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乌市高新技术产业开发区自体脂肪隆鼻价格可克达拉市去除疤痕多少钱Don:Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag...唐:又到了《科学时刻》读信时间了......Yael:A listener writes: Dear AMOS, Why can some people learn a new language easily but others struggle?雅艾尔:一位听众来信:亲爱的《科学时刻》栏目组,为什么有人很轻松就能学好一门外语,而有些人却要拼命努力呢?Don:Good question! How many languages do you speak, Yael?唐:好问题!雅艾尔,你能说几种语言?Yael:Four.雅艾尔:4种。Don:Really?!唐:真的?Yael:Yep—English, Canadian, British, and Australian.雅艾尔:是的——美式英语,加拿大式英语,英式英语还有澳大利亚式英语。Don:Ha ha. Very funny.唐:哈哈。太有趣了。Yael:Sorry. But really, Im terrible at languages. But I have a friend who speaks like five. Shell travel some place and within a few weeks, it seems, shes asking for directions and having conversations in a completely new language.雅艾尔:对不起。但是,我在语言方面很差。不过,我有一位朋友能说差不多5种语言。她学习的方法就是到处旅行,用完全陌生的语言问路,与人交谈。Don:That could be because she has a large Heschls Gyrus.唐:那是因为她的颞横回较大的缘故。Yael:What?雅艾尔:什么?Don:Heschls Gyrus—its a brain structure about the size of a finger—one in the brains left side, one in the right. And scientists think that the bigger your left Heschls Gyrus, the greater your chances of being good at learning languages.唐:颞横回——一种手指般大小的脑部结构——分布于大脑左右侧。科学家们认为右边的颞横回较左边大时,你就越有可能学好一门外语。Yael:Huh—is that because the Heschls Gyrus plays an important role in how the brain processes language or something?雅艾尔:啊——是因为大脑在处理语言或其它事物时,其中颞横回扮演了很重要的角色吗?Don:Actually, no. Heschls Gyrus is usually associated with the basics of sound processing, like pitch and volume. But its not directly connected to speech.唐:实际上不是这样。颞横回通常与处理基本的声音元素有联系,比如说音高与音量。但是与言语没有直接关系。Yael:But wait—are you saying that if I happen to have a small left Heschls Gyrus I cant learn a new language?雅艾尔:但是等等——你是说如果我碰巧有较小的右侧颞横回,那我就学不了一门新语言?Don:Not at all. It might just mean that you learn languages differently. And, sure, it could mean that you dont learn new languages as easily as someone with a larger Heschls Gyrus. But you can still learn.唐:也不能这么想。只能说在你学习过程中会遇到一定的困难。当然,相比颞横回较大的人,肯定不如他们容易。但是你还是可以学会的。 原文译文属!201207/190538喀什切双眼皮多少钱 Science and Technolgy科技Climate and the solar cycle气候和太阳圈Chilling out in the winter sun在冬日的阳光中发冷Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层的变化能引发讨人厌的寒流THOSE unconvinced-and those seeking to unconvince others-of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis.不相信全球变暖是人为因素造成的和那些企图让别人不相信的人常常会将太阳的易变表现作为假设进行选择。A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case.一项新的研究正在致力于研究欧洲的严冬和日渐变暖的北极圈与太阳的变化活动可能的关联,似乎是为了明此观点。In itself, it does not, for the heat (or, rather, the cold) in question is being redistributed, not retained.实则不然,因为受人质疑的太阳热能(或者说冷能)一直在重新分布,而不是保持不变的。But it does point to two other lessons about climate change: that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by; and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.但这项研究却让人们从气候变化中学到了其他两点:影响因子的数据有时候很难得到;气候的电脑模型能够模拟出现在的气候状况,让人印象深刻。The suns activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy.太阳的活动周期是11年,在此周期内太阳散发出的紫外线总量的变化比太阳能总量的变化要大的多。The stratosphere, the part of the Earths atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to be particularly sensitive to the cycle.吸收大部分紫外线的平流层?——地球大气圈的一部分,在此周期内可能会变得异常敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience, Sarah Ineson of Britains Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Offices new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.刚刚在《自然-地球科学》杂志上发表的一篇论文中,英国气象办公室的沙哈.伊内森和她的同事用该气象办公室公认的新型气候改进模型,对其在冬天纪录的高紫外线和低紫外线数据进行比较,这些数据是由一架名叫SORCE的卫星收集太阳散发的紫外线量获得的。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler, because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank.伊内森士发现热带地区平流层中的紫外线含量低,因而就更凉爽,因为那里没有足够的紫外线可以吸收,也就意味着热带地区平流层的气温和极地地区平流层的气温差异很大。That changed the way the atmosphere circulated,这种情况改变了大气环流的方式。and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe.冬天,当大气环流变化散布到低一点的大气中时,自北极圈表层而来的冷空气很容易就能传播到南方,让北欧的大部分国家处于冰冻之中。These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters-which occurred at a time of low solar activity.这些状况和过去的两次发生在欧洲的严冬很相似——那两次严冬都发生在太阳活动频率很低的时候。The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada.而北极圈本身,无论是作为模型还是实际情况,都比平常要温暖,加拿大部分地区也是如此。In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.临近俄罗斯和美国的北欧则相反,显得比平时更冰冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before?为什么我们之前没有看出这种日光影响呢?To some extent it had.某种程度上,我们看到过。Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns.更早以前,对17、18世纪时太阳活动持续不活跃的那段时期所做的模型也体现了同样的结构。That models of todays climate had not was,但如今的气候模型却没有体现出来。in part, because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun.部分原因是因为对太阳圈内紫外线变化量的估计比直接从SORCE中得来的要低的多。SORCE观察太阳所得出的数据,比其他的卫星更为精准。It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.那么用更为接近实际的数据做模型或许更为可靠。This does not mean the question is settled.这并不意味着问题解决了。Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the suns variability, and if they were revised the link might go away.一些科学家怀疑SORCE的数据可能夸大了太阳的变化性,如果数据一经修改,两者的关联可能也不复存在了。There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too.还有其他一些理论也正寻求解释最近冷冬的原因。Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.研究员们说,他们想通过这些理论模型来改进预测未来冷冬的准确性,但看来并不那么容易。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit.尽管全球变暖让人们将模型视为未来的预言者,这却不是模型的最大作用。Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered, compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works.它们还有更大的作用,它们能观察当一个变量改变时(如紫外线)会发生什么,并与数据作比较,从而洞察出气候变化的机制。This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.这项新的研究为这种方法所能取得的结果提供了好的例子。 /201210/204902Silk蚕丝Silk is the strongest natural fiber in the world, as far as we know. Scientists long to understand just how exactly the silkworm manages the process of silk weaving, so they can replicate the process in order to manufacture such things as high-strength and high-performance materials for sports and law enforcement.蚕丝是史上全世界最强韧的天然纤维。长久以来,科学家想知道蚕如何产丝,然后仿效制丝过程,生产高强高性能的运动原材及执法材料。Though our understanding of the silk-making process is not yet complete, scientists do know that the key to making silk lies in the animal’s careful managing of the water content in its silk glands.虽然我们对制丝的整个过程了解的不多,但是科学家可以肯定关键在于蚕如何细心掌控丝腺里的水分。[1f7jb2.jpg]Silk gets its strength from its proteins. Parts of the proteins are hydrophilic, or water-loving; and parts are hydrophobic, or water-fearing. For some time it was a mystery how silkworms managed to convert these proteins into silk ths without the proteins crystallizing before the animal is y to spin them. Premature crystallization would clog up their silk glands, which would likely prove fatal to the little creatures.蚕丝的高强性是因为蛋白质。蛋白质部分是亲水的;部分是疏水的。蚕吐丝前,蛋白质尚未结晶,蚕是如何将蛋白质转换成蚕线一直是个未解之谜。而过早的结晶会阻塞丝腺,蚕很可能为此丧命。The answer lies in the silkworm’s slowly decreasing the water content in its silk glands and in the proteins’ ability to retain water, keeping the solution soluble up until it is spun. As the water decreases, the water-loving parts of the proteins fold together in chains, forcing the water-fearing parts together.奥秘在于丝腺里的水分逐步流失,而蛋白质可以储存水分,蚕在吐丝前先溶解于水。水分渐渐流失,亲水的蛋白质丝丝缕缕缠绕在一起,将疏水的部分也裹在一起。As the water level continues to drop, the folded chains of silk push together more and more to form larger and larger gel-like structures. All the while the water-loving parts retain enough water so that the solution does not crystallize prematurely, before there is enough of the material to begin spinning.水分继续流失,包裹在一起的蚕丝像滚雪球般形成凝胶状。亲水的蛋白质始终储存足够水分避免过早结晶。结晶后,蚕吐出蚕丝。 /201303/228653乌市打美白针一针多少钱

五家渠市治疗黑脸娃娃多少钱My understanding to myself is very different from other peoples understanding. So that was a very interesting experience.我对自身的理解与其他人很不一样。因此,那是一次很有趣的体验。 Ishiguro believes that in the near future, well all have our own robot clones.石黑浩坚信在不久的将来,我们每个人都会拥有自己的克隆机器人。 If we have our copy, we dont need to come to the company and the university, then we can stay at home and then other robot can work. Were going to improve the robot technology more and more, the robot will be very human-like.如果我们有替身,就不用亲自去公司、学校。那样我们就可以呆在家里,让机器人替咱们工作。我们将不断改进机器人技术,机器人也会越来越像人类。 Just how human will robots become? Will they ever reach a point where they will truly think for themselves? Its a little dangerous to sort of attempt to ascribe a verb like ;think; to a machine. Right now our computers are good at lots of numerical calculations. But they are still operating on programs that we wrote for them...机器人到底会变得多像人类呢?他们会进化到靠自己思考这样的高度吗?尝试赋予机器“思考”这个动词有点危险。现在我们的电脑很善于大量的数字运算。但是它们运转仍局限于我们为它们编写的程序里。 And future technologies will give humans the superpower of robots. For now, we are just getting metallic replacement parts. But soon, we may get an entire new body we can take on and off like a suit, an Exoskeleton, a wearable robot that gives an average person physical ability beyond any world-class athlete. The Exoskeleton is the creation of engineer Stephen Jacobsen. Strap it on, and you will be able to lift hundreds of pounds without breaking a sweat, walk for miles without getting tired and still move with speed and dexterity.然而未来的科技将给人类带来超级机器人。目前,我们只能利用金属替换零件。但是很快,我们就能获得全新的身体,能像外套一样脱掉穿上。Exoskeleton是一种可穿戴的机器人,可给常人节省体力,当然世界一流的运动员除外。Exoskeleton是工程师斯蒂芬·雅各布森的杰作。向上拉,你能不费吹灰之力提起几百英镑的重物,即使走几英里也不觉得累,同时仍能保持速度和灵敏度。 ;The Exoskeleton is an analog to the human body. It has structures which replace bones, has actuators which act as muscles. So the actuators on the system are cylinders that have hydraulic pressure in them thats controlled by these valves which are controlled by the computers. “Exoskeleton模拟了人的身体构造,有内部结构来取代骨骼,驱动器则相当于肌肉。系统内的驱动器就是液压气缸,可通过电脑控制活塞的运动来改变液压,从而控制驱动器。原文译文属!201207/190882新疆/医科大学第二附属医院激光去痘手术多少钱 A gene is a gene is a gene. But a single gene often has more than one job in the cell. Scientists working with corn genes know that first hand. In the beginning, they thought the Glossy 15 gene only gave corn seedlings a waxy coat. Much to their surprise, they discovered Glossy 15 did more than that. They could use it to make super corn plants.一个基因是一个基因。但是细胞内的一个单基因通常有更多作用。那些研究玉米基因的科学家掌握着第一手的资料。一开始,他们认为 Glossy 15 基因只能为玉米幼苗提供腊质胞壁。但出乎意料的是,他们发现 Glossy 15 的作用远不止如此。他们可以利用它生产超级玉米。When additional copies of the Glossy 15 gene were inserted into corn, the maturation process slowed down. This doesnt seem like it would be very helpful. Why would people interested in making better corn plants want them to mature more slowly?当把 Glossy 15 基因的复制本植入玉米时,玉米成熟得更慢。这看起来不太有用。那为什么对生产高质量玉米有兴趣的人会想要玉米慢点成熟呢?Because when the plants mature at a slower rate, they become much larger by the end of the season. Unfortunately, producing bigger corn plants does not mean more corn. It seems that seed maturation is slowed by the gene also. But corn is grown for more than its seed. Its biomass of leaves and stems is used to feed cattle.因为当植物以较慢的速度成熟时,他们于季末时个头会变得更加大。不幸的是,生产个头更大的玉米并不代表产量更多。似乎玉米粒也因植入额外的基因而成熟地更慢了。但是种植玉米是为了收获更多的玉米种子。玉米叶和茎则通常被用来饲养牲畜。Scientists also believe that because of the larger size, the new super corn would be an ideal energy crop to make ethanol. And super corn needs less nitrogen fertilizer, so its less costly to grow. Government Approval Scientists say the government needs to approve their new super corn, but they feel using Glossy 15 is a great way to safely improve corn production because they are using a gene that is aly in the corn plant.科学家们也认为,新型的玉米个头更大,所以它们会是制造乙醇的理想的能源作物。超级玉米需要的化肥更少,因此种植成本更低。科学家们说道,政府持他们种植超级玉米,并认为利用 Glossy 15 基因技术是改进玉米生产的很好的方法,因为他们所要利用的基因玉米本身就有。It looks like its only a matter of time until you can thank the Glossy 15 gene for the steak on your plate or that gallon of ethanol in your tank.似乎,利用 Glossy 15 基因技术来改变生活只是时间的问题,到时候吃着盘里的牛排,用着油缸里的乙醇燃料时要记得感谢哦。原文译文属!201301/219335乌鲁木齐/铁路中心医院祛眼袋手术多少钱

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