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武汉治疗前列腺囊肿大概需要多少钱武汉生殖器肿了怎么回事Then they would have remembered stories that Rome told about the grisly brutality of the Druids.而随后 他们也许会忆起 罗马人口中的德鲁伊教是何等暴虐残忍Perhaps they would have even taken note of the stories told by the northern savages themselves,或许他们甚至会注意到 北方蛮族亲口讲述的故事of decapitated heads who were said to speak mournfully to those who had parted them from the rest of their body,warning of vengeance to come.被砍下的头颅悲戚地向 让他们身首异处的刽子手哀号着 警示着复仇即将到来Then they would have thought, Perhaps not.Perhaps we dont want to have much to do with an island of talking heads.而后他们大概会想 应该不算艺术品 我们可不想 与遍布着会说话头颅的岛有任何瓜葛So why did the Romans come here, to the edge of the world,那么 究竟是什么驱使罗马人以身犯险and run the gauntlet of all these ominous totems?来到这满布不详图腾的世界之端的呢There was the lure of treasure, of course,当然少不了对宝藏的渴望all the pearls that Tacitus believed lay around Britain in heaps.塔西佗所坚信的 那盈千累万的财富Even more seductive was what Roman generals craved the most,但更具魅力 同时罗马将军最渴望的the prestige given to those who pacified the barbarian frontier.是平定蛮夷 开疆扩土带来的无限荣耀And so, in the written annals of Western history,因此 在西方编年史中the islands now had not only a name,Britannia, but a date.不列颠尼亚已不仅是岛屿的名字 还标刻着一个年代In 55 Julius Caesar launched his galleys across the Channel.公元前55年 凯撒大帝带兵横穿英吉利海峡Julius Caesar must have supposed that all he had to do was land his legions in force凯撒大帝定是认为 他只需带领大批罗马军团登陆and the Britons, just cowed by the spectacle of the glittering helmets and eagle standards,would simply queue up to surrender.耀眼的铠甲与威武的鹰旗 自会让不列颠人闻风丧胆 不费吹灰之力便能让他们列队投降 /201606/451672武汉治疗包茎费用 The helicopter will hold just for ground and we have to jump in or we have to work for rappels.直升机只能在地面上空盘旋 我们就只能跳机 或者用绳索下降But the ropes that helicopter has dont tend to go well again.但是 直升机悬吊的绳子 不太好控制We have to wait the ropes so it doesnt fly up into the rotors or the intakes of the helicopter. 我们得等一会 确保绳子不会 卷进直升机的旋翼或者进气口and the longer among these ropes,the more dangerous it is for everyone.绳子越长 我们的危险就越大When I hit the ground,the first job is to clear the ropes,then give the flyboys a signal and they are on the way.Job done.我一落地 第一件事就是收好绳子 给飞机师一个信号 他们就可以离开了 任务完成In Romania,with storm Cloud Spring,a repel was not an option,another solution had to be found.在罗马尼亚 我们遇上了暴风雨 这场与暴风雨的抗击无可避免 而且还发现其他情况The cloud is moving in,and theres only tiny weather we know,the pilot says he cant land up there.云团一直在移动中 而且我们对这里的天气完全不了解 飞行员说他不敢野外着陆So I mean,I mean I got in.Bear flied on probably about 45 minutes plus.所以我想 我必须吊挂升空 贝尔飞了大概超过45分钟But when the helicopter lowered him I cut the rope and look down, and...and he didnt move.直升机将他降下后 我剪断绳子 往下看 发现他没动弹And hed been hanging on to the chopper for so long that the hoist is cut for the blood supply to his legs,他挂在直升机上的时间太长了 导致血液一时无法供给到腿部so when he got to the ground,he couldnt actually move.We do all we can to minimize the risk.他躺在地上 一动不动 我们尽最大的努力把风险降到最低But when you jumping out the aircraft of ten thousands foot danger is never far away.但是当从上万英尺的高空往下跳时 危险无时无刻不在When I look into the drop zones from the air Im looking that was ok but its...often very difficult to gauge from the air.当我从飞机上看降落区域 觉得没问题 但是在飞机上通常无法准确瞄准Ultimately when he jumped out that helo,his deaths done to him.最终当贝尔从机舱跳出 死亡随时可能发生201605/446144In this American English pronunciation exercise, were going to study some conversation.在这个美语发音练习中,我们要学习一些对话。Today its going to be a Ben Franklin exercise, where we analyze the speech together. Todays topic: what did you do today?今天要进行的是一个本·富兰克林练习,我们会一起分析句子。今天的话题:你今天做了什么?Great. Lets get started.;Tom, what did you do today?;很好,我们开始吧。Tom,你今天做了什么?;Tom, what did you do today?; Lots of interesting things happening here.“Tom, what did you do today?” 这里有很多有意思的地方。I noticed first of all that Ive dropped the T here: ;what did, what did, what did you do?;首先,我注意到了我省略了T音:“what did, what did, what did you do?”Im also noticing Im getting more of a J sound here, j-ou, j-ou. Whuh-dih-jou, dih-jou.我还注意到了我在这里发的音是J音,j-ou, j-ou. Whuh-dih-jou, dih-jou.So the D and the Y here are combining to make the J sound. So we have wuh-dih-jou.所以这里的D音和Y音结合起来发J音。我们就把它读为wuh-dih-jou。;What did you.; ;What did you.;;What did you.;做了什么。做了什么。做了什么。;Tom, what did you do today?; The other thing I notice is that the T here is really more of a flap sound, a D, ;do duh-, do duh-, do today;“Tom, what did you do today?” 我注意到的另一点就是这里的T是一个浊音D,“do duh-, do duh-, do todaythis is most definitely a schwa, so were reducing this unstressed syllable to be the schwa. ;Today, today, do today, do today.;这里是一个弱读,我们把这个非重读音节略读。“Today, today, do today, to today.”;Tom, what did you do today?;;Tom, what did you do today?; -;Today?; -;Today.;;Today I woke up...;Tom,你今天做了什么?Tom,你今天做了什么?今天?今天?今天我醒来。Now here we have ;today; three times. Always, the first syllable is reduced to the schwa sound, but Im noticing that these Ts are all True Ts, and not Flap Ts.这里“today”出现了三次。通常,第一个音节是被略读为弱读音的,但我注意到这些T都是清音T,不是浊音T。Thats because they are beginning sentences. So, were not going to reduce that to a Flap T.这是因为它们在句子的开头,所以,我们不把它略读为浊音T。In the case up here, ;do today;, it came, the T in ;today;, came in between a vowel, ;do;, the OO vowel, and the schwa sound. And thats why we made this a flap sound.在这里,“do today”,“today”里的T出现在OO元音中间,所以要弱读。所以我们把它发成浊音。But here were beginning a sentence, so were going to go ahead and give it the True T sound--though we will most definitely reduce to the schwa. ;Today.;但在这里我们要开始一个句子,所以我们要发清音T的音——即使我们会把它略读为弱读音。“Today”。;Today?; -;Today.;-;Today.;-;Today.;-;Today.;-;Today.;-;Today.; -;Tom, what did you do today?; -;Today?; -;Today.; -;Today I woke up...;今天?今天?今天?今天?今天?Tom,你今天做了什么?今天?今天?今天我醒来。Everything was very connected there, and I know that when we have something ending in a vowel or diphthong sound,这里的词语之间连接得非常紧,我知道当有词语是以元音或复合元音结尾,and the next word beginning in a vowel or diphthong sound, that we want that to really glide together, ;today I.;;today I.;;today I.;后面的词语是以元音或复合元音开头时,我们就会把它们的音连到一起,“today I.”“today I.”“today I.”And anytime we have a word that begins with a vowel, we want to say, hmm, does the word before end in a consonant sound? It does.如果我们遇到元音开头的词语时,我们就要想想,前面的词是以辅音结尾的吗?是的。It ends in the K consonant sound, ;woke up, woke up;.它以辅音K结尾,“woke up, woke up”。So, to help us link, we can almost think of it as beginning the next word, ;wo-kup, woke up. Today I woke up.;所以,为了方便我们连读,我们可以把它想成下一个词的开头,“wo-kup, woke up. Today I woke up.”;Today?; -;Today.; -;Today I woke up, and I went for a run.;今天?今天?今天我醒来去跑步了。;And I went for a run.; Tom dropped the D here, connected this word ;and; to ;I;, ;and I;.;and I;.;and I;.“And I went for a run.” Tom把这里的D音省略掉了,把“and”和“I”连读,“and I”。“and I”。“and I”。This was the schwa sound, so hes reduced ;and;. ;And I, and I, and I went for a run.;这是一个弱读音,所以他略读了“and”。“And I, and I, and I went for a run.”;For a, for a.; Tom reduced the vowel in the word ;for; to the schwa. And weve connected these two function words together, ;for a, for a, for a;, this is also a schwa.For a, for a. Tom把“for”里的元音略读为弱读音。我们把这两个虚词连读,“for a, for a, for a”,这也是个弱读音。;For a, for a, for a run, for a run, and I went for a run.;去跑步了。Can you pick out the two stressed words here? ;Went, run;. Those are the words that have the most shape in the voice. The most length: ;and I went for a run;.你能找出这里面的两个重读词吗?“Went, run”。这两个词语的音最为突出,音也最长:“and I went for a run”。;And I went for a run.; Again, hes got the intonation going up here at the end, because, comma, hes giving us a list here. And theres more information about to come.“And I went for a run.”他的语调在句末上升,因为这里有个逗号,他要列举一些事情,后面还有更多信息。;Today I woke up, and I went for a run.;;and I went for a run.;;and I went for a run.;今天我醒来去跑步了。今天我醒来去跑步了。今天我醒来去跑步了。;And, um, then I just worked.;然后,我就开始工作了。;And, um...; Now here, Tom did pronounce the D, he linked it to the next word, beginning with a vowel, which is just this thought-word that we say when were thinking, ;and um, and um.;“And, um...”在这里,Tom没有发D音,他把这个单词与下面一个单词开头的元音连读,也就是当我们思考时所用的口头语,“and um, and um.”Again, the intonation of the voice is going up at the end, ;and um;, signaling, comma, not a period, more information coming.他在句末语调再一次上升,“and um”,因为这里是一个逗号,而不是句号,预示着后面还有更多信息。;And, um,And, um, And, um, then I just worked.;然后,我就开始工作了。;Worked, worked, then I just worked.; Here, finally, we have the intonation of the voice going down at the end.“Worked, worked, then I just worked.”在这里,语调终于降了下来。So we know, period, end of the sentence, end of the thought.因此我们知道,句末的句号就标志着观点的结束。;Then I;: he connected this ending consonant to the beginning vowel, the diphthong ;ai;, I, to smooth that out. ;Then I, then I, then I just worked.;“Then I”:他把上一个词结尾的辅音与下一个词开头的元音,复合元音“ai”,I,连读。“Then I, then I, then I just worked.”Did you notice? Tom dropped the T here. We did not get ;just worked, just worked;. He didnt release it.你注意到了吗?Tom省略了这里的T音。我们不把它读成“just worked, just worked”。他没有发出这个音。This happens often when we have a word that ends in a cluster with a T when the next word also begins with a consonant.当遇到以T结尾,同时下一个词以辅音开头时,我们就会这样读。In these cases, often, the T will get dropped. ;I just worked.;;I just worked.;;I just worked.;这种情况下,通常T音就会被省略。我就开始工作了。我就开始工作了。我就开始工作了。Do you notice that the -ed ending is pronounced as a T sound. Thats because the sound before, the K, is unvoiced. So this ending will also be unvoiced. ;Worked, worked.;你是否注意到了-ed结尾的词发的是T音?这是因为它前面的K音是不发音的。所以,结尾也不发音。“Worked, worked.”;...and I went for a run. And, um, then I just worked.;; And, um, then I just worked.;;And, um, then I just worked.;去跑步了。然后,我就开始工作了。然后,我就开始工作了。然后,我就开始工作了。;So, where do you run?;那你去哪儿跑步了?;So, where do you run?; Now, this is a question, but did you notice the intonation went down at the end?“So, where do you run?”这是一个问句,但你注意到了语调是下降的吗?;Run, run.; Thats because its a question that cannot be answered with just ;yes; or ;no;.“Run, run.”这是因为这不是以“yes”或“no”回答的问句。Yes/no questions go up in pitch at the end. All other questions tend to go down in pitch at the end.以yes或no回答的问句句尾语调要上升。其他的问句句尾语调都是下降。;Where do you run?; Do you hear the stressed words in that question?“Where do you run?”你听出这个问句中的重读词了吗?;Where, run.; ;So, where do you run?; Longer words, more up/down shape of the voice. ;Where, run.;“Where, run.”“So, where do you run?”词的发音更长,也更为突出。“Where, run.”;So where do you run?;那你去哪儿跑步了?;So, where do you run?;;So, where do you run?;;So, where do you run?;-;I run in Fort Greene Park.;那你去哪儿跑步了?那你去哪儿跑步了?那你去哪儿跑步了?-我在格林堡公园跑步的。What do you hear as being the stressed syllables there?你听到的这里的重读音节是什么?;I run in Fort Greene Park.;;I run in Fort Greene Park.; ;I run in Fort Greene Park.;我在格林堡公园跑步的。我在格林堡公园跑步的。我在格林堡公园跑步的。;I run in Fort Greene Park.; I hear ;da-da-da-DAA-DAA-DAA;. Definitely I hear ;Fort;, ;Greene;, and ;Park; all being longer, all having that shape in the voice.“I run in Fort Greene Park.”我听到的是“da-da-da-DAA-DAA-DAA”。“Fort”,“Greene”,和“Park”的音更长,更为突出。;I run in Fort Greene Park.; Also, ;I; is a little bit more stressed than ;run in;.“I run in Fort Greene Park.”还有,“I”要比“run in”的音更重。;I, I, DA-da-da, DA-da-da, I run in, I run in, run in, run in.; So those two words are really linked together because we have and ending consonant and a beginning vowel.“I, I, DA-da-da, DA-da-da, I run in, I run in, run in, run in.”所以这两个词连得比较紧,因为它们是辅音结尾和元音开头。;Run in, run in, I run in, I run in Fort Greene Park.;我在格林堡公园跑步的。;I run in Fort Greene Park. I run in Fort Greene Park.I run in Fort Greene Park.In Brooklyn.;我在格林堡公园跑步的。我在格林堡公园跑步的。我在格林堡公园跑步的。在布鲁克林。;In Brooklyn.; Brooklyn, a two syllable word. One of the syllables will be stressed.“In Brooklyn.” Brooklyn是一个有两个音节的词。其中一个音节会被重读。What do you hear as being stressed? ;Brooklyn, Brooklyn.; Definitely its that first syllable. ;Brook-, Brook-, Brooklyn, Brooklyn.;你听到的重读音节是哪个?“Brooklyn, Brooklyn.”肯定是第一个音节。“Brook-, Brook-, Brooklyn, Brooklyn.”;In Brooklyn.; ;In Brooklyn.; ;In Brooklyn.; -;So, what are you doing after this?;在布鲁克林。在布鲁克林。在布鲁克林。-“So, what are you doing after this?”;So, what are you doing after this?; How was I able to say so many words quickly, but still be clear?“So, what are you doing after this?”我是怎样把这么多词语说得这么快但又很清晰的呢?First of all, Im dramatically reducing the word ;are; to the schwa-R sound, ;er, er;.首先,我在很大程度上略读了单词“are”,我把它读成了弱读R音,“er, er”。That means the T here is now coming between two vowel sounds, and Im making that a flap T sound, which sounds like the D between vowels. ;What are.; ;What are.; ;What are.;这意味着这里的T是在两个元音之间,我把它读成了浊音T,听起来就像是元音之间的D音。“What are.” ;What are.; ;What are.;Also the word ;you; is unstressed, so its going to be in that same line, ;what are you; ;what are you;;what are you;;what are you;, very fast, quite flat, lower in volume.还有,单词“you”是非重读的,所以也是这样的读法,“what are you”(循环四次),很快,很平,声音更低。;What are you doing?; Now here we have a stressed word, ;do-, doing. Doing, what are you doing?;“What are you doing?”这里有一个重读的单词,“do-, doing. Doing, what are you doing?”Do you hear how the syllable ;do; sticks out of that phrase more than anything else? ;What are you doing?;;What are you doing?;你是否听到了,“do”这个音节比句子中其他音都要突出?“What are you doing?”;What are you doing?;;After this.; Another stressed word here.“After this.”这里又有一个重读的单词。;So, what are you doing after this?; ;So, what are you doing after this?;;So, what are you doing after this?;;So, what are you doing after this?;那你之后做了什么?那你之后做了什么?那你之后做了什么?那你之后做了什么?;So, what are you doing after this?; -;After this, nothing.;那你之后做了什么?之后什么也没做。Toms speaking a little bit more slowly than I am here. ;After this, nothing. ;Tom说得比我说得要慢一点。“After this, nothing. ”We have two 2-syllable words here. Which syllable is stressed? Lets take first the word ;after;.这里有两个单词,都是两个音节,哪个音节是重读的?我们先看看第一个单词“after”。If you think you hear the first syllable as being stressed, youre right.如果你认为第一个音节是重读的,你是正确的。;Af-, after, -ter, -ter, -ter.; The second syllable: very low in pitch, flat, and quick. ;After.;“Af-, after, -ter, -ter, -ter.”第二个音节:音很低,很平,很快。“after”。What about the word ;nothing;? Again, its the first syllable. ING endings, even though this isnt an ING verb, will be unstressed. ;Nothing, no-, no-, nothing.;那么第二个单词“nothing”呢?它的重读音节也是第一个音节。ING结尾的单词,即使不是动词的ING形式,也是非重读音节。“Nothing, no-, no-, nothing.”;After this, nothing.; ;After this, nothing.; ;After this, nothing.; -;No plans.; -;No plans.;之后什么也没做。之后什么也没做。之后什么也没做。 -“No plans.” -“No plans.”Nothing reduces in this phrase. Im really hearing this as two different stressed words. Theyre both one syllable, ;no plans. No plans.;这句话里没有略读的音。我听到这里有两个不同的重读单词。它们都是一个音节的单词,“no plans. No plans.”;No plans.;-;No plans.;-;No plans.; -;No plans.; -;No plans.; -;No plans.; -;Should we get dinner?; -;Yeah.;没计划。 没计划。没计划。没计划。没计划。没计划。那我们去吃晚餐好吗?好的。;Should we get dinner?; One of the things that I notice is that Im dropping the D sound: ;should we, should we;.“Should we get dinner?”我注意到的事情之一就是在这里我省略了D音:“should we, should we”。;Should we get.;;Should we get.;;Should we get.;Thats helping me say this less-important word even faster. ;Should we get dinner?;那我们去。那我们去。那我们去。这样会让我更快地说出那些不太重要的词。那我们去吃晚餐好吗?;Should we get dinner?; ;Should we get dinner?; ;Should we get dinner?;那我们去吃晚餐好吗?那我们去吃晚餐好吗?那我们去吃晚餐好吗?I notice that the T here is a Stop T, I dont release it. Its not ;get dinner;, its ;get, get, get, get dinner, get dinner. Should we get dinner?;我注意到这里的T是一个顿音T,我没有发出这个音。它不是“get dinner”,而是“get, get, get, get dinner, get dinner. Should we get dinner?”;Should we get dinner?; ;Should we get dinner?;;Should we get dinner?;那我们去吃晚餐好吗?那我们去吃晚餐好吗?那我们去吃晚餐好吗?Do you notice, in this question my voice does go up in pitch at the end. ;Dinner, dinner.;你是否注意到了,在这个问句里,我的语调在句尾上升。“Dinner, dinner.”Thats because this is a yes/no question. Pitch goes up. ;Should we get dinner? ;Should we get dinner? Yeah.;这是因为这是一个以yes或no来回答的疑问句。所以语调要上升?“Should we get dinner? ;Should we get dinner? Yeah.”As you probably know, a more casual way to say ;yes;. ;Should we get dinner? Yeah.;你可能知道,这是“yes”的一种较为随意的说法。“Should we get dinner? Yeah.”;Should we get dinner?; -;Yeah.;那我们去吃晚餐好吗?好的。Working this way with any or audio clip can help improve your listening comprehension and your pronunciation.用这种方法,通过任何的视频或音频片段来练习,这可以帮助提高你的听力理解能力和发音。Thats it, and thanks so much for using Rachels English.这次的学习就到这里,非常感谢使用Rachels English。201706/513281武汉哪家医院看生殖器好

武汉专治男性早泄国立医院原味人文风情:So, if youre like me, you probably have at least a few bad habits you would like to break.如果你和我一样,你可能至少有几个想改掉的坏习惯。But its tough because no matter how hard I try, I seem to slip back into the same old routines again and again.不过那很难,因为不管我多努力尝试,我似乎一次又一次地重蹈覆辙。In the last decade, weve learned a lot about how habits work.过去十年来,我们对习惯的运作有许多了解。Thats Charles Duhigg, author of the book The Power of Habit.那是 Charles Duhigg,《习惯的力量》那本书的作者。And in particular weve learned the neurological structure of a habit.而我们特别认识到习惯的神经结构。He says that we tend to think of habits as a single thing, but actually...他说我们往往把习惯想成单独一件事,但事实上...Each habit has three components: Theres a cue, which is like a trigger for a behavior to start.每个习惯都有三项构成要素:有提示,那就像触发一个行为开始的东西。And then theres a routine, which is the behavior itself.然后是惯性行为,也就是行为本身。And then, finally, a reward, which is how our brain learns to encode that automatic behavior for the future.接着最后,奖励,也就是我们的大脑如何为未来学习替那自发行为编码。And one of the big differences is that for years, when people thought about habits, they focused in on the routine, on the behavior.其中一个最大的差异是,几年来,当人们想到习惯时,他们专注在惯性行为、行为上面。But what we now know is that its these cues and these rewards that really shape how habits occur and how to change them.不过我们现在知道,这些提示和这些奖励,它们才是真正构成习惯形成和改变习惯的方法。And Charles says that whether we like it or not, this kind of habit formation is endemic to our brain.Charles 表示,无论我们喜不喜欢,这种习惯形成是我们的大脑特有的。And what it will do is our brain will latch on to a cue that it associates with a behavior and a particular reward.它的作用是,我们的大脑会抓住一个提示,一个大脑连结到某个行为和特定奖励的提示。And over time, that cue and that reward become more and more and more, sort of, intertwined.随时间过去,那提示和那奖励会变得有点越来越纠缠在一起。A particular part of your brain named the basal ganglia will relate them together.你脑内一个称为基底核的特定区块会将它们连结在一起。And the behavior thats associated with that, that will just sort of happen automatically.而和那相关的行为,那就会有点不自觉地发生。But Charles says the good news is we can also use this knowledge to our advantage.不过 Charles 表示,好消息是我们可以善用这项知识。There was a big study that was done about how to create exercise habits.有一个关于如何养成运动习惯的重大研究。And so what they did is they told a group of people, ;Okay, first of all, choose an obvious cue.他们所做的事是告诉一群人:「好,首先,选一个明显的提示。Always go running at the same time every day or put your workout clothes next to your bed so that you see them first thing when you wake up.;每天都在同样时间去跑步,或把运动放在床边,好让你起床第一眼就看到它们。」And then they said, ;And then go for a run or go workout. And when you get back from exercising, give yourself a small piece of chocolate.;接着他们说:「然后去跑步或健身。在你运动完回来时,给自己一小块巧克力。」Now, this is kind of counterintuitive, right? Because people who are exercising are trying to lose weight, not eat more chocolate.现在,这有点违反直觉,对吧?因为运动的人是在试着减重,不是吃更多巧克力。And yet what the researchers knew is that their brain needed that reward.然而研究者所知的事情是,他们的大脑需要那奖励。Their basal ganglia needed some reward.他们的脑部基底核需要一些奖励。And what they found was that people who ate a small piece of chocolate after coming home from a run or a workout, they were much more likely to start exercising habitually.他们发现人们,跑步或健身完回家有吃一小块巧克力的人,他们比较有可能开始规律运动。So, according to Charles, whether you want to break a habit or start a new habit, the key is to divide the habit into its component parts: cue, routine, and reward, and design it for the result that you want.所以,根据 Charles 所说,无论你是想改掉一个习惯,或开始养成一个新习惯,关键是将习惯划分成它的构成要素:提示、惯性行为以及奖励,并依你想达到的结果来设计。201611/475437武汉夏天能做包皮手术吗 War has been a part of my life since I can remember.自打我记事儿以来 战争就充斥着我的生活I was born in Afghanistan, just six months after the Soviets invaded,我出生在阿富汗 就在苏维埃入侵六个月之后and even though I was too young to understand what was happening,尽管那时我还太小 对周围发生的一切还不太了解I had a deep sense of the suffering and the fear around me.我那时已经深深地感受到了苦难和恐惧Those early experiences had a major impact on how I now think about war and conflict.这些童年的经历对我如何看待战争和冲突产生了深远的影响I learned that when people have a fundamental issue at stake, for most of them, giving in is not an option.我了解到人们在遭遇危险之时 对他们大部分人而言 屈并非唯一选择For these types conflicts when peoples rights are violated, when their countries are occupied,对于这些冲突而言 当人们的权利受到侵犯之时 当他们的祖国被占领之时when theyre oppressed and humiliated they need a powerful way to resist and to fight back.当他们受尽压迫和羞辱之时 他们迫切需要一种强大的力量去抵抗 去战斗Which means that no matter how destructive and terrible violence is,这也意味着 无论暴力多么残忍可怕if people see it as their only choice, they will use it.如果人们只有这一种选择 那么他们就要采取暴力的手段Most of us are concerned with the level of violence in the world.我们大多数都与这个世界的暴力水平有着丝丝缕缕的联系But were not going to end war by telling people that violence is morally wrong.但是我们不会以告诉人们暴力在道德上不容的来结束战争Instead, we must offer them a tool thats at least as powerful and as effective as violence.相反我们必须提供给他们一种至少跟暴力一样有力而有效的手段This is the work I do.这就是我要做的For the past 13 years, Ive been teaching people in some of the most difficult situations around the world过去的13年里 我一直在教导全世界某些身陷苦难境地的人们how they can use nonviolent struggle to conduct conflict.告诉他们如何使用非暴力手段与冲突对抗Most people associate this type of action with Gandhi and Martin Luther King.多数人会将这种行动与甘地或马丁 路德金联系在一起But people have been using nonviolent action for thousands of years.但是人们采取非暴力抗争的行为已经有数千年的历史了In fact, most of the rights that we have today in this country as women, as minorities, as workers,事实上 我们在这个国家所拥有的大多数权利 作为女性 作为少数人群 作为工人as people of different sexual orientations and citizens concerned with the environment these rights werent handed to us.作为有着不同性取向的人们 以及关心环境的普通公民 这些权利并非直接交到我们手中They were won by people who fought for them and who sacrificed for them.我们是靠那些为了维护这些权利而抗争和牺牲的人获得的But because we havent learned from this history, nonviolent struggle as a technique is widely misunderstood.但是由于我们并没有从历史中了解到 因而 很多人误解了非暴力抗争这种方法I met recently with a group of Ethiopian activists, and they told me something that I hear a lot.最近 我认识了一些埃塞俄比亚的行动家 他们告诉了我很多我曾经听说过很多的事情They said theyd aly tried nonviolent action, and it hadnt worked.他们说他们已经尝试用非暴力行为了 但是没有成功Years ago they held a protest.多年前 他们举行过一次抗议The government arrested everyone, and that was the end of that.政府把他们都逮捕了 而这次抗议也就这样结束了The idea that nonviolent struggle is equivalent to street protests is a real problem.他们眼中的非暴力抗争就等同于街头游行 这才是问题所在Because although protests can be a great way to show that people want change, on their own,因为虽然抗议很好地表达了人们想要改变的想法they dont actually create change at least change that is fundamental.但是对于他们自身来说 他们并没有真正的在创造改变至少 改变这个是最基础的Powerful opponents are not going to give people what they want just because they asked nicely or even not so nicely.强大的对手也并不会给人们他们想要的仅仅因为他们要的太温柔了 或许也不那么温柔Nonviolent struggle works by destroying an opponent, not physically,非暴力抗争并不是靠在肉体上摧毁对手才算成功but by identifying the institutions that an opponent needs to survive,而且要确定对手需要存活下去的机制and then denying them those sources of power.然后否认他们的权利之源Nonviolent activists can neutralize the military by causing soldiers to defect.非暴力行动主义者能扰乱军心 引起士兵的抵抗心理They can disrupt the economy through strikes and boycotts.他们可以罢工 抵制 来破坏经济发展And they can challenge government propaganda by creating alternative media.他们还可以通过创造其他的媒体方式 挑战政府宣传活动There are a variety of methods that can be used to do this.要达到这些目的 有各种各样的办法My colleague and mentor, Gene Sharp, has identified 198 methods of nonviolent action.吉恩 夏普 我的同事 亦是我的导师已经找到了198种非暴力行动的方式And protest is only one.而抗议是唯一的那一个Let me give you a recent example.让我向大家举一个最近的例子吧Until a few months ago, Guatemala was ruled by corrupt former military officials with ties to organized crime.直到几个月前 危地马拉还由腐败的前军事官员统治着 他们还与团伙犯罪有关People were generally aware of this, but most of them felt powerless to do anything about it人们普遍意识到了这一点 但是他们大多数人对这一点感到无力抗争until one group of citizens, just 12 regular people, put out a call on Facebook to their friends直到一群只有十二个人的普通群众 在脸书上发起了号召 号召他们的朋友to meet in the central plaza, holding signs with a message: ;Renuncia YA; resign aly.在中央广场聚集 举着牌子 上面写着 下台尽管已经下台了To their surprise, 30,000 people showed up.但令他们惊讶的是 这得到了3万多人的援They stayed there for months as protests sp throughout the country.他们在广场上呆了几个月 随后抗议蔓延至全国At one point, the organizers delivered hundreds of eggs to various government buildings某天 组织者给政府大楼送了很多鸡蛋with a message: ;If you dont have the huevos; the balls ;to stop corrupt candidates from running for office, you can borrow ours.;附信:如果您们差这些鸡蛋(胆量)去阻止贪官污吏腐蚀国家的话你可以向我们借President Molina responded by vowing that he would never step down.莫利纳总统回应道我发誓 我们绝不下台And the activists realized that they couldnt just keep protesting and ask the president to resign.活动家们意识到 要让总统下台 他们绝不能只是抗议They needed to leave him no choice.他们需要让总统无路可走So they organized a general strike, in which people throughout the country refused to work.于是他们组织了全体罢工 就是全国的人们都拒绝工作In Guatemala City alone, over 400 businesses and schools shut their doors.单在瓜地马拉市 就有400多家商店和学校关门Meanwhile, farmers throughout the country blocked major roads.与此同时 全国的农民封锁了主要道路Within five days, the president, along with dozens of other government officials, resigned aly.就在五天之内 总统 携十多位其他政府官员宣布卸任Ive been greatly inspired by the creativity and bravery of people using nonviolent action in nearly every country in the world.我受到了深深的鼓舞人们的创造力和勇气被运用在了非暴力行动中 这几乎发生在了世界上的每一个国家For example, recently a group of activists in Uganda released a crate of pigs in the streets.举例来说 最近 乌干达的一些活动家 在街上放出了一群猪You can see here that the police are confused about what to do with them.你们可以看到 警察对它们手足无措The pigs were painted the color of the ruling party.猪身上涂着执政党的颜色One pig was even wearing a hat, a hat that people recognized.其中一头猪甚至还带着顶帽子 这顶帽子人们都认识Activists around the world are getting better at grabbing headlines,全世界的活动家都越来越会抢头条了but these isolated actions do very little if theyre not part of a larger strategy.但要是他们没有大计划撑这些孤立无援的运动则收效甚微A general wouldnt march his troops into battle unless he had a plan to win the war.一位将军要是没有打胜仗的计划绝不会出动军队Yet this is how most of the worlds nonviolent movements operate.而世界上大多数非暴力运动就是这样做的Nonviolent struggle is just as complex as military warfare, if not more.非暴力抗争就如同军事战争一般复杂 甚至不亚于军事战争Its participants must be well-trained and have clear objectives,参与者必须训练有素 有一个清晰的目标and its leaders must have a strategy of how to achieve those objectives.而且领导者必须要有如何实现这些目标的战略和计划The technique of war has been developed over thousands of years with massive resources几千年以来 战争的技术不断发展资源也愈发丰富多样and some of our best minds dedicated to understanding and improving how it works.我们的某些想法也致力于理解和提升它的效果Meanwhile, nonviolent struggle is rarely systematically studied,然而与此同时 非暴力抗争几乎没有系统地学习and even though the number is growing,尽管次数也在不断增多there are still only a few dozen people in the world who are teaching it.但世界上仍旧只有小部分人在教我们怎么做This is dangerous, because we now know that our old approaches of dealing with conflict这很危险 因为我们现在知道以往处理矛盾的方法are not adequate for the new challenges that were facing.不足以我们去迎接新的挑战The US government recently admitted that its in a stalemate in its war against ISIS.美国政府最近承认在对抗ISIS的战争中 他们身陷僵局But what most people dont know is that people have stood up to ISIS using nonviolent action.但很多人不知道的却是 人们使用了非暴力运动来对抗ISISWhen ISIS captured Mosul in June 2014,当ISIS在2014年七月逮捕苏尔they announced that they were putting in place a new public school curriculum,他们宣称 他们正在建立一个新的公立学校课程based on their own extremist ideology.基于他们自己的极端主义思想But on the first day of school, not a single child showed up.但在开学第一天 没有一个孩子来上课Parents simply refused to send them.家长就是不愿意送孩子上学They told journalists they would rather homeschool their children than to have them brainwashed.他们告诉记者 他们情愿让孩子在家学习 也不愿孩子去洗脑This is an example of just one act of defiance in just one city.这仅仅是反抗运动中的一例 也只是一个城市中的一例But what if it was coordinated with the dozens of other acts of nonviolent resistance that have taken place against ISIS?但如果大家将众多非暴力对抗运动联合起来去抵抗ISIS呢?What if the parents boycott was part of a larger strategy如果家长的童子军是整个大计划的一部分呢?to identify and cut off the resources that ISIS needs to function;他们可以找寻和切断ISIS需要运作的资源the skilled labor needed to produce food;阻断生产食物的技术工人the engineers needed to extract and refine oil;破坏提取和炼油的机器the media infrastructure and communications networks损坏媒体设施和通信网络and transportation systems, and the local businesses that ISIS relies on?及交通系统摧毁ISIS赖以生存的公司It may be difficult to imagine defeating ISIS with action that is nonviolent.以非暴力行动对抗ISIS 可能很难想象But its time we challenge the way we think about conflict and the choices we have in facing it.但现在正是我们挑战看待冲突的方式和面对做出选择的时刻了Heres an idea worth sping:这一思想 值得我们广而告之lets learn more about where nonviolent action has worked让我们来了解更多有关非暴力运动已经在什么地方奏效and how we can make it more powerful,以及我们如何让它更加有力的方法吧just like we do with other systems and technologies就像我们处理其他系统和科技一样that are constantly being refined to better meet human needs.让它们不断更新以满足人们需求It may be that we can improve nonviolent action我们可能而且可以改善非暴力运动to a point where it is increasingly used in place of war.让非暴力运动越来越多的走向战地Violence as a tool of conflict could then be abandoned暴力作为冲突的工具便可以抛弃in the same way that bows and arrows were,弓箭亦是如此because we have replaced them with weapons that are more effective.因为我们已经用更有效的武器将它们代替With human innovation, we can make nonviolent struggle more powerful than the newest and latest technologies of war.有人类的创新 我们使非暴力抗争变得比最新的战争技术还要有力The greatest hope for humanity lies not in condemning violence but in making violence obsolete.人性最伟大的希望并不在于谴责暴力而是抛弃暴力Thank you.谢谢201706/514833武汉男子会所

孝感治疗龟头炎哪家医院最好While some of the information was taken verbally by Williams scribes,其中一些信息 由威廉的书记员以非书面形式记录记录下来some must have owed its existence to Saxon records.而另一些 定是出自撒克逊人之手The most extraordinary paradox about the Domesday Book关于《末日审判书》最著名的悖论就是is that what we think of as a monument to the power and strength of the Normans它虽被视为诺曼权力与力量的象征owed itself to the advanced machinery of government left in place by the old Anglo-Saxon monarchy.却是靠着盎格鲁撒克逊人的君主制 所留下的先进的政府运作系统 才得以完成And it was thanks to this that the data was collected at such lightning speed,less than six months.也是靠着它 所有信息几乎在不到六个月的极短时间内统计完毕The results were presented to William here at Old Sarum,结果呈交到了待在老塞勒姆的威廉手中an ancient Iron Age fort inside which hed built a spectacular royal palace.在这个铁器时代的堡垒中 他建起了一座壮丽的皇家宫殿When he took hold of the Domesday Book,it was as though william had been handed the keys to the kingdom all over again,威廉拿到《末日审判书》时 就如同他再次掌握了 整个王国的命脉as if hed re-conquered England,but this time statistically,就好像他又一次征了英格兰 不过这次是数据统计之上because its information was more impregnable than any castle.因为这些信息比任何城堡都要牢不可破It was called The Domesday Book, after all,because it was said its decisions wereas final as the Last Judgement.要知道 这本书叫《末日审判书》 是因为 据说它的调查结果 就相当于;末日审判;的结果The Church itself holds Wenlock.教堂拥有温洛克地区There are 20 hides, four of which are exempt from tax under King Canute.土地共有二十海茨 其中四海茨 在卡纽特国王统治时期免交赋税There are 15 slaves,two mills serve the monks, plus one fishery.这里有十五个奴隶 两座供养修道士的磨坊 一座渔场Enough woodland to fatten 300 pigs,and two hedged enclosures.Value now twelve pounds.三百头散养在大面积林地中的猪 还有两处围栏 现价值十二英镑 /201608/461651 TED演讲视频:简单的洗手创造强大的力量让我们想象一下,一架飞机将要坠毁,上面有250个孩童和婴儿,如果你知道该怎么去阻止这件事发生,你会去做吗?201705/509085武汉人民医院皮肤科挂号武汉治疗精囊炎费用多少




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