Our country is home to some of the most beautiful God-given landscapes in the world. Were blessed with natural treasures – from the Grand Tetons to the Grand Canyon; from lush forests and vast deserts to lakes and rivers teeming with wildlife. And its our responsibility to protect these treasures for future generations, just as previous generations protected them for us. Since taking office, Ive set aside more than 260 million acres of public lands and waters – more than any President in history. Last month, we announced that 11 states had come together with ranchers, and industry groups to protect a threatened species – the sage grouse – without jeopardizing local economies. Two weeks ago, we announced that were creating one new marine sanctuary on the Potomac River in Maryland, and another along Lake Michigan in Wisconsin – part of unprecedented efforts to restore the Chesapeake Bay and the Great Lakes. We also joined a coalition of countries cracking down on illegal fishing that threatens jobs and food security around the globe. And Im going to keep protecting the places that make America special, and the livelihoods of those who depend on them. Well also keep doing what we can to prevent the worst effects of climate change before its too late. Over the past six years, weve led by example, generating more clean energy and lowering our carbon emissions. Our businesses have stepped up in a big way, including just this past week. Some of our biggest companies made new commitments to act on climate – not just because its good for the planet, but because its good for their bottom line. This is how America is leading on the environment. And because America is leading by example, 150 countries, representing over 85% of global emissions, have now laid out plans to reduce their levels of the harmful carbon pollution that warms our planet. And it gives us great momentum going into Paris this December, where the world needs to come together and build on these individual commitments with an ambitious, long-term agreement to protect this Earth for our kids. Now Congress has to do its job. This month, even as Republicans in Congress barely managed to keep our government open, they shut down something called the Land and Water Conservation Fund. For more than half a century, this fund has protected more than 5 million acres of land – from playgrounds to parks to priceless landscapes – all without costing taxpayers a dime. Nearly every single county in America has benefited from this program. It has bipartisan support in both the House and the Senate. Republicans in Congress should reauthorize and fully fund the Land and Water Conservation Fund without delay. After all, as Pope Francis reminds us so eloquently, this planet is a gift from God – and our common home. We should leave it to our kids in better shape than we found it. Thanks, and have a great weekend.201510/405834

Hi, everybody.大家好。This week, Ive been speaking about Americas national security—our past, our present, and our future.本周我想谈谈美国国家安全的过去,现在以及未来。On Thursday, I outlined the future of our fight against terrorism—the threats we face, and the way in which we will meet them.在周四,我提出了我们未来打击恐怖主义的蓝图,我们所面临的威胁以及我们如何应对的措施。On Friday, I went to Annapolis to celebrate the extraordinary young men and women of the ed States Naval Academys Class of 2013。在周五,我前往安纳波利斯与杰出的年轻人们一起庆祝美国海军学院2013年的毕业典礼,the sailors and Marines who will not only lead that fight, but who will lead our country for decades to come.水手和海军陆战队员们不仅将引领未来的战争,而且还将在未来数十年引领我们国家的安全。And on Monday, we celebrate Memorial Day.而在下周一,我们要度过阵亡将士纪念日。Unofficially, its the start of summer.在夏天还非正式开始到来的时候,a chance for us to spend some time with family and friends, at barbecues or the beach, getting a little fun and relaxation in before heading back to work.这是我们与家人和朋友共度时光的好机会,在重返工作岗位前人们可以一起烧烤或者去海滩,享受欢乐,放松身心。Its also a day on which we set aside some time, on our own or with our families, to honor and remember all the men and women who have given their lives in service to this country we love.这也是我们抽出时间与家人一起缅怀那些我们深爱为国捐躯英雄们的一天。They are heroes, each and every one.他们每个人都是英雄。They gave America the most precious thing they had—“the last full measure of devotion.”他们把自己所拥有最宝贵的献给了美国—鞠躬尽瘁、死而后已。And because they did, we are who we are today—a free and prosperous nation, the greatest in the world.正因为有了他们,我们才能有今天—世界上最伟大的自由繁荣的国家。At a time when only about one percent of the American people bear the burden of our defense, the service and sacrifice of our men and women in uniform isnt always ily apparent.回收往昔,肩负国家防卫重担的人只占总人口的1%,将士们的付出和牺牲总是不引人注目。Thats partly because our soldiers, sailors, airmen, Marines and coast guardsmen are so skilled at what they do.这部分是因为我们的陆军、海军、空军、海军陆战队以及海岸警卫队训练有素。Its also because those who serve tend to do so quietly.也是因为他们总是默默无闻,They dont seek the limelight.不追求聚光灯的映衬。They dont serve for our admiration, or even our gratitude.他们不是为了我们的敬佩抑或感激而役。They risk their lives, and many give their lives, for something larger than themselves or any of us:他们冒着生命危险,而且很多人献出了自己的生命,只为了一个比他们自己和我们所有人更伟大的目标:the ideals of liberty and justice that make America a beacon of hope for the world.那就是让美国成为世界希望之灯塔的自由和公正的理念。Thats been true throughout our history:而这在我们的历史上一切都有迹可循,from our earliest days, when a tiny band of revolutionaries stood up to an Empire, to our 911 Generation, which continues to serve and sacrifice today.从早先最小一部分革命家揭竿而起反对帝国开始直到911这代人,都是不断为了国家以致于牺牲生命。Every time a threat has risen, Americans have risen to meet it.而每当威胁来临,美国人民总是积极应对。And because of that courage—that willingness to fight, and even die—America endures.正因为有了这种勇于战斗、不畏牺牲的精神,美国才能渡过难关。That is the purpose of Memorial Day.这就是阵亡将士纪念日的目的。To remember with gratitude the countless men and women who gave their lives so we could know peace and live in freedom.满怀感激之心纪念无数献出了自己生命的将士们,我们因为他们才知道有和平,才能自由的生活。And we must do more than remember.而我们除了缅怀还有更多事情要做。We must care for the loved ones that our fallen service members have left behind.我们必须照顾好为国捐躯的将士们的家人。We must make sure all our veterans have the care and benefits theyve earned, and the jobs and opportunity they deserve.我们必须确保所有退伍军人享有他们应得的照顾和福利,以及工作的岗位和机会。We must be there for the military families whose loved ones are in harms way—for they serve as well.我们必须与军属家庭站在一起,因为他们的亲人正身赴战场为国役。And above all, we must make sure that the men and women of our armed forces have the support they need to achieve their missions safely at home and abroad.而且我们必须确保男女将士们得到应有的持,让他们在国内和海外安全的完成任务。The young men and women I met at the Naval Academy this week know the meaning of service.本周,我在海军学院遇到的那些年轻人们明白这点。Theyve studied the heroes of our history.他们也已经学习过英雄们的历史。Theyve chosen to follow in their footsteps—to stand their watch, man a ship, lead a platoon.而且他们选择追随英雄们的脚步,坚守岗位、守卫舰船,领导战斗。They are doing their part.他们正在尽自己的本分。And each of us must do ours.而我们也必须做好自己的事情。So this weekend, as we commemorate Memorial Day, I ask you to hold all our fallen heroes in your hearts.所以在这个周末,在阵亡将士纪念日,我希望大家用心去缅怀逝去的英雄们。And every day, let us work together to preserve what their sacrifices achieved.每一天,让我们彼此团结,珍惜他们用生命换来的一切,to make our country even stronger, even more fair, even more free.让我们的国家更强大,更公平,更自由。That is our mission.这是我们的使命。It is our obligation.也是我们的责任。And it is our privilege, as the heirs of those who came before us, and as citizens of the ed States of America.作为前人的后继者们,作为美国的公民,这也是我们的权利。Thanks.谢谢大家!201305/242221

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