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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年11月24日 04:28:51
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You introduce two of your good friends to each other in hopes that they, too, can become good friends. But when they start to bond in an unexpected way and hang out without you, might you regret introducing them to each other in the first place?你介绍自己的两个好友相互认识,希望他们也能成为好朋友。但有一天,你却发现他们的关系好到会忽略你单独,你会不会后悔当初介绍她们认识?Andrea Lavinthal, co-writer of the best-selling book Friend or Frenemy?: A Guide to the Friends You Need and the Ones You Don’t, told The New York Times in a recent interview: “Most girls won’t admit this, but they’d rather you hit on their significant other than their best friend.” Another writer of the book is Jessica Rozler.安德莉亚#8226;拉雯瑟和杰西卡#8226;罗丝勒合著的《朋友或友敌:如何找到你需要的朋友》一书极为畅销。近日,拉雯瑟在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示,“虽然很多女孩儿不愿承认这一点,但是她们宁可你认识她重要的朋友,也不愿把最好的朋友介绍给你认识。”Lavinthal said she once introduced two friends to each other over brunch. A few weeks later, she stumbled onto the two women having dinner together in a restaurant, and learned they’d been spending quite a bit of time together.拉雯瑟说,她曾在一次早午饭上介绍自己的两位好友认识,几周之后,她在一家餐馆撞见这两位闺蜜,才得知她们常常在一起(完全忽略了她)。“There they were in the restaurant, loving each other, probably talking about how I’m not funny enough or smart enough,” she said. “What do you say? Are you going to insist that whenever they hang out, you be there? That’s weird. Are you going to bring it up and be bereft? That’s an interaction so hard for girls.”拉雯瑟说,“她们一起在餐馆,相谈甚欢,也许还在一起说我如何无趣、不够聪明。如果是你,你会怎么做?坚持她们出来逛就要带上你?这要求也太奇葩了吧!或是任其发展,直到自己失去友谊?这些对于女孩儿来说实在太虐心了。”Feeling froggy跳背游戏:谁偷了我的朋友What Americans call “friend stealing” is “leapfrogging” in Britain. But perhaps there’s no need for us to make a fuss about being leapfrogged. Ronald Sharp is a professor of English at Vassar College, US, who co-edited The Norton Book of Friendship with Eudora Welty. Sharp said: “The anxiety about social poaching stems from an inappropriate or distorted view of what friendship is. It views friendship as a zero-sum game, or as an attempt to maximize your resources. It converts the natural generosity of friendship into a kind of investment.”对于“越过共同的朋友单独联系”这种情况,美国人称之为“偷朋友”,而英国人则叫它“跳背游戏”。不过,也许我们并不用对此太过小题大做。美国瓦萨学院的英语教授罗纳德#8226;沙普曾与尤多拉#8226;韦尔蒂合著了《友谊的诺顿之书》,沙普教授认为,“这种对于社交领域‘挖墙脚’的担忧其实是由于不恰当或扭曲的友谊观所致。它将友谊视为一种‘你死我活’的零和游戏,或企图通过友谊来最大程度丰富人脉。这些观念都让本身慷慨无私的友情变成了一种(自私的)投资。”Sharp added, “If you can’t trust your friend to have a relationship with another person you consider a friend, it’s a clear symptom of a problem in your friendships.”沙普教授还补充道,“如果你连介绍另一个人给自己的好友都不放心,显然你们的友谊存在问题。”So how do you deal with being leapfrogged? Sharp said: “Part of the burden is on the friendmaker to assure the insecure friend that everything is OK. But part of the burden should also be on the original friend not to be anxious about it.”那么,要如何应对“朋友跳过自己单独联系”的情况?沙普认为,“获得介绍、成为朋友的一方有责任安抚没有安全感的那个朋友。但另一方面,作为朋友们的介绍人,你也应该放宽心。”Take it easy and be patient. In Lavinthal’s case, patience paid off. She said of the two women whom she had introduced to each other: “They became better and better friends. It was weird for a while. But then somehow, organically, I got brought back into the fold. Their friendship cooled off a little bit, and we all found our way back.”别焦虑,要有耐心!从拉雯瑟的例子中就可以看出耐心的意义。她说:“看着那两个经自己介绍而认识的朋友关系日益亲密,自己确实有一段时间心里不舒,但是,渐渐地我又开始融入她们之中,随着她们友谊恢复平静,我们似乎又回到了从前的样子。”She added: “I feel like I’m the hot item again. They need me now. They need me to get back to the root of why they’re friends.”拉雯瑟还说,“我发现自己又成了‘香饽饽’,她们现在都需要我,因为我才是她们友谊的源头。” /201411/343909To my husband, my colleagues, my brother, and my friends who have the good fortune to celebrate Father#39;s Day, congrats. Where would we be without you?致我的丈夫, 的同事们,我的兄弟们,还有我的朋友们,祝你们父亲节快乐。如果没有你们,我们将会身处何方?The Toughest Things About Being a Father为父之怒 父亲节谈谈当父亲的喜怒哀乐 /201506/381743

Coloring books used to be an entry point into creativity for kids. But now they are becoming a viral craze among grown-ups who, similarly, don’t think they can really draw.原本用来启发孩子创造力的涂色书现在却成为不善绘画的大人们的新宠。“Secret Garden”, a coloring book for adults designed by Scottish illustrator Johanna Basford, topped the charts of Amazon’s Top 100 book list in the US, The Guardian reported last month.据英国《卫报》上月的报道,苏格兰插画师约翰娜#8226;贝斯福德为成人设计的一本涂色书《秘密花园》登上了亚马逊畅销书百强榜的首位。Secret Garden is a collection of black-and-white drawings you can fill with color. Like a treasure hunt, the book features all kinds of creatures, including beatles, songbirds, butterflies and sharks hidden in a garden. Since its release in 2013, it has sold more than 1.4 million copies in 22 languages worldwide, according to The New York Times.《秘密花园》是一本黑白画集,读者可为其上色。就像寻宝一样,书中的花园里“藏着”各种生物:甲壳虫、鸣禽、蝴蝶……甚至还有鲨鱼。据《纽约时报》报道,自2013年问世以来,这本书已被译成22种语言,总计销售140多万册。Not only this, half of Amazon.co.uk’s top 10 has been taken up by coloring books for adults. With themes ranging from nature and animals to classic paintings, coloring books have attracted adults of all professions.不仅如此,成人涂色书已经占据了英国亚马逊图书前十强的半壁江山,这些涂色书的主题从自然动物到经典画作,吸引着各行各业的成年人。Celebrities are crazy about coloring books as well. American actress Zooey Deschanel, 35, once shared a link about Secret Garden with her Facebook followers. Also, 27-year-old South Korean pop star Kim Ki-bum posted an image from the book on Instagram for his 1.6 million followers.很多明星也沉迷涂色书。今年35岁的美国女演员佐伊#8226;丹斯切尔就曾在自己的脸书上和粉丝们分享过一个关于《秘密花园》的链接。拥有160万粉丝的27岁韩国偶像金基范也曾在Instagram上晒过这本书的图。Part of coloring books’ appeal is their anti-stress benefits.涂色书的魅力之一就是可以减压。Secret Garden is “terribly therapeutic”, commented The Guardian. It’s nothing new that art has therapeutic benefits, and practitioners have used it with patients of all ages, CNN noted.《卫报》曾评价《秘密花园》有着“特别的治愈功效”。而CNN(美国有线电视新闻网络)则指出,艺术的治愈效果并非新鲜事,医生们早已经将其用于治疗各个年龄的病患。“If I switch off the phone, computer and TV and concentrate solely on choosing the right shade of blue, avoiding going over the lines and slowly filling up my page with color, all my other concerns, I’ve discovered, fade to nothing,” the London-based novelist Matt Cain wrote on The Guardian.“当我关了手机、电脑和电视机,集中精力选择合适的蓝色色度,当我放下小说创作,涂完整张纸,我所有的烦恼就会一扫而光。”现居住在伦敦的小说家麦特#8226;凯恩在《卫报》上如是写到。For those who are not good at drawing or painting, coloring books are a way to be creative.对于那些不擅长绘画的人而言,涂色书则是他们的“创作”良方。“You don’t have to sit down with a blank sheet of paper or, you know, have that scary moment of thinking, ‘What can I draw?’ The outlines are aly there for you, so it’s just something that you can do quietly for a couple of hours,” Basford told US-based NPR.贝斯福德在接受美国国家公共电台采访时表示:“(有了涂色书)你就不用坐在一张白纸面前,苦思冥想‘我能画些什么?’(书中)所有的轮廓都已经勾好,接下来的几个小时你只要静静地上色就好。”As for how to color the books, just pick up any colorful pencils, crayons, or markers at your disposal. But it’s recommended you use crayons.至于如何上色,你只需根据自己的喜好挑选不同颜色的铅笔、蜡笔或是马克笔就好。其中,尤其推荐使用蜡笔。“Despite how highly stressed you may be, the most important thing is to not use pen markers with alcohol that go through the paper. The proper thing is to use crayons,” Spanish cartoonist Antonio Fraguas told The Huffington Post.西班牙卡通画家安东尼奥#8226;夫拉瓜斯在接受《赫芬顿邮报》采访时说:“不管你有多大压力,都不要用满是酒精味的马克笔。蜡笔才是首选。” /201505/376122

  

  Beautiful women, it seems, really do find life easier。对美丽的女人来说,生活似乎真的更容易一些。Whether it#39;s in the office or in the courtroom, a new study backs up the belief that pretty women can broker deals more easily。据一项新研究实,无论是在办公室里还是在法庭上, 美丽的女人都更能驾驭一场谈判。This, according to the research, is because beauty overrides the brain#39;s reaction to fairnesss - a fact tied to a subconsciousness rooted in male evolution。根据研究表明,这是由于我们对美的感受会凌驾于我们对公平的反应之上——这种现象与男性在进化过程中产生的无意识心理机能有关。As part of the study, 21 male students at Zhejiang University in China, were asked to look at 300 photos of Chinese women。在实验过程中,研究人员让浙江大学[微]的21名男学生看300张中国女性的照片。A different group of men had judged half of the women as attractive and the half unattractive。在此之前,另一组男士已经对这些女性的颜值做出了评判,他们认为这些女性中有一半面容姣好,另一半长相平庸。The men were then teamed up with some of the women whose faces they had just seen while playing a computer game。接着,研究人员将这些男士与一组女士进行了分组搭对,之前他们曾和这些女士一起玩过电脑游戏,目睹了这些女士的容姿。In the game, they decided whether to split a small amount of money. At the same time, the researchers studied their brain waves and noted their response times。在游戏中,每组男女都能获得一小笔钱,他们要判断他们是否愿意跟对方分得这笔钱。同时,研究人员会观测这些男士的脑电波,记录他们的反射时间。They found men were more likely to accept bad deals from attractive women。研究人员发现,男士们更乐意于接受来自漂亮女性的不平等交易。They were also quicker to respond to fair offers from good-looking women and slower to respond to unfair offers。在面对漂亮女性时,如果分钱的方式是公平的,他们的反应速度也更快。而当分钱的方式不公正时,他们的反应速度则更慢。Meanwhile, brain scans revealed that men were more sensitive to unfair offers when the woman was unattractive, and felt greater reward when the woman was attractive。同时,通过他们的脑电波扫描,研究者发现,当男士们面对长相平庸的女性时,他们对不公平交易的反应更加敏锐。而面对面容姣好的女性时,他们在分钱过程中获得的满足感也更多。University of Stirling psychologist Anthony Little, who was not involved in the study told people,it was not entirely clear why we behave differently toward attractive people。并未参与此项目的英国斯特灵大学的心理学教授安东尼·利特说,对于人们为什么会对面容姣好的对象特别优待,人们还没有彻底弄清楚原因。#39;We appear to have a bias toward being nice to attractive people even when the rewards to ourselves, such as increasing the chance of a date, wouldn#39;t apply,#39; Little said。“我们倾向于对面容姣好的人更加友善,即使这样做收获甚微,比如说,并不会增加我们与这位漂亮女士去约会的可能性。”#39;This suggests our motivations to be nice to attractive people are unlikely to be based on conscious decisions to maximise our own benefits.#39;“这说明,我们对漂亮女士更加友善的行为动机并不是基于意识层面上的逻辑判断,即并不是基于让自身利益最大化的需求。”Previous studies have also found a pretty face can be a source of lifelong advantage - beginning at secondary school。之前已经有研究发现,拥有姣好的面容可能成为一个人能终身受惠的一项优势——这一优势从中学阶段就已经凸显出来。 /201507/384736。

  

  LEWISBURG, PA. — The 10 hibernating little brown bats hang from a corner of their tailor-made refrigeration chamber at Bucknell University like a clump of old potato skins, only less animated. In torpor, bats become one with their wintry surroundings, their body temperatures falling to just above freezing, their heart rates slowing to one or two beats a minute, their breathing virtually undetectable.宾夕法尼亚州刘易斯堡——10只冬眠的小棕蝙蝠倒挂在巴克内尔大学专为它们定制的低温舱室里面,仿佛几块陈土豆皮,只是几乎比土豆皮更缺乏生气。冬眠的蝙蝠会和周遭的冬日环境融为一体,体温降低至略微高于冰点,心率只有每分钟一到两次,呼吸几乎感觉不到。But suddenly, a male yanks himself free of the bunch and hops down to a dish on the floor. After taking a long, slow drink of water, the bat uses the claws on his folded wings to hoist himself along the wire mesh of the chamber, his motions angular, deliberative and spidery. A second bat rappels down for a drink, and then a third.突然,其中一只雄性蝙蝠一跃而起,跳到地板上的一只碟子前面。它不紧不慢地饮着水,半晌,才用它那折叠膜翼上的脚爪爬上舱室侧壁的铁丝网。它沿着倾斜的路线向上爬,仿佛深思熟虑的样子,那姿态有点像蜘蛛。第二只蝙蝠翩然而下,去喝水;然后是第三只。“Well, that’s a lucky break,” said Thomas Lilley, a tall and crisply composed postdoctoral fellow from Finland. “Multiple rounds of bat drama.”“真是太走运了,蝙蝠世界好戏连台,”托马斯·利理(Thomas Lilley)说道。这位清炯沉静的高个子学者来自芬兰,在这里做士后。As Bucknell’s de facto bat concierge, Dr. Lilley helps wild bats acclimate to life in captivity, a difficult task with an urgent spur. He and his colleagues are laboring mightily to understand white-nose syndrome, a devastating fungal disease that has killed at least six million North American bats since it first appeared in Albany a decade ago and that threatens to annihilate some bat species entirely.利理士是巴克内尔大学的蝙蝠大管家,他负责让野生蝙蝠适应笼舍的生活。这份工作很艰巨,又很紧迫。他和同事们下了巨大的工夫,研究一种叫做白鼻综合症的疾病。这是一种真菌引起的致命疾病,10年前在奥尔巴尼首次发现以来,北美地区至少600万蝙蝠死于这种病,一些种的蝙蝠几乎因而绝迹。Because the fungus attacks bats as they hibernate in caves, the researchers are exploring the complex biology of normal bat hibernation, and so-called arousal bouts turn out to be a big part of the puzzle, said Kenneth Field, an associate professor of biology.这种真菌是在冬眠期感染蝙蝠的,因此,科学家正在研究正常蝙蝠冬眠的复杂生理现象。其中被称为间歇性苏醒的行为成了揭开谜底的关键,生物学副教授肯尼斯·菲尔德(Kenneth Field)说。Hibernating bats will warm themselves out of torpor every week or two throughout the winter, for several hours at a stretch. Though researchers don’t yet understand the reasons for the thermal interludes, they have quantified just how important such thaws must be to bat survival.冬眠中的蝙蝠每隔一到两周,会醒过来几个小时。学者还不清楚这种体温升降周期的原因,但他们已经可以量化这种苏醒对蝙蝠生存的重要性了。“All the work that bats do during the fall, feeding nonstop and putting on fat until they’re like butterballs on wings, and 90 percent is spent to sustain the winter warm-ups,” said DeAnn Reeder, a professor of biology and one of the nation’s leading bat ecologists.“整个秋天,蝙蝠唯一的工作就是不停进食,储存脂肪,直到它们吃得好像黄油球长了翅膀似的,这些能量90%都被用在冬眠中的间歇性苏醒时了,”美国权威蝙蝠生态专家、生物学教授德安·里德(DeAnn Reeder)说。New research suggests that white-nose syndrome begins disrupting the arousal-torpor cycle long before any telltale white fuzz appears on the bat’s face and wings, and that the disorder really spins out of control when the bat’s immune system behaves in a distinctly unbatlike manner, mounting a zealous response against the fungal spores.新的研究显示,早在蝙蝠面部和翼上出现病态的白色绒毛之前,白鼻综合症已经开始扰乱它们的休眠觉醒周期。等到免疫系统开始出现迥异于正常蝙蝠的行为方式,对真菌孢子做出强烈反应,就已经病入膏肓了。Unbatlike because, as scientists are discovering, the bat immune system is astonishingly tolerant of most pathogens — a trait that could pose risks to people, but that also offers clues to preventing human diseases of aging, including cancer.之所以说这时的免疫系统异于正常蝙蝠,是因为科学家已经知道,蝙蝠的免疫系统对多数病原体有着惊人的耐受力。蝙蝠的这种特性会给人类构成威胁,但也为人类攻克衰老型疾病,包括癌症,提供了启示。Evidence is mounting that bats can serve as reservoirs of many of the world’s deadliest viruses, including the pathogens behind Ebola, Marburg and related hemorrhagic fevers; acute respiratory syndromes like SARS and MERS; and even familiar villains like measles and mumps.不断有据表明,蝙蝠可以成为世界上众多致命病毒的贮主,包括埃拉、马尔堡及引发相关出血热的病原体,还有烈性呼吸道疾病如SARS和中东呼吸道综合症的背后元凶。麻疹和腮腺炎也可由蝙蝠传播。Yet bats appear largely immune to the many viruses they carry and rarely show signs of the diseases that will rapidly overwhelm any human, monkey, horse, pig or other mammalian host the microbes manage to infiltrate.但是,蝙蝠对自身携带的这些病毒基本都可以免疫,很少得病。任何人类、猴子、马、猪和其他哺乳类宿主感染后都会很快病倒。Scientists have also learned that bats live a seriously long time for creatures of their small size. The insectivorous Brandt’s bat of Eurasia, for example, weighs an average of just six grams, compared with 20 grams for a mouse. But while a mouse is lucky to live for a year, the Brandt’s bat can survive well into its 40s — a disparity between life span and body mass that a report in Nature Communications called “the most extreme” of all mammals.科学家还发现,作为体型微小的动物,蝙蝠的寿命极长。亚欧大陆上的布氏鼠耳蝠,体重平均只有六克,一只老鼠也有20克。但老鼠活到一年已属长寿,而布氏鼠耳蝠却能活到40多岁。发表在《自然通讯》上的一篇文章称如此大的寿命与体重差异是所有哺乳动物中“最极端的”。Bats may be girded against cancer, too. “At this stage, the evidence is anecdotal,” said Lin-Fa Wang, a bat virologist at the Duke-NUS Graduate School in Singapore and the Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong. “But of all the bat biologists I’ve spoken with, I’ve only heard of one or two cases of bat tumors.”蝙蝠可能还不会得癌症。“现阶段,还只有零星的据,”新加坡杜克-国大医学研究生院和澳大利亚吉朗的澳大利亚动物卫生实验室的蝙蝠病毒学家王林发(音译,Lin-Fa Wang)说。“但我和这么多蝙蝠病毒学家交谈过,我只听说过一两例蝙蝠得肿瘤的案例。”Researchers are scrutinizing bat DNA and the details of the bat vocation for clues to what sets the flying mammals apart from other members of the lactating clade. Preliminary findings indicate that bats’ apparent indifference to the viral throngs they harbor, together with their Methuselah-grade longevity, probably arose from the adaptations needed to grant them the power of flight.科学家正在研究蝙蝠DNA和蝙蝠生理机能的细节,希望找到是什么让这种会飞的哺乳动物显得如此与众不同。初步的发现显示,蝙蝠对体内的病毒显得若无其事,寿命又超长,这似乎都与它们适应飞翔生活有关。Bat experts argue that a keener understanding of bat biology could not only help prevent the next outbreak of Ebola or other cross-species “zoonotic” infection, but also offer a fresh take on immune and inflammatory disorders like diabetes or heart disease.蝙蝠专家认为,更深入了解蝙蝠的生理机能,不但有助于避免下一次埃拉或其他跨物种疫情的大爆发,而且也会给免疫系统和炎症类疾病如糖尿病和心脏病的研究提供一个新的角度。Scientists warn against misguided calls in some areas for the culling of bats as a way to combat the risk of viral transmission, and they urge the public not to succumb to old-fashioned bat phobia that long linked bats to witches, vampires, demons and cobwebs.科学家呼吁不要在一些地区盲目扑杀蝙蝠,以为那样做可以降低病毒传播的风险;而且他们也敦促公众,不要被传统的蝙蝠恐惧心理影响,因为历史上蝙蝠往往和巫术、吸血鬼、恶魔和蛛网联系在一起。Bats play essential roles in the environment, researchers said. Insectivorous bats are the top predators of night-flying insects, including mosquitoes: Dr. Reeder estimated that for every million bats killed by white-nose syndrome, 692 tons of insects go undevoured each summer. Fruit- and nectar-eating bats are major pollinators and seed dispersers.他们说,蝙蝠在自然环境中发挥着重要的作用。猎食昆虫的蝙蝠是夜行昆虫包括蚊子的头号天敌:里德估计,每有100万只蝙蝠死于白鼻综合症,一个夏季就会有692吨昆虫不能被消灭。摄食果实和吸食花蜜的蝙蝠是重要的传播花粉、散播种子的物种。“A politician in Australia said, ‘Bomb the bats,’ ” Dr. Wang said. “But if you do that, you’ll destroy the ecosystem and then you’ll get more infectious disease, not less.” The risks from wanton batricide could well be immediate: Recent research suggests that bats are likeliest to shed viral particles when they are under stress and their numbers are shrinking.王林发说:“澳大利亚一个政客说要轰炸蝙蝠。如果你这么做,你会破坏生态系统,结果传染性疾病会更多,而不是更少。”过量施用灭菌剂的危险很可能会即时显现:近期的研究显示,蝙蝠在承受生存压力和种群缩小的情况下最容易传播病毒。Besides, wherever you go, there they are. With some 1,200 species under the Chiroptera trademark, bats are the second-most populous mammalian order, after rodents. “One in every five mammals is a bat,” Dr. Reeder said.况且,无论你到哪儿,蝙蝠无处不在。在哺乳动物纲翼手目下面,有大约1200个蝙蝠的种,它们是仅次于啮齿目的第二大哺乳动物类群。“所有的哺乳动物,五分之一是蝙蝠,”里德说。They’re found on every continent but Antarctica and range in size from the Kitti’s hog-nosed bat — which at an inch long vies with the Etruscan shrew for the title of world’s smallest mammal — to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, with a wingspan approaching six feet and a soulful face that Raina Plowright, an infectious disease ecologist and bat expert at Montana State University, likened to that of a puppy dog.除了南极洲之外的各大陆上都有蝙蝠分布,它们的体型从仅有1英寸长的基氏猪鼻蝠(和小臭鼬并称世界最小的哺乳动物)到巨大的鬃毛利齿狐蝠,翼展接近6英尺,有一张表情丰富的脸,蒙大拿大学传染病生态学家和蝙蝠专家雷娜·普罗莱特(Raina Plowright)说样子就像小。Scientists traditionally have divided bats into two big suborders: the fruit-eating megabats and insect-eating microbats, deeming the groups so distinct they might have evolved flight independently.科学家传统上把蝙蝠分为两个亚目:食果实的大型蝙蝠和食昆虫的小蝙蝠,认为这两个群体如此不同,一定是彼此独立进化出飞翔能力的。Yet a recent genomic analysis in the journal Science reveals that the ability to fly dates to the earliest days of the bat lineage, some 90 million years ago, and that megas did not split from micros for another 10 million years, after which the micros alone evolved the capacity for echolocation, to help them hunt their insect prey.但是,不久前发表于《科学》杂志的一个基因组分析显示,飞行的能力早在蝙蝠大家族形成之初就已经具备了,那还是9000万年前的事,之后又过了1000万年,大蝙蝠才和小蝙蝠分道扬镳,那以后,小型蝙蝠才独立进化出了回声定位的功能,用来猎食昆虫。The new study also described other important traits that bats of both suborders share. For one thing, researchers found an “unexpected concentration” of genes involved in repairing damaged DNA. Those fix-it factors, the scientists proposed, are the bat’s solution to the blistering demands of flight.新研究还发现了两大类群之间更多相似点。比如,科学家发现了一个基因的“意外集群”,这些基因和修复受损DNA的需要有关。科学家认为,这些修复基因可能是根据飞行生活的高强度需求而产生的。When a bat flies, its heart beats an impressive 1,000 times a minute, and its metabolism ramps up 15-fold over resting rate. By contrast, said David Blehert of the ed States Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wis., the metabolism of a running rodent is seven times normal, “and that’s only for a short burst, whereas a bat can fly at 15-fold metabolic rate for hours.”蝙蝠飞行时,心跳达到惊人的每分钟1000次,代谢水平达到安静状态的15倍。相比之下,啮齿类动物奔跑中的代谢水平只是安静状态下的七倍,威斯康星州麦迪逊美国地质测绘局国家野生动物卫生中心的大卫·布莱赫特(David Blehert)说。而且那只是啮齿类“短跑时的能量消耗,蝙蝠却能以15倍的代谢速率飞行好几小时”,他说。All that fiery flapping ends up generating a huge number of metabolic byproducts called free radicals, which could mutilate the bat’s DNA were it not for its extra-strength molecular repair crew. And countering DNA damage happens to be a great strategy for overall health, which could explain bats’ exceptional longevity and apparent resistance to cancer.如此高能耗的振翅运动,其结果是产生大量代谢副产品,被称为自由基。如果不是有超强的修复基因,自由基就会破坏蝙蝠的DNA。而且,对抗DNA受损的机能碰巧还是一个伟大的健康策略,可以解释蝙蝠超长的寿命和抗癌特性。Other clues to bat exceptionalism can be found in its molecular profile. Immune factors that serve as the body’s first responders have been ramped up, while immune molecules that in most mammals turn aggressive at later stages of an infection are damped down in bats.蝙蝠的分子特征也揭示着它们的独特性。作为机体第一道防线的免疫因子被极大地加强,多数哺乳动物体内在感染后积极反抗的免疫分子,在蝙蝠体内却被弱化。As a result, Dr. Wang said, “when a virus comes in, bats are very efficient at handling it, but they don’t overreact.” And the overreaction of the body’s immune system, scientists have found, often proves far more dangerous than the viral infection itself.结果就是,“病毒侵入后,蝙蝠可以高效应对”,王林发说。“但它们不会反应过激。”科学家发现,这种过激反应经常比病毒感染本身更危险。Researchers suggest that changes to the bat’s immune system originated as part of the heightened demand for DNA repair, and later proved valuable for its general life strategy.科学家认为,蝙蝠免疫系统的变化源于这种对修复受损DNA的高强度需求,后来也成为它们日常生存中的有价值的功能。Bats often live in colonies of hundreds of thousands. They travel long distances and are exposed to a staggering array of pathogens. They cannot afford to be flustered by every freeloading microbe, and for the most part, they do not.蝙蝠往往是数十万只结成群体生活。它们长距离飞行,接触到多种多样的病原体。如果每次染上一种微生物,它们都反应过激,蝙蝠会受不了。事实上它们也很少反应过激。That makes the lethality of white-nose syndrome that much more confounding. “Here we have an animal that can survive some of the scariest viruses we know,” Dr. Blehert said, “and it’s undone by a common soil fungus.”这就让白鼻综合症的致命性越发令人不解。“这种动物不怕我们已知的最可怕的病毒,一种普通的土壤里的真菌却能要了它的命,”布莱赫特说。He and his colleagues have found that, starting at the earliest stages of infection, afflicted hibernating bats begin burning twice as much energy as unaffected bats. Dr. Reeder and her colleagues have shown that bats with white-nose come out of hibernation twice as often as healthy bats.他和同事发现,在感染的最初阶段,冬眠的蝙蝠消耗的能量达到健康蝙蝠的两倍。里德和同事们也发现,染上白鼻病的蝙蝠从冬眠中苏醒的次数是健康蝙蝠的两倍。And while normal bats spend much of their arousal time resting, “sick bats don’t,” she said. “Instead, they’re grooming constantly, so their arousals are even more costly.” The ultimate blow may come from the bats’ immune response to the fungus, which preliminary evidence suggests is unusually strong.正常蝙蝠醒来后大部分时间安静不动,但“染病的蝙蝠不是这样,”她说。“它们不停地梳理毛发,因此它们消耗能量也更多。”最后的打击可能来自免疫系统对真菌的反应,初步研究发现,这种反应通常很强烈。“And that,” Dr. Field said, “could be what’s dooming the bats.”“那可能就是导致蝙蝠死亡的原因,”菲尔德说。 /201502/357414Peekaboo is a game played over the world, crossing language and cultural barriers. Why is it so universal? Perhaps because it’s such a powerful learning tool。全世界的婴儿都在玩躲猫猫,这种游戏已经跨越了语言和文化的边界。为什么这种游戏如此风靡全球?或许是因为它是一种强大的学习工具。Babies don#39;t books, and they don#39;t know that many people, so thesurprising durability and cultural universality of peekaboo is perhaps a clue that it taps into something fundamental in their minds. No mere habit or fashion, the game can help show us the foundations on which adult human thought is built。婴儿不阅读书籍,认识的人也不多,既然我们已经知道躲猫猫这种游戏的生命力持久性和文化普遍性,或许我们可以以它为线索,探索婴儿认知过程的基本要素。这是一种超越了人类习性和潮流的游戏,它能够告诉我们,成人认知过程的构建基础。Surprise element惊喜的元素Peekaboo uses the fundamental structure of all good jokes - surprise, balanced with expectation. Researchers showed this in tests involving a group of six-, seven- and eight-month-olds which sound like more fun than a psychology experiment should be. Most of the time the peekaboo game proceeded normally, however on occasion the adult hid and reappeared as a different adult, or hid and reappeared in a different location. Videos of the infants were rated by independent observers for how much the babies smiled and laughed。在躲猫猫这个游戏中蕴含着所有优质笑话的基本结构——惊喜,与之协调的期待。科学家们对一组包括6周、7周、8周大的婴儿进行了研究,孩子们的笑声使这场心理实验显得格外有趣,通过实验,科学家们应征了上述结论。大多数情况下,躲猫猫的游戏都进展的很顺利,即使一个大人躲起来后,出现的是另一个大人,或者大人躲起来后,出现在另一个地方。科学家们请一些与研究无关的成人来观察婴儿反应的录像,对每次婴儿微笑或大笑的程度出不同等级。On these “trick trials” the babies smiled and laughed less, even though the outcome was more surprising. What#39;s more, the difference between their enjoyment of normal peekaboo and trick-peekaboo increased with age (with the eight-month-olds enjoying the trick trials least). The researchers#39; interpretation for this is that the game relies on being able to predict the outcome. As the babies get older their prediction gets stronger, so the discrepancy with what actually happens gets larger - they find it less and less funny。在“非常规”的躲猫猫游戏中,虽然游戏最后出现的结果更令人吃惊,婴儿微笑或大笑的程度却相对较浅。不仅如此,随着长大,婴儿对常规的躲猫猫游戏的满意程度和对非常规的躲猫猫游戏之间的满意程度二者之间的差异会越来越明显(8个月大的婴儿对非常规的躲猫猫的满意程度最低)。研究者们解释说,这是因为,这个游戏之所以好玩,正是因为婴儿可以预期游戏的结果。随着婴儿长大,他们对结果的预期也越来越强,因而他们的预期和实际结果之间的不协调性也就越来越明显——他们对游戏也就越来越不满意。The secret to the enduring popularity of peekaboo is that it isn#39;t actually a single game. As the baby gets older their carer lets the game adapt to the babies#39; new abilities, allowing both adult and infant to enjoy a similar game but done in different ways. The earliest version of peekaboo is simple looming, where the carer announces they are coming with their voice before bringing their face into close focus for the baby. As the baby gets older they can enjoy the adult hiding and reappearing, but after a year or so they can graduate to take control by hiding and reappearing themselves。躲猫猫这个游戏经久不衰,全球风靡的秘密在于,它不仅仅只是一个游戏。随着婴儿长大,他们的监护人会根据婴儿的新本领调节游戏规则,从而使大人和婴儿都能在新的、大致相似而略有不同的游戏中获得乐趣。躲猫猫最开始只是一种隐而再现,监护人告诉婴儿他们要出来了,然后让婴儿能够近距离的看到自己的脸。随着婴儿长大一些,他们看到大人躲起来然后又出现就会很开心。但是一年之后,他们逐渐的可以掌控游戏了,他们就会自己躲起来,然后再出现。In this way peekaboo can keep giving, allowing a perfect balance of what a developing baby knows about the world, what they are able to control and what they are still surprised by. Thankfully we adults enjoy their laughter so much that the repetition does nothing to stop us enjoying endless rounds of the game ourselves。通过这种方式,躲猫猫的游戏规则能够与不断成长的婴儿眼中的世界达成并保持非常好的一致性,与他们掌控世界的能力,他们的兴奋点保持一致。谢天谢地,我们这些成年人是如此喜爱这些婴儿的笑声,以至于这种游戏的重复性一点也不妨碍我们一次次饶有兴致的聊以自娱。 /201503/362200

  

  

  

  The chubby, inert pet dog has become a familiar household sight in richer countries. And yet there lies a possible boon to the out-of-shape among us. A recent study suggests that being told one’s pet is dangerously overweight might provide the impetus that gets an owner moving.胖乎乎、慢吞吞的宠物已经成为富裕国家常见的家庭景象。但是对我们中间身材走样的人来说,这可能是一种福利。最近的一项研究表明,告诉主人他/她的宠物太胖、存在健康风险,可能会给他/她提供锻炼动力。It might seem that having a pet dog would result in considerable physical activity, and that’s true, broadly speaking. A 2013 review of studies related to dog ownership concluded that as a group, dog owners spend almost an hour more per week walking than people without dogs. Even so, a survey from 2008 conducted in Australia found that nearly a quarter of all dog owners reported never walking their pets. This population of dog owners, studies show, actually engage in less physical activity each week than people without a dog.养个宠物似乎会增加很多运动量。一般来说的确是这样的。2013年与养相关的研究表明,总体来说,养的人每周比不养的人几乎多走一个小时。即便如此,2008年澳大利亚的一项调查发现,将近1/4的主人说他们几乎从不遛。研究表明,这部分养的人每周的运动量实际上比不养的人还少。A majority of dog owners, of course, are deeply attached to their pets, whether they walk them or not. That bond prompted a group of scientists, veterinarians and physicians at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, in Bethesda, Md., and other institutions to consider whether people might be willing to undertake ahealth-and-fitness regimen targeted at their dog, even if they had little enthusiasm for such a program for themselves.当然,不管遛不遛,大部分主人都非常喜爱自己的宠物。这种情感联系促使马里兰州贝塞斯达健康科学统一务大学(Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences)等机构的一群科学家、兽医和医生们开始考虑人们是否愿意采取针对小的健康健身生活方式——尽管他们对针对自己的这种项目没什么兴趣。The researchers recruited 32 dog owners who visited a veterinary clinic in Maryland. Their dogs varied widely in age, breed and size, but all were overweight or obese and, by and large, sedentary. So, too, were most of their owners (although the only criterion for their participation was that their dogs be rotund). Half the volunteers were told by a veterinarian to watch their dog’s nutrition and monitor its health. The rest were told that their dog was overweight and needed more exercise. These owners were given specific exercise prescriptions, which generally advised walking the dog for at least 30 minutes every day.研究者们在马里兰州的一个兽医诊所征募了32名主人。他们的在年龄、品种和体型上各不相同,但都超重或过度肥胖,并且总的来说坐得太多。它们的主人大多也是这样(虽然唯一的参与标准是他们的超重)。兽医让其中一半志愿者关注的营养,留意它们的健康状况;对另一半志愿者说他们的超重,需要更多锻炼——兽医给这些主人提供了具体的锻炼计划,总的来说是建议每天至少遛30分钟。Three months later, the volunteers and their dogs were re-evaluated. Both owners and pets in the dog-walking group had lost weight. But more interesting, those who hadbeen told only that their pets were worryingly heavy also began exercising their pets and themselves. They reported walking far more often than they did before theygot health warnings for their dogs, and both they and their pets were thinner.三个月后,研究者重新评估志愿者和他们的。遛那组的主人和宠物们都瘦了一些。不过更有意思的是,那些仅被告知宠物胖得令人担忧的主人们也开始和宠物们一起运动了。他们说,与被警告存在健康隐患前相比,他们走路要频繁得多,他们和宠物都瘦了一些。The upshot, says Capt. Mark B. Stephens M.D., a professor of family medicine at Uniformed Services University and a co-author of the study — it was published in September in the journal Anthrozoamp;ouml;s — is that “love and concern for a dog can be a powerful motivation for exercise.” Which is not to say, he adds, that people should adopt a dog as a kind of fitness device. Unlike a tmill, Marley cannot be abandoned in the basement when you tire of working out. On the other hand, no device will ever be so happy to see you lace up your walking shoes.这项研究9月份发表在《人与动物》(Anthrozoamp;ouml;s)杂志上。美国军队卫生务大学(Uniformed Services University)的医学士、家庭医学教授马克·B·斯蒂芬斯上尉(Mark B.Stephens)是这项研究的合著者。他说,重点在于,“对的热爱和关心可以成为强大的锻炼动力。”他补充说,这并不是说,人们应该把养作为一种健身手段。你不能在厌倦锻炼时把小马利(Marley)像跑步机一样丢到地下室里。不过,从另一方面讲,没有哪个健身器材会在看见你穿上步行鞋后如此高兴。 /201501/351908

  

  About a year ago, I moved into my boyfriend’s house in a new city. I’m renting out my old house for income as I look for work. I pay my partner 0 each month to cover my utility expenses. He pays his cleaning person 0 a month to clean the house twice a month. I am not convinced that the house gets cleaned well, and I have plenty of free time anyway. I offered to clean the house in lieu of the money I pay him, which would save him and me 0. He refuses, claiming that it would be as if he were paying me to clean the house. Would that be so wrong? NAME WITHHELD, SANTA FE大约一年前,我搬到一个新城市,住进了我男朋友家里。我正在找工作,所以把自己的旧房子租了出去,获得一点收入。每个月我给男朋友100美元作为生活费。他付160美元让清洁工每月打扫两次房子。我觉得房子打扫得也不是很干净,而且反正我有大量空闲时间,所以我提议自己打扫房子,免交日用品费。这样他能省60美元,我能省100美元。但是他拒绝了,说那样的话,感觉像是他在付钱让我打扫房子。我的提议真的很有问题吗?匿名,圣达菲It’s not wrong. It’s a shrewd request on your behalf. But I think you’re overlooking the real reason your boyfriend doesn’t want to do this: It would make him feel uncomfortable in his own home. It’s strange to pay someone you’re romantically involved with to do work for you, even if the compensation is somewhat indirect. Furthermore, giving you this responsibility would place him in an awkward position should you end up doing a subpar job — he can fire a cleaning person, but he can’t fire his girlfriend.你的提议没有问题。从你的角度讲,这是个聪明的提议。但我觉得你忽视了你男朋友不想这样做的真正原因:那会让他在自己家里不自在。付钱给跟他谈恋爱的人干活会让他觉得很奇怪,尽管不是直接给钱。况且,给你这个责任会让他陷入一种尴尬的境地——假如你打扫得不够干净的话。他可以解雇一个清洁工,但是不能解雇自己女朋友。This is an ethics column, so — ethically — I’m on your side. But ethics can’t be the only consideration in a dispute that combines the personal with the professional. This really has nothing to do with morality. Your boyfriend simply doesn’t want to add an unnecessary power dynamic to your relationship.这是一个伦理栏目,所以从伦理角度讲,我站在你这边。但是在一个既涉及人际关系又涉及职业关系的争论中,不应该只考虑伦理。这真的跟道德没有任何关系。你男朋友只是不想在你们的关系中增加一个无谓的变数。MOWING UNDER THE INFLUENCE醉酒后修草坪I’ve been using the same landscaper for a few years now. On a recent morning, he and I happened to be at the gas station at the same time. He was filling up one of his trucks. As he started the engine, I noticed that he had a Breathalyzer device attached to the ignition — similar to the kind issued to individuals who have been convicted of D.W.I. I am starting to have concerns about my safety and my property. Should I ask the landscaper about this? Is it grounds enough to dismiss him? NAME WITHHELD, WHITE PLAINS我用同一个园丁好几年了。前不久的一个早上,我和他碰巧同时去了同一个加油站。当时他正在给自己的一辆卡车加油。他发动引擎时,我注意到点火开关上装着一个酒精测量仪——类似于发放给曾经被判酒后驾驶的人的测量仪。我开始担心自己的安全和财产。我应该问问园丁这件事吗?这是否足以让我解雇他?匿名,白原市First of all, I have no idea why you think a D.W.I. arrest would make this person unfit to tend to your garden. Are you afraid he will get loaded and overprune the petunias? Second, he seems to have the Breathalyzer device attached to the same vehicle he uses for work, so he can’t even show up unless he’s legally sober (I suppose he could theoretically bring a six-pack in his lunchbox and get drunk while he worked — but then he wouldn’t be able to start the truck and drive home). If you want to ask him about his arrest record, that is your right as a person. And if you both had signed a contract when he was hired, and its language included some kind of morality clause, you would be legally justified in firing him. But I see no reason that you would fire a man you’ve employed “for a few years” over a crime that has no relationship to what you’ve hired him to do and only surfaced because you were peeping inside the cab of his vehicle.首先,我不明白你为什么觉得因酒驾被拘留过的人不适合打理你的花园。你是担心他喝醉后过度修剪你的牵牛花吗?第二,他的酒精测量仪似乎是和他的工作用车连接在一起的,所以除非他从法律上讲是清醒的,否则他根本没法来工作(我知道理论上他可以在午餐盒里装六瓶酒,一边工作一边喝醉,但是那样他就发动不了卡车,无法把它开回家了)。如果你想问问他的逮捕记录,那是你的个人权利。如果你们双方签了雇佣合同,其中包括某种道德条款,那你在法律上有理由解雇他。但我觉得你没必要因为一个跟他的工作无关的罪行(还是你往他的车厢里瞟了一眼才发现的)解雇一个为你工作了“好几年”的人。 /201411/343588

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