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2018年03月19日 01:09:47 | 作者:120知识 | 来源:新华社
Many people believe that hours worth of events and activities can be dreamed about in a matter of seconds. Despite this common belief about how we dream, time in dreams actually is not compressed.很多人认为长达几个小时的事件或者活动,在梦里几秒、或者是十几秒钟就会一闪而过。其实不然,梦里的时间上并没有被压缩。If you dream of an activity that would take five minutes in waking life, you probably dream about it for a full five minutes. Dream and sleep researcher William Dement conducted two studies that demonstrated that dream time was similar to real time.如果你的梦里出现了一件生活中需要五分钟才能够完成的事件,那么在你的梦里,它其实也需要占据五分钟。睡眠与梦的研究者威廉·德门特进行了两项研究,明梦中对时间的感知和现实中的相似。Because dreamers eyes move under their eyelids very rapidly while they are dreaming, Dement was able to monitor sleepers and record the length of their dreams by observing their rapid eye movement. After recording this information, Dement would wake dreamers and have them write down a description of their most recent dream.因为做梦者在做梦的时候,眼球在眼皮下快速地转动,所以德门特能够通过观察眼球的快速转动来监视睡着的人,并来记录他们做梦的时长。记录完这些信息后,德门特便叫醒做梦者,并记录下他们对最近的梦的描述。He assumed that longer dreams would take more words to describe than shorter ones. When he compared the number of words in each dream report with the number of minutes the dream had occurred, he found that the longer the dream, the more words the dreamer used to describe it.他认为需要更多的文字来描述较长的梦,而较短的梦所需文字则较少。当他比较了每个梦境报告里的文字数和分钟数,发现梦越长,用来描述的文字就越多。In another related experiment, Dement woke sleepers while they were dreaming and asked them how long they perceived their most recent dream had taken. Eighty-three percent of the time they perceived correctly whether their dreams had been going on for a long time or for a short time. With these experiments, Dement concluded that time in dreams is nearly identical to time in waking life.在另一项相关试验中,德门特叫醒正在做梦的人,要求他们说出自己做梦的时间。不论梦境持续的时间是长还是短,83%的人对时间的把握很准确。通过这些实验,德门特总结到:梦里的时间几乎和现实中的时间一样。So the next time in your dreams you slay a dragon or fly from your house to your workplace, the amount of time it seemed to take is probably just about how long it actually took to dream it.因此下次做梦时,无论你梦到屠龙或者从住处飞到工作场所,梦中这些事情发生的时间也许就是你做梦的时间。原文译文属!201212/212708The first time Congress dealt with any issue pertaining to unclean air was in 1955. Prior to that, states had passed their own legislation dealing with the problems of impure air… most of it excess smoke from burning fields and clearing forests. But as industry and our nation grew, more people and more land were exposed to dirty air emissions from industrial smokestacks and automobile exhaust.国会处理关于空气污染的问题始于1955年。在此之前,各州自己制定法律,用以解决空气污染问题。过量的烟雾大多产生于田地燃烧和森林砍伐。但随着工业发展,国力增强,越来越多的人和土地暴露在工业烟囱和汽车排放的污浊空气中。By the 1960s, environmental issues had become a public concern, as scientific studies linked air pollution to specific health issues. The Clean Air Act of 1963 marked the beginning of federally funded air quality research programs to deal with increasing amounts of smog. Two years later, it was amended to include cars as a source of pollution. The Clean Air Act of 1970, the year the EPA was established, was even more robust, and subsequent amendments in 1977 and 1990 addressed ozone depletion and acid rain.到1960年,环境问题备受公众关注,科学研究也将空气污染与具体的健康问题联系起来。1963年的空气洁净法令成为联邦政府提供资助,进行空气质量研究以处理日益增加的烟雾的开端。两年后,这项法案的修正案将汽车纳入污染源范畴。环保署成立那年颁布的1970年空气洁净法令内容更加充实。1977以及1990年的后继修正案中重点提到了臭氧层破坏和酸雨的危害。Enforcing clean air standards has helped control pollution and reduce health hazards over the years, but the process of improving and amending this Act to keep our air clean is on—going, as the costs to industry must be weighed against the benefits to the environment. The Clean Air Act—one of the most complex and extensive pieces of federal environmental legislation—remains very much a work in progress.近年来,洁净空气法规的实行在控制污染和减少对人类健康的危害方面起到促进作用。然而,改进、修订这条法令的进程还在继续,因为良好环境带来的好处必须要与工业的损失相抗衡。作为联邦环境法律中最复杂,范围最广的条例,空气洁净法令还在如火如荼地进行着。原文译文属!201210/204450

Microneedles微针疗法Female: From fluvaccines to tetanus boosters, injections are a must in modern medicine. But do they always have to make you say Ouch?从流感疫苗到破伤风针,注射(的方式)在现代医学中是不可或缺的。但是它们是否就一定会让你尖叫呢?Male: Eh,no?嗯,不会吗?F: No,indeed.If new microneedle technology is successful, we may soon have needles that inject medicine without your even knowing it. How does this work, you ask?真的不会!如果新的显微针技术成功了的话,我们将很快享受甚至你都不能意识到的药物注射。你快问(我)它是如何办到的?M: How does it work?它是如何办到的?F: You feel things because of the nerves that are embedded in your skin. However, the entire surface of your skin is not covered. From a microscopic viewpoint, there is plenty of space between nerves where a super-tiny needle wouldnt be felt.你有感觉是因为你皮肤里镶嵌的有神经。然而,它却没有完全覆盖你的皮肤。在显微镜下可以看到,神经之间有很多空间,而在这里人们便感受不到微型针。M: No way!不可能!F: Way! Researcher Mark Prausnitz and his coworkers at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta have aly built micro-injection devices. Imagine a platform the size of your thumbnail, made of silicon, metal or glass. The surface is covered with a thousand needles, each no bigger than a period at the end of a typewritten sentence.可能!亚特兰大乔治亚理工学院的研究人员Mark Prausnitz和他的同伴们已经研制出了微型注射器具。试想它就如拇指指甲盖大小,材料是硅、金属或是玻璃。表面被一千个微型针所覆盖,每一个都还没一个句子中的句号那么大。When this chip is placed on your skin its like rolling in a briar patch—you are pierced again and again. But so small are the briars, you feel nothing. Because they cause no discomfort, microneedles may soon allow doctors to administer controlled amounts of medication over long periods of time. That would be a big step toward the precision medicine of tomorrow—and away from the big Ouch of yesterday.当这个芯片被植入到你的皮肤就仿佛是卷入到了荆棘区一样,它会一次又一次的刺你。但它是如此的小,以至于你什么都感觉不到。因为它们不会带来不适感。微型针很快就能让医生在很长时间内掌管在量上有控制的药物治疗。这对于告别以前的疼痛时代、对于将来药物治疗的精准性来说都是迈出了一大步。 /201209/202355

Netbooks arent better than anything, they are slow, they have low quality displays and they run clunky PC software. So they are not better than a laptop at anything, they are just cheaper. They are just cheap laptops. And we dont think they are a third category device. But we think we got something that is and wed like to show it to you today for the first time, and we call it the iPad.上网本什么都不如。上网本速度缓慢,屏幕显示差,运行的是笨拙的PC程序。所以上网本哪都不如笔记本电脑,除了价格便宜。上网本就是廉价的笔记本电脑。我们不认为上网本是第三类电子产品。但我们今天将向你们展示第三类产品,我们称它iPad。Its so much more intimate than a laptop and its so much more capable than a Smartphone with this gorgeous large display. So this is the lock screen and I unlock it the icons fly in. Lets go right to the web. So here we are at apple.com. And I am just gonna go to safari. I just touch the book marks icon and touch the New York Times lets say. And here we are, right at the New York Times. You can see how fast it is. And I can just scroll around here, and look at the whole front page of New York Times. Now if I want to reply to a message or go ahead send a message, I just hit a composed button here, and up pops its gorgeous keyboard, and lets say Scott F and F.S and.. Now there we go. Its that simple to do email on the iPad. Lets go to YouTube and I am gonna pick a clip but called ;Wet and Woofy; that I know is in the High-Def on YouTube, here it is. And again, I can even go a full screen here, going to landscape, thats all from YouTube. Is that incredible? All right, so thats YouTube, but again here is related clips and more from that person, and again whether its portrait or landscape. It just all works.它有一些类似笔记本电脑,比智能手机的屏幕更大。这是锁键屏保,我解锁,应用软件的图标飞入。我们来试试上网功能。这是苹果公司的网站。这是苹果浏览器,举个例子,我点击书签图标,纽约时报。这就是纽约时报。你看到它有多快了。只要滑动滚轴,就能看到纽约时报首页的整个页面。现在我想回复短信或者发送短信,我只需点击主按钮,时尚的键盘就会弹出。比如我输入Scott F and F.S和……发送。用iPad发送邮件就是这么简单。让我们去优酷看看,我会看一个名为“Wet and Woofy”的视频短片,这个短片在优酷上的点击量还挺高。我甚至可以全屏,横过来,这就是看优酷的效果。这是不是令人难以置信?没错,这就是看视频的效果,这边是相关的其他视频,这边是上传者的其他视频,不管是横着竖着都可以观看。I have to say though, watching it is nothing like getting one in your hands and feeling all of that just right in your hands, right underneath your finger tips. So lets go back to the hardware a little bit. The iPad is really thin. Its half an inch thin. And it weighs just one and half pounds. That is thinner and lighter than any netbook. And its got a gorgeous 9.7 inch IPS display, super high quality display using IPS technology, say you get great angle view as well, very high quality display. And as you know Apple builds the best capacitive multi-touch sensors in the world, marry to our great display, its terrific, super responsive, super precise. IPad is powered by our own custom silicon. We have an incredible group that does custom silicon at Apple. We have a chip called A4 which almost the most advanced chip weve ever done. That powers the iPad, its got the processor, the graphics, the IO, the memory controller, everything in this one chip and its screens. And you can have 16, 32 or 64 Gigabytes, a flash sorts storage inside the iPad. Its got the latest wireless networking, Wi-Fi, 802.11n and the latest blue tooth 2.1. And the usual suspects: accelerometer, compass, speaker microphone, its got a 30 pin collector so plugs into whole equal system of iPod accessories. And its got battery. What is the battery life of this remarkable device? Weve been able to achieve 10 hours of battery life. Its one and half pound device. 10 hours battery betweens I can take a flight from San Francisco to Tokyo and watch the whole way on one charge. Its pretty nice. And in addition to 10 hours battery life, it has over a month of standby life. So we can just set the iPad down and we go to sleep automatically, and we come back in a month we still have charge.我必须说的是,看着并没有把iPad拿在手里舒,真正地拿在掌下会有趣得多。让我们再回头看看硬件方面。iPad真的很薄,只有半英寸厚,重1.5英镑。比任何上网本都更轻薄。它采用9.7英寸的IPS显示器,应用得是IPS技术,视觉角度更好,画面质量更高。如你所知,苹果研发全世界最先进的多点触摸传感器,与先进的屏幕技术相结合,就研发出了最棒的,最珍贵的产品。iPad用得是定制的高端芯片。在苹果公司,我们有优秀的团队研发芯片。我们有A4芯片,这基本上是我们研制的最先进的芯片。这使得iPad功能更加强大,此外还装配有强大的处理器,图像处理功能,IO和存储控制器,芯片和屏幕包含了所有一切先进的技术。你可以选择16,32或64位字节,iPad中有一个flash存储库。iPad可以连接最新的无线网络,包括Wi-Fi 802 11n,和最新的蓝牙2.1。加速计,指南针,喇叭麦克风,iPad整体系统中加入了30个小应用。还有电池,这款神奇电子产品的电池怎么样呢?它有10小时的待机时间。iPad的电池重不到1.5英磅,10小时待机时间够我搭班机从旧金山到东京一路看视频。这真的很棒。另外,10小时的待机时间最长可以用一个月。也就是说我们可以关上iPad去睡觉,一个月后我们回来还可以接着使。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/184848

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