原标题: 新疆/医科大学第二附属医院去眼袋多少钱光明大全
Books and Arts; Book Review;History of diplomacy;Dealing with the enemy;文艺;书评;外交往事;应敌之策;George Kennan invented the American post-war policy of “containment” of the Soviet Union. His biography, 30 years in the making, fills in the detail;乔治·凯南是战后美国对苏“遏制”政策的始作俑者。他这本耗时30年而成的传记,充满了“遏制”政策的点点滴滴;George F. Kennan: An American Life. By John Lewis Gaddis.乔治·凯南:大国之策 约翰·加迪斯著。Three decades ago George Kennan— former American ambassador to Moscow, multilingual diplomat and conceptualiser of “containment”, the heart of his countrys foreign policy towards the Soviet Union—agreed to allow an American cold-war historian, John Lewis Gaddis, to serve as his biographer. Kennan had decamped from public service to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton more than 20 years earlier and was aly 78 years old. When he began giving Mr Gaddis interviews and stacks of personal papers in 1981, their understanding was that the biography would appear in the presumably not-too-distant future after the elder mans passing.三十年前,乔治·凯南—前美国驻莫斯科大使,掌握多种语言的外交官,美国对苏外交核心“遏制”政策的始作俑者—同意由美国冷战历史学者约翰·加迪斯为其撰写传记。那时,已78岁高龄的乔治·凯南,早退出政界在普林斯顿高级研究院从事研究已超过二十个年头。1981年起乔治·凯南开始与约翰·加迪斯会面并给予后者大堆个人资料,两人商定乔治·凯南的传记将在其过世后不久的将来面世。Decades of interviews later, Mr Gaddis, who is now 70, had become accustomed to his students “speculating sombrely about which of us might go first”. Even Kennan felt sorry for “poor John”; in 2003 he lamented the “serious burden” of his own “unnatural longevity”. It was only in 2005, when death finally claimed Kennan at the age of 101, that Mr Gaddis could begin thinking about publishing this long-awaited biography.自两人会面后的几十年里,如今已古稀之年的约翰·加迪斯已经习惯了让他的学生们“严肃地预测一下我们两个谁会先走一步“。即便是乔治·凯南也对约翰·加迪斯心怀愧疚;2003年他曾为自己的“超然长寿”带来的“不堪重负”而悲叹不已。2005年,101岁的乔治·凯南终于等到了生命的终点,也是从那时起,约翰·加迪斯才可以开始考虑出版这本经历了漫长等待的传记了。The extraordinary length of the books gestation meant that much changed between conception and publication. Had it appeared in the mid-1980s, the context would have been cold-war stalemate; in the early 1990s, celebration; a decade ago in 2001, concern about terrorism. Because “George F. Kennan: An American Life” finally arrives in the uneasy year of 2011, its context is economic misery and questions about the future of American dominance in international affairs.这本书无与伦比的超长“妊娠期”意味着其起初构思与最终出版之间的多次变更。在书中,80年代中期的背景主要是冷战僵局;90年代早期是庆祝冷战胜利;2001年之后的十年主要涉及反恐。熬到了经历漫长艰辛最终出版的2011年,背景则又成了经济困局和对美国将来是否能主导全球事务的疑问。Mr Gaddis is unequivocal on this topic. He told the New York Times in 2004 that “American imperial power…has been a remarkable force for good, for democracy, for prosperity.” He has also expressed his admiration for the former presidents, Ronald Reagan and George Bush junior, and their versions of “grand strategy”, a topic he now teaches at Yale University. All of these developments have naturally given rise to much speculation. Could Mr Gaddis, who admits that he speaks no foreign languages, get on top of the mountain of material and do credit to such an international polymath? Would his own views emerge along with Kennans? The 784-page answer to both these questions is yes.约翰·加迪斯对每一个话题都不含糊。2004年他曾告诉《纽约时报》的记者:“美利坚帝国有种非常不平凡的力量,一种使之优秀、民主、繁荣的力量。”同时他也表达了对前总统里根和小布什以及他们的“伟大战略”的敬佩之意,这也是他在耶鲁大学教授的课题。这些言语自然引起了人们进一步的猜测。承认自己不懂外语的约翰·加迪斯,能否征堆积如山的资料,为乔治·凯南这样的国际大家赢得赞颂?他的观点是否来自乔治·凯南?这部厚达784页的作品肯定的回答了这两个问题。Mr Gaddis has mastered the sources that came his way over the decades. The resulting biography is engaging and lucid. The first half of the book almost has the sweep of a novel. Readers join Kennan in Germany as the Nazis rise; in Norway in 1931 as the awkward young man meets the parents of his fiancée, to whom he would remain married for 73 years; in the Soviet Union in 1933 as he establishes the first American embassy; in Czechoslovakia as Adolf Hitler arrives and the world descends into another war; and back in Moscow again in 1945 when he receives skin-crawling personal compliments from Joseph Stalin on his Russian language skills. The chapter detailing Kennans breakthrough—achieved by redesigning American foreign policy at a stroke, via his 5,000-word “Long Telegram” from Moscow to Washington, DC, in 1946—is particularly gripping. As he himself put it: “My reputation was made. My voice now carried.”约翰·加迪斯掌握着几十年里符合自己观点的资源,所创作出的传记引人入胜又清晰明了。传记的前半部读起来几乎就是一部小说的翻版。读者们一起与乔治·凯南在纳粹兴起时造访德国;1931年在挪威,一起与这位笨拙的青年会见之后陪伴了他73载未婚妻的父母;1933年与之一起建立美国第一个驻苏联大使馆;和他一道与希特勒一起来到捷克斯洛伐克并目睹了第二次世界大战;之后又一块在斯大林对其俄语技巧令人起鸡皮疙瘩般的恭维下于1945年返回莫斯科。而描写乔治·凯南事业取得重大突破的章节—在1946年通过其从莫斯科发往华盛顿的5,000字“长电”,一举改写了美国外交政策—尤为精。就如同乔治·凯南自己给自己的评价一样:“功成名就,四海扬声。”Before this, Kennan was a promising young officer in the American foreign service; after it, he joined the top ranks of American strategists. His arguments convinced the Truman administration that efforts to continue wartime co-operation with Russia were fruitless. America should recognise the Soviet Union as a new kind of enemy, one seeking to destroy “our traditional way of life”. Rather than fighting a conventional war, America would need to contain Soviet hostility firmly and consistently over the long term. As America resisted Moscow more and more, Kennan felt it was crucial that his country maintain the “health and vigour of our own society” and not become a garrison state.而在那之前,乔治·凯南不过是美国外交界里颇有前途的小青年,之后则位列顶级战略家之层。他的论据实了杜鲁门政府继续与苏联战时合作的努力终究无果。美国应当把苏联做为一个新的,一个试图摧毁“我们传统的生活方式”的敌人来认识,应当放弃传统的战争方式,坚决地包纳苏联的敌意并长期持之以恒。随着美苏争霸的愈演愈烈,乔治·凯南意识到,对美国来讲最关键的是保持“我们这个社会的健康与活力”而不是变成一个堡垒式的国家。After the “Long Telegram”, Kennan returned to Washington and founded the State Departments influential Policy Planning Staff. But, according to Mr Gaddis, his prestige had peaked by 1948. After that, Kennan became increasingly sidelined for opposing what he judged to be excessive militarisation of his containment strategy. Yet he continued to condemn overly militarised policies for the rest of his life.“长电”之后,乔治·凯南返回华盛顿,组建了国务院颇具影响力的机构政策计划处。不过根据约翰·加迪斯的讲述,其名望在1948年达到了顶峰。之后由于抵制其认为的过度军事化遏制政策而逐步边缘化。而乔治·凯南终其余生都在谴责过度军事化的政策。Kennan took particular offence at the attitude of the Reagan administration, which he viewed as “simply childish, inexcusably childish, unworthy of people charged with the responsibility for conducting the affairs of a great power in an endangered world.” Nor did the end of the cold war change his mind. In 1992 Kennan made a point of stating that “nobody ‘won the cold war”. It had been a long, costly tragedy, “fuelled on both sides by unreal and exaggerated estimates of the intentions and strength of the other side.”对于里根政府,乔治·凯南的态度尤其地冒犯,他认为里根“简单幼稚,无法理解地天真,根本不配担负起在有危险的世界指导一个超级大国事务如此之重任。”冷战结束后他也没有改变自己的看法。1992年乔治·凯南曾阐述自己的观点,认为“冷战无赢家”。这场旷日持久,代价高昂的悲剧,“将对另一方意图和力量进行了不现实和扩大估算的双方同时埋葬。”Mr Gaddis disagrees. He closes his study by condemning Kennan for having “blinded” himself to the fact that, in Mr Gaddiss opinion, Reagan brought Kennans “strategy to its successful conclusion”. If Kennan were alive, he would probably still disagree, and not without reason. If the elder mans concern for the costs of bellicose foreign policy, rather than the younger mans enthusiasm for imperial exercise of American power, had dominated the last decade, it would have made for a sounder grand strategy. In ways that this biography seems not entirely to appreciate, Kennans far-sighted opposition to American over-militarisation makes his personal career history less gripping than his legacy.约翰·加迪斯对此并不认同。在传记结尾他责备了乔治·凯南对事实的“视而不见”,按照约翰·加迪斯的观点,是里根的采纳“成就”了乔治·凯南的战略。但是如果乔治·凯南还健在,他可能还会反对,而且还自有道理。如果这位老人担心的是好战外交政策所付出的代价,而不是在其后的十年起决定性作用的青年人对美国超级力量运用的热情,那么它将会是一个更加合理的宏伟战略。如此来看这部传记对乔治·凯南也不全是赞誉,乔治·凯南颇有远见地反对美国过度军事化使其个人职业生涯的精程度比其传记略逊一筹。 /201304/236955Welcome to Authentic Real English. Im Yang Li.欢迎来到地道英语节目。我是李扬。And Im Diarmuid. You know Li, it was so nice to meet your friends last night.我是戴蒙德。你知道李, 昨晚很高兴认识你的朋友们。Oh, you liked meeting them?哦,你喜欢他们吗?Yeah, theyre really cool. Ive friended them aly.是的,他们很酷。我已经互相加为好友。Youve friended. you mean youve become friends with them? 你们已经成为朋友了。你的意思是你和他们成为朋友了吗?Well, yes, weve become friends. But I also friended them.嗯,是的,我们已经成为朋友。而且我也加他们好友。Eh? Not sure I know what you mean.嗯?我不太明白你的意思。Well, Li, Im sure you know about social networking sites like Facebook, Bebo and Qzone?嗯,我肯定你是知道像是Facebook、Bebo和QQ空间等社交网站的,对吗?Oh, social networking sites.噢,社交网站。When you add someone to your friends list, you can say you add them, or simply friend them.当你将某人添加进你的朋友列表,你可以说添加,或者只是简单点加为朋友。That Michael has so many Facebook friends.迈克尔已经有这么多的Facebook上的朋友。I know, he just friends everyone he meets.我知道,他只是把每个见到的人都加为朋友。He doesnt have any real friends.他没有真正的朋友。 201309/256025

The story of human evolution goes something like this:人类进化的过程大概是这样:Millionsof years ago, homo sapiens began to evolve from the prehistoric ancestor we share with ourmonkey cousins.数百万年以前,我们和猿类共同的史前祖先开始进化成智人。First, we evolved the ability to walk upright.最初,我们进化到能够直立行走。Then we began fabricating moreelaborate tools.然后,我们开始制造更为复杂的工具。Finally, around 50,000 years ago,最终,大约在五万年前,we emerged as more or less fully modernhumans with large, fully human brains.人类以与现代人差不多的样子出现了,拥有大而完全的人类大脑。And since then, our craniums and the brains they harborhave stayed pretty much the same.自那时起,我们的头盖骨以及它所保护的脑部几乎保持不变。Except that, according to one study, the skulls of some Americans have actually grown over thepast 120 or so years.除此以外,一项研究称在过去的一百二十多年的时间里一部分美国人的颅骨确实增长了。Specifically, skulls have become larger by about eight millimeters, or a thirdof an inch.具体说来,颅骨增大了约八毫米或三分之一英寸。Which may not sound like much, but the growth theoretically allows for additional brainmatter roughly equivalent to the size of a tennis ball.听起来似乎不多,但这个增长理论上能容下差不多相当于一个网球大小的额外的脑容量。Now, before we go any further, we need to deal with a tricky detail of the study,现在,在我们继续分析之前,我们需要关注这项研究中的一个棘手的问题,namely, that theresearchers looked almost exclusively at skeletons of white Americans.也就是:研究者几乎排除性地只观察了美国白人的骨骼。Why? Because, historically,mainly white Americans had donated skeletons to the collections the researchers studied.为什么?这是源于历史上主要是 美国白人向研究人员捐献了骨骼以供研究之用。So whileit may be the case that the skulls of Americans of many ethnicities have grown, the studyprovides evidence only for one group.因此,虽然由多种族组成的美国人的颅骨可能都在增大,但这份研究仅提供了其中一个群体头颅增大的据。In any case, its not at all clear that larger skulls have translated to larger brains or to greaterintellect.何况,更大的颅骨是否意味着更大的脑部以及更高的智慧,这仍是未知之数。Its also not clear why the skulls the researchers looked at got bigger.并且,研究人员所观察的颅骨增大的原因也仍不清楚。American life haschanged so much over the past century and a half that it will take years of research to begin toidentify possible causes.美国人的生活在过去的一个半世纪发生了如此巨大的变化以至于我们需要多年的研究方能确定可能的原因。But, nevertheless, the observation is interesting as another detail in the complex story of humanevolution.但是,尽管如此,作为人类复杂的进化史上的一个新的发现,这项观察结果还是很有意思的。 201403/280530

Cyber-security网络安全The internet of things (to be hacked)(或将遭遇黑客的)物联网Hooking up gadgets to the web promises huge. But security must not be an afterthought将各种东西交联到互联网上似乎前景极大,但首先应该考虑到安全问题。CYBER-SECURITY is now part of all our lives. “Patches” and other security updates arrive for phones, tablets and PCs. Consultants remind us all not to open unknown files or plug unfamiliar memory sticks into our computers. The bosses of some Western firms throw away phones and laptops after they have been to China assuming they have been hacked. And yet, as our special report this week points out, digital walls keep on being breached. Last year more than 800m digital records, such as credit- and debit-card details, were pinched or lost, more than three times as many as in 2012. According to a recent estimate by the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, a think-tank, the cost to the global economy of cybercrime and online industrial espionage stands at 445 billion a year—about as much as the GDP of Austria.如今,网路安全与我们每个人息息相关。手机、平板电脑以及个人电脑上的各种“补丁”以及其他的安全更新应运而生。安全顾问提醒我们不要打开未知文件或将陌生的记忆棒连接到自己的电脑上。一些西方公司的老板如果在中国遭遇黑客,他们就会将手机跟笔记本电脑扔掉。正如本周的特别报道中指出的,数字墙正遭受着源源不断的攻击。去年,诸如信用卡和借记卡记录在内的超过800m的数字文件被删除或丢失,是2012年的三倍之多。据战略和国家问题研究中心—一个智库—最新评估称,全球经济网络犯罪和网络工业间谍活动一年耗资为4450亿美元,将近奥地利的GDP。Now a new phase in this contest is emerging: “the internet of things”. This involves embedding miniature computers in objects and connecting them to the internet using wireless technology. Cisco, a technology company, predicts that 50 billion connected devices will be in circulation by the end of the decade, up from 11 billion last year. Web-connected cars and smart appliances in homes are becoming more common, as are medical devices that can be monitored by doctors many miles from their patients. Tech companies are splurging cash: witness Googles punt on driverless cars and the 3.2 billion it has spent buying Nest, a maker of smart thermostats.如今,这场对抗的新阶段正在形成——即物联网。包括将微型计算器嵌入物体中并利用无线技术将他们连入互联网。思科技术公司预测,在去年110亿的基础上,2020年底以前将有500亿连接装置处于流通。联网汽车和智能家电以及能供医生远距离监控病人的医疗装置越来越普遍。科技公司斥巨资于此,例如谷歌投资无人驾驶汽车并花费32亿美元收购智能恒温器公司Nest。Such connectivity offers many advantages, from being able to adjust your houses heating when you are in the office to alerting your doctor that your insulin level has risen. But it also gives malicious hackers an easy way to burrow deeper into peoples lives. The small, embedded computers at the centre of the internet of things do not have as much processing power or memory as, say, a smartphone, so security software on them tends to be rudimentary. There have aly been instances of nefarious types taking control of webcams, televisions and even a fridge, which was roped into a network of computers pumping out e-mail spam. And security researchers have found ways of hacking into some kinds of medical devices and cars, though this still requires specialist knowledge and kit. The wireless heart monitor of Dick Cheney, Americas former vice-president, was modified to stop remote assassination attempts.这样连通性提供了许多好处,例如当你在办公室就能够调节房子的供暖设备,又或是在你的胰岛素水平上升时提醒医生。但同时它也使得恶意黑客们很容易就深入挖掘到人们的生活。物联网中心的小型嵌入式计算机没有像只能手机那样的多处理能力或内存,所以往往需要安全软件。已经有通过网络群发垃圾邮件控制摄像头、电视甚至冰箱的例子。尽管需要专业的知识和装备,安全研究人员仍发现一些侵入某些医疗设备和汽车的方法。美国前副总统迪克·切尼的无线心脏监视器就是通过修改来停止远程暗杀的。Beware the fridge in Ealing当心伊林的冰箱For the companies building the internet of things, its vulnerability could be costly. The tactic of pumping out new software as fast as possible and then issuing patches later to fix flaws in the code may be tolerable if all that is lost is data, but if it involves personal safety, consumers will be less tolerant. In order to avoid lurid headlines about cars crashing, insulin overdoses and houses burning, tech firms will surely have to embrace higher standards. Just as with computers and phones, there will be more passwords and more updates, though that may make the internet of things less easy to use—a blow for a business based on making life more convenient.对于构建物联网的公司而言,计算机的漏洞可能会使其付出巨大代价。如果只是丢失了数据,尽快推出新的软件然后发布补丁修复代码中的缺陷这一策略是可以被接受,但如果涉及到人身安全,消费者将不会那么宽容了。为了避免关于撞车、胰岛素过量以及房屋失火等耸人听闻的标题,科技公司必将执行更高的标准。就像电脑和电话,物联网将会需要更多的密码和更新,尽管使用上不再方便,但这是为了使生活有更多的便利。For governments, the temptation will be to panic and do too much. They should make clear that web-connected gadgets are covered by existing safety laws and existing product-liability regimes: last year Japans Toyota was successfully sued for installing malfunctioning, but not web-connected, software. Wrongdoers should be punished, but the best prompt for securing the internet of things is competition. Either tech firms will find ways to make web-connected gadgets more dependable, or people will decide they can live without them. Who needs a smart fridge anyway?对于政府来说,这种诱惑是危与机并存的。他们理应明确上网设备是由现有的安全法律、现有的产品责任制度所涵盖。去年日本丰田成功起诉了安装故障而不是网络连接或软件。违法者应该受到惩罚,但保障物联网的最好方式是竞争。是科技公司设法使上网设备更可靠,还是人们决定他们生活中是否应该依赖于此?到底是谁需要一个智能冰箱呢? /201407/312742

Dear Annie: My unmarried 30-year-old daughter has a drinking and behavioral problem that has escalated over the past year. 亲爱Annie:我还未婚的30岁女儿养成了饮酒的坏习惯,这么多年都没有得到改善。We have encouraged Terrie to get alcohol counseling or attend A.A. 我们鼓励过Terrie去戒毒所或参加戒酒互助会。She tried it once and quit. I believe she is bipolar, but mental health counselors will not treat her until she quits drinking. 她曾经尝试过,但还是放弃了。我觉得她处于两个极端,但是心理健康咨询师说直到她把酒瘾戒掉才能给她心理上的治疗。After her last outburst, I sent her a text message and said we could no longer have a relationship unless she gets help. 在她上次发病后,我写给她一张便条,上面写着除非她接受治疗,要不我们就断绝关系。Shortly after, she left town and moved to Florida with a friend who also drinks. 不久后,她离开了,和一个同样酗酒的朋友搬去了佛罗里达州.Should I keep the lines of communication open, or will my ultimatum help her reach bottom so she can start climbing back up? 我应该与她保持沟通,或者再最后忍耐一下,也许这样她就可以回来了?I tried Al-Anon, but the members only offer support and friendship to each other, which is nice, but it doesnt change my daughter. 我去过匿名戒酒者协会,但那儿的成员都是彼此提供持与帮助,那儿很好,不过却没能改变我女儿。— Concerned Mom Dear Concerned: Al-Anon is not intended to change the alcoholics behavior, only your response to it. 一位母亲提到:匿名戒酒者协会不是在有意改变酗酒者的行为,而要改变你们的反应。Choosing not to stay in touch would be for your mental health, not hers. 选择不去交流,可能对你的精神健康有益,而不对她有益。No one can ;fix; Terrie until she admits she has a problem, and she doesnt seem y. 没人能修正Terrie的人生,除非她能正视自己的问题,而且现在看来,她好像还没有准备好。Many who are bipolar self-medicate with alcohol and drugs, and there are treatment programs that address both disorders. 世界上有很多极端地使用酒精或毒品的人,而且现在也有许多针对这两种神经错乱的治疗方案。If Terrie wants help, she should contact a university medical center department of psychiatry for a referral. 如果Terrie需要帮助,我建议她联系大学医疗中心的心理科。201307/248935Science and technology科学技术Marine ecology海洋生态Welcome to the plastisphere欢迎来到塑料星球What is pollution to some is opportunity to others对一些人意味着污染对另一些人却意味着是机会SINCE 2008 geologists have been mulling over the idea of the Anthropocene, a proposed new epoch in the history of the Earth that would encompass the years in which people have had profound effects on the planets workings.自2008年以来,地质学家一直在研究人类纪这一理念,人类纪是在地球历史上提出的新纪元,其囊括了人们深刻地影响地球的运作的年代。Most often, discussion of the Anthropocene revolves around how atmospheric chemistry has changed since the beginning of the industrial revolution.大多数时候,人类纪的讨论大多是围绕着从工业革命开始大气化学有何种变化进行的。Sometimes the effects of new terrestrial ecosystems, in the form of fields, pastures and plantations, are also considered.有时新型陆地系统所产生的影响也考虑在内。To date, though, how the Anthropocene has created new ecosystems in the oceans as well as on land has not been much examined.到目前为止,然而人类纪是如何创造新型海洋及陆地生态系统并未做过多的研究。Such ecosystems are, nevertheless, emerging—as Tracy Mincer of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,不过这样的生态系统在《环境科技》杂志中有所描述,in Massachusetts, and Linda Amaral-Zettler of the Marine Biological Laboratory, also in Woods Hole, describe in Environmental Science and Technology.是由马萨诸塞州伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所的特蕾西·明瑟以及伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所海洋生物研究室的琳达阿玛拉尔-特勒联合提出的。The malign effect of floating plastic debris on seabirds, turtles and other sea creatures is well known.众所周知,漂浮的塑料碎片对海鸟海龟以及其他海洋生物有负面影响。But, as Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler have discovered, plastic debris also provides a new habitat for organisms small enough to take advantage of it.但是,正如明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士已经发现的一样,塑料碎片还给有机体提供了一个小型足以充分利用全新的栖息地。The two researchers collected pieces of plastic from various sites in the North Atlantic.两位研究员从北大西洋的不同地点收集塑料碎片。They then examined each using DNA analysis, and also an electron microscope, to see what was living on it.他们然后用DNA分析仪、电子显微镜检测每一个,观测其上生活着何种生物。Lots of things were.有很多生物。Altogether, they discovered about 50 species of single-celled plant, animal and bacterial life.总之,他们发现约50种单细胞植物、动物和细菌的踪迹。Each bit of debris was, in effect, a tiny ecosystem.确切地说,每块碎片是一个小型的生态系统。As with many ecosystems, the bottom of the food chain was occupied by things that photosynthesise.正如诸多生态系统一样,食物链的底层被光合作用的生物占据着。These included unicellular algae called diatoms and dinoflagellates, and photosynthetic bacteria known as cyanobacteria.这些包括名为硅藻和甲藻的单细胞藻类和蓝藻的光合细菌。Usually, such creatures swim freely in the ocean.通常,这些生物在海洋里自由自在地游荡。They therefore have to work hard to stay near the surface, where light for photosynthesis is abundant.因此他们必须努力保持在表层水域,因为那里的进行光进行光合所需的阳光是充裕的。By hitching a ride on a piece of floating plastic, they can stay near the surface without effort.通过搭乘漂浮塑料这一顺风车,他们可以毫不费力地呆在表层。Where plants abound, herbivores will not be far behind.植物比比皆是的地方食草动物的出现也不会落后。These, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found in the form of dinoflagellates,some of which like to snack on smaller creatures to supplement their photosynthesis.明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士以甲藻的形式发现了食草动物的存在,一些甲藻喜欢吃小型生物作为他们光合作用的补充。They also found predators on the herbivores, in the form of ciliates and predator bacteria, which feed on other bacteria.他们还发现食草动物的捕食者,如纤毛虫以及以其他细菌为食的捕食细菌。Except for top predators—the type that themselves prey on predators—the two researchers thus discovered a classic web of food chains of the sort familiar from ecology text books.除了顶级捕食者外,两位研究人员发现了一个与生态学课本上相似的经典的食物网。And they also, and perhaps most pertinently from the human point of view, found evidence for one other part of such a food web: the decomposers.或许从人类的观点来看最为适切的他们还发现了食物网的另一部分:分解者。Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so ily.塑料是能源丰富的物质,这就是为什么他们中的许多容易燃烧的原因。Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene.任何可以分解和使用那些能源的生物在人类纪将会取得先机。Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are aly familiar to experts in the field.掌握这种技能的陆地上的细菌及真菌是这个领域的专家。Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found evidence of them on their marine plastic, too.明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士在海洋塑料上也发现了它们的踪迹。They noticed many of their pieces of debris sported surface pits around two microns across.他们发现很多塑料碎片的运动表面周围有大约两微米的凹坑。Such pits are about the size of a bacterial cell. Closer examination showed that some of these pits did, indeed, contain bacteria,凹坑与细菌一般大小。进一步的研究显示这些凹坑中的一部分确实含有细菌,and that in several cases these bacteria were dividing and thus, by the perverse arithmetic of biological terminology, multiplying.在部分状况下细菌正在分裂,因此根据生物学的反常计算其数量正在递增。Though the two researchers have not yet proved the bugs in the pits are actually eating the plastic, that hypothesis seems a good bet.尽管两位研究员至今未找到凹坑中的细菌是以塑料为食的据,那个假说就好像是一场。And if they are, it suggests plastic pollution in the ocean may not hang around as long as has often been feared.如果假说是正确的,这就意味着海洋塑料污染可能不如担心的那么持久。Less encouragingly, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler also found cholera-like bacteria in their tiny floating ecosystems.令人扫兴的是,明瑟及阿玛拉尔-特勒两位士在漂浮的小型生态系统中发现了类似于霍乱的细菌。Both fish and seabirds act as vectors for cholera,so anywhere that such creatures might pick up cholera bugs is something worth keeping an eye on.鱼类或者是海鸟都充当着霍乱病菌的载体,所以任何使这些生物可能携带霍乱病菌的地区都值得密切关注。The researchers paint an intriguing picture of the adaptability of nature, and provide another piece of the jigsaw that is the Anthropocene.研究者就大自然的适应性描绘了一幅耐人寻味的画面,并提供了人类纪的另一块拼图。Conservationists intent on preserving charismatic megafauna have reason to lament the sp of plastics through the ocean.致力于保护引人好奇的大型动物的环保人士有理由担心海洋塑料污染的蔓延。But those interested in smaller critters have been given a whole, new sphere—the plastisphere—to study.但是却给了那些对小型生物感兴趣的环保人士一个全新的视角——塑料星球。 /201308/253468

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