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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月19日 04:14:54
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Scientists have for the first time confirmed liquid water flowing on the surface of present-day Mars, a finding that will add to speculation that life, if it ever arose there, could persist now.科学家首次确认在目前的火星表面有液态水的流动,这一发现令人们愈发开始猜测,如果这个星球上曾经出现生物,那么也许到现在仍有存活。“This is tremendously exciting,” James L. Green, the director of NASA’s planetary science division, said during a news conference on Monday. “We haven’t been able to answer the question, ‘Does life exist beyond Earth?’ But following the water is a critical element of that. We now have, I think, great opportunities in the right locations on Mars to thoroughly investigate that.”“这是非常激动人心的发现,”NASA行星科学部主任詹姆斯·L·格林(James L. Green)在周一的新闻发布会上说。“‘地球以外的地方是否存在生物?’这个问题我们尚无法回答。但对水的追踪是这种搜寻的一个关键。我认为,我们现在极有可能处在恰当的地点,从而对此进行充分的调查。”That marks a shift in tone for NASA, where officials have repeatedly played down the notion that the dusty and desolate landscape of Mars could be inhabited today.这标志着NASA在立场上发生转变。此前他们反复强调,不要太过期待在这片遍地砂砾的荒原上栖居着生物。But now, John M. Grunsfeld, NASA’s associate administrator for science, talked of sending a spacecraft in the 2020s to one of these regions, perhaps with experiments to directly look for life.但现在,NASA科学任务指挥署副署长约翰·M·格伦斯菲尔德(John M. Grunsfeld)表示,可能在2020年代派一艘航天器前往其中一个区域,也许会直接以寻找生物为目的进行一些实验。“I can’t imagine that it won’t be a high priority with the scientific community,” he said.“这势必是科学界一件头等大事,”他说。Although Mars had rivers, lakes and maybe even an ocean a few billion years ago, the modern moisture is modest — small patches of damp soil, not pools of standing water.火星在几十亿年前有河流、湖泊甚至可能有一片海洋,但到了近代那里的湿度很低——只有小块潮湿的土壤,没有大片的死水。In a paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, scientists identified waterlogged molecules — salts of a type known as perchlorates — on the surface in ings from orbit.在一篇刊载于《自然·地球科学》(Nature Geoscience)的文章中,科学家通过轨道飞行器读数识别出火星地表有被曾被水浸没的分子——一种叫做高氯酸盐的盐类。“That’s a direct detection of water in the form of hydration of salts,” said Alfred S. McEwen, a professor of planetary geology at the University of Arizona, the principal investigator of images from a high-resolution camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and one of the authors of the new paper. “There pretty much has to have been liquid water recently present to produce the hydrated salt.”“这是直接探测到了以水合盐类形式存在的水,”亚利桑那大学行星地质学教授阿尔弗雷德·S·麦克尤恩(Alfred S. McEwen)说,他是NASA火星勘测轨道飞行器高分辨相机发回图像的首席调查员,也是这篇论文的作者之一。“这基本上确认了在近期有过液态水,从而产生水合盐。”By “recently,” Dr. McEwen said he meant “days, something of that order.”而麦克尤恩说,所谓“近期”的意思是“几天内,这样一个数量级”。Scientists have long known that large amounts of water remain — but frozen solid in the polar ice caps. There have been fleeting hints of recent liquid water, like fresh-looking gullies, but none have proved convincing.科学家早已知道在极地冰盖中有大量固态水。而近期存在液态水的迹象时有闪现,比如看上去较新的冲沟,但都不具说力。In 2011, Dr. McEwen and colleagues discovered in photographs from the orbiter dark streaks descending along slopes of craters, canyons and mountains. The streaks lengthened during summer, faded as temperatures cooled, then reappeared the next year.2011年,麦克尤恩和同事在轨道器发回的图片中发现,在撞击坑、峡谷和山峦上有沿斜坡而下的暗色条纹。这些条纹在夏季会变长,随着气温下降而渐渐消失,第二年又会再次出现。They named the streaks recurring slope linae, or R.S.L.s, and many thousands of them have now been spotted. “It’s really surprisingly extensive,” Dr. McEwen said.他们将这些条纹命名为“季节性坡纹”,目前已经找到成千上万处这样的坡纹。“数量之多令人惊讶,”麦克尤恩说。Scientists suspected that water played a critical role in the phenomenon, perhaps similar to the way concrete darkens when wet and returns to its original color when dry.科学家推测水在这种现象中扮演了关键角色,也许类似于水泥遇水后颜色变暗,干燥后又恢复原来的颜色。But that was just an educated guess.但那只是基于知识的猜测。Lujendra Ojha, a graduate student at the Georgia Institute of Technology, turned to another instrument on the orbiter that identifies types of molecules by which colors of light they absorb. But this instrument, a spectrometer, is not as sharp as the camera, making it hard to zoom in on ings from the narrow streaks, a few yards across at most.佐治亚理工学院(Georgia Institute of Technology)研究生鲁基恩德拉·欧加(Lujendra Ojha)换用了轨道器上的另一种仪器,根据分子吸收什么颜色的光来分辨分子的类型。但这种叫做光谱仪的仪器没有相机那么高的清晰度,很难将宽度只有几米的窄流放大至可以提供数据的程度。“We had to come up with new techniques and novel ways to do analysis of the chemical signature,” said Mr. Ojha, the lead author of the Nature Geoscience article.“我们不得不拿出新的技术和手段来分析其化学特征,”作为《自然·地球科学》论文第一作者的欧加说。The researchers were able to identify the telltale sign of a hydrated salt at four locations. In addition, the signs of the salt disappeared when the streaks faded. “It’s very definitive there is some sort of liquid water,” Mr. Ojha said.研究人员在四个地点发现了能说明水合盐存在的迹象。此外,当条纹消失时,盐的迹象也会消失。“可以非常确定那里存在某种液态水,”欧加说。The perchlorate salts lower the freezing temperature, and the water remains liquid. The average temperature of Mars is about minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit, but summer days near the Equator can reach an almost balmy 70.高氯酸盐会降低冰点,让水保持液态。火星的平均温度大约是零下70华氏度(合零下56摄氏度),但夏天在赤道附近的温度可以达到温暖的70华氏度。Many mysteries remain. For one, scientists do not know where the water is coming from.疑惑依然存在。比如科学家不知道水是从哪里来的。“There are two basic origins for the water: from above or from below,” Dr. McEwen said. The perchlorates could be acting like a sponge, absorbing moisture out of the air, but measurements indicate very low humidity on Mars — only enough for 10 microns, or about 1/2,500th of an inch, of rain across the planet if all of the wetness were wrung out of the air.“水的来源基本上就是两个,从上面来,或从下面来,”麦克尤恩说。高氯酸盐能起到海绵的作用,吸收空气里的水分,但勘测显示火星上的湿度很低——假设空气中所有的湿度都被挤出来,那么整个星球的降水仅为10微米。That idea cannot be ruled out if the lower part of the atmosphere turns out more humid than currently thought.如果大气层的近地部分实际上比目前估计的更潮湿,那么这种水从上面来的可能性是不能排除的。“We have very poor measurements of relative humidity near the surface,” Dr. McEwen said.“我们对接近地表的相对湿度测量效果很糟,”麦克尤恩说。The other possibility is underground aquifers, frozen during winter, melting during summer and seeping to the surface.其他的可能性包括地下含水层,在冬季结冰,到夏季融化,渗入地表。Liquid water is considered one of the essential ingredients for life, and its presence raises the question of whether Mars, which appears so dry and barren, could possess niches of habitability for microbial Martians.液态水被认为是生命的必要成分,液态水的存在让人心生疑问,看上去干燥而贫瘠的火星,会不会存在微生物版“火星人”的栖息地。Christopher P. McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, Calif., does not think the recurring slope linae are a very promising place to look. For the water to be liquid, it must be so salty that nothing could live there, he said. “The short answer for habitability is it means nothing,” he said.在加州山景市NASA艾姆斯研究中心(Ames Research Center)工作的天体生物学家克里斯多弗·P·麦凯(Christopher P. McKay)认为,季节性坡纹并非很有前景的方向。他说,水要保持液态,盐度就要足够高,那么就没有什么东西能存活。“在适居性方面,简单说就是毫无意义,”他说。He pointed to Don Juan Pond in Antarctica, which remains liquid year round in subzero temperatures because of high concentrations of calcium chloride salt. “You fly over it, and it looks like a beautiful swimming pool,” Dr. McKay said. “But the water has got nothing.”他提到了南极洲的唐胡安池(Don Juan Pond),由于含有高浓度的氯化钙,那里的水可以在零下的气温下全年保持液态。“你从天上看,它就像个美丽的游泳池,”麦凯说。“但那水里什么也没有。”Earthly life adapts to many hostile environments, but Don Juan Pond is lifeless.世间的生物可以适应许多恶劣的环境,但唐胡安池中没有生命。Others are not so certain. David E. Stillman, a scientist at the Southwest Research Institute’s space studies department in Boulder, Colo., said water for the streaks might be different in different regions. In some, they form only during the warmest times, suggesting that those waters might not be too salty for microbes.但有的人不像他这么肯定。科罗拉多州尔德市的西南研究院( Southwest Research Institute)太空研究部科学家戴维·E·斯蒂尔曼(David E. Stillman)说,在不同地区造成条纹的水可能是不同的。有的地方只在温度最高的时候出现,表明那些水可能盐度没那么高,微生物可以存活。“If it was too salty, they would be flowing year round,” Dr. Stillman said. “We might be in that Goldilocks zone.”“如果盐度太高,它们全年都会是流动的,”斯蒂尔曼说。“我们可能处在那个适居带上。”Even though recurring slope linae appear to be some of the most intriguing features on Mars, NASA has no plans to get a close-up look anytime soon.季节性坡纹看来是火星上最吸引人的特征之一,但NASA不打算在近期对其进行近距离的观察。They are treated as special regions that NASA’s current robotic explorers are barred from because the rovers were not thoroughly sterilized, and NASA worries that they might be carrying microbial hitchhikers from Earth that could contaminate Mars.它们被当做特殊地区,NASA禁止当前的探测机器人进入,因为这些探测器没进行过彻底消毒,NASA担心它们离开地球时携带着的微生物可能会污染火星。Of the spacecraft NASA has sent to Mars, only the two Viking landers in 1976 were baked to temperatures hot enough to kill Earth microbes. NASA’s next Mars rover, scheduled to launch in 2020, will be no cleaner. Sterilizing spacecraft, which requires electronics and systems that can withstand the heat of baking, adds to the cost and complicates the design.在NASA向火星发射的航天器中,只有1976年发射的两艘“维京号”(Viking)着陆器接受过高温烘烤,温度足以杀死地球上的微生物。NASA的下一辆火车探测车定于2020年发射,将更加清洁。给航天器消毒要求电子器件和系统能经受住酷热,这增加了成本,也让设计变得复杂。In selecting the landing site for the 2020 rover, the space agency is ruling out places that might be habitable, including those with recurring slope linae.在为2020年的探测车选择着陆位置时,NASA排除了可能适合居住的地方,包括有季节性坡纹的地方。That prohibition may continue even though two candidate streaks have been identified on the mountain in Gale Crater that NASA’s Curiosity rover is now exploring, a mile or two from its planned path.尽管已在NASA“好奇号”探测车正在探测的盖尔陨石坑(Gale Crater)的那座山上发现了两处疑似条纹,前述禁令可能依然有效。那里距离“好奇号”的原定路线一两英里。NASA and the Curiosity team could decide to approach the streaks without driving onto them, or to simply observe from a distance. The rover is still probably a couple of years away from them.NASA和“好奇号”团队可能会决定接近,但不接触那两处条纹,或者只是从远处观察。探测车可能依然还要过几年,才会达到条纹所在地。NASA officials did not reject the possibility of a detour, although they said it would require analysis and debate.NASA的官员没有否认绕道的可能性,但他们表示此事还需要分析和讨论。In an interview after the news conference, Dr. Green of NASA said that if the streaks in Gale Crater turned out to be recurring slope linae, the space agency would consider how great a contamination threat Curiosity, irradiated by ultraviolet light for several years, might pose to a potential Martian habitat.在新闻发布会结束后接受采访时,来自NASA的格林表示,如果盖尔陨石坑的条纹结果是季节性坡纹,NASA会考虑多年接受紫外线照射的“好奇号”,可能会给潜在的火星居住环境造成多大程度的污染威胁。“If we can go within 20 meters, we can zap it with a laser,” Dr. Green said, referring to an instrument that identifies material inside a rock by the colors of light it emits as it is vaporized. “Then we can learn much more about the details what’s in those R.S.L.s. If we can get closer and actually scoop it up, that would be even better.”“如果去到20米以内的距离,我们就可以用激光去打它,”格林说。他在这里提到了一种仪器,可以根据石头被气化时发出的光的颜色来判断里面是什么物质。“然后,我们会更了解细节,知道那些季节性坡纹内部是什么。如果能再靠近一些,实地去挖掘一下,效果还要更好。” /201510/401918

Engineering Students Use Sound Waves To Extinguish Fires工科男利用声波灭火Water, foam, sand, blankets, and even baking soda are well-known solutions to putting out flames. But sound waves? That has to be a first. But that is exactly what two young engineers from George Mason University are using to douse small fires.洒水、泡沫、沙土、毛毯甚至发酵粉都是常见的灭火方法,但声波灭火也许你是头回听说。Electrical and computer engineering students Viet Tran and Seth Robertson were looking for an interesting idea for their senior research project. That#39;s when they stumbled upon an experiment conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA ) in 2012. 电子工程专业学生Viet Tran和Seth Roberson当时正在为他们大四毕业设计找一个炫酷的方向,随后就偶然间发现了DARPA2012年做过的这个实验。Tran and Robertson decided to challenge themselves and see if they could take the research to the next level and build a fire extinguisher that could be used commercially. As with any radical idea, they faced a lot of skepticism even from faculty members many of whom declined to serve as advisors. Tran和Roberson打算挑战自我,看看能否进一步推进这个实验,制造出一款可以创造商业价值的灭火器。这个不切实际的想法让他们面对很对质疑,甚至还有许多学院成员拒绝做他们的导师。The young engineers first tried to extinguish the fire by placing a subwoofer near a flame created using rubbing alcohol. But they soon realized that #39;music#39; is not such a good idea since it is inconsistent and unpredictable. The next option was exposing the fire to 20,000 to 30,000 hertz frequencies. However with the high frequencies, the flames only vibrated. The duo hit a home run when they reduced the frequency to about 30 to 60 hertz. Turns out that at these low frequencies, the sound vibrates the oxygen away from the flames. With no fuel to keep them going, the fire suffocates and dies.两位年轻的工程师首先尝试了用低音炮熄灭酒精火源。很快,他们认识到,用音乐来灭火并不是一个好主意,因为音乐不连贯也不规则。另一个方案是把火置于2万到3万赫兹的频率中,但是无论音频有多高,火焰都只是震颤了几下。但当他们把频率降到了30-60赫兹的时候,就开始有效果了。实验明,在低音频下,声波把氧气从火焰中震颤出去,没了燃料,火很快就减小熄灭了。Tran and Robertson are not letting naysayers stray them from their goal. They are forging ahead with their idea, this time with the full support of the University who is even helping them apply for a provisional patent. If they do succeed, there may be soon be a time when fire trucks will be extinguishing flames with some sweet music, instead of messy toxic chemicals!这时的Tran和Roberson并没有让唱反调的人阻挡他们前进的步伐,他们正在不断推进自己的想法,也获得了来自校方的全力持。校方甚至要帮助他们申请为临时专利。如果发明成功的话,救火车以后就会不用脏脏的有毒化学物品灭火了,放些甜美的音乐就能搞定一切。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/385821

  Uber is set to launch operations in another seven Indian cities.Uber将在印度另外7个城市开展业务。The move marks the biggest simultaneous expansion outside the US in the ride-sharing group’s history and underlining its attempts to keep pace with cut-price local rival Ola.此举标志着这家出行分享公司自成立以来在美国以外规模最大的同步扩张,也突显出Uber试图跟上印度本地低价打车应用Ola的步伐。The new push comes amid a period of rapid investment for the San Francisco based company, and confirms India as its largest market by number of cities served outside the US — bringing the total to 18.这家总部位于旧金山的公司正处于一个快速投资期,这一新举措印了一点:根据开通务的城市的数量计算,印度是Uber在美国以外的最大市场。Uber在印度开通务的城市将达到18个。Uber is midway through a .5bn equity funding round at a valuation of about bn, which it plans to use to pour resources into India and China.Uber正展开一轮15亿美元的股权融资,使其估值达到500亿美元左右,该公司计划利用这笔融资向印度和中国投入巨额资金。The Indian expansion follows an email to investors from Uber chief executive Travis Kalanick last month, which showed that it planned to spend bn to set up operations in dozens of locations in China this year.在Uber在印度扩张业务之前,该公司首席执行官特拉维斯#8226;兰格尼(Travis Kalanick)上月曾致信投资者,表示Uber计划今年拿出10亿美元在中国多个城市开展业务。Uber’s push in India marks the start of a similar growth spurt, as it moves beyond larger urban centres and begins to tap more so-called tier-two cities during the second half of this year.Uber在印度的举措标志着类似的井喷式发展的开始,该公司计划在今年下半年将目光转向规模较大的城市以外,开始拓展更多所谓的二线城市。 /201507/383880

  Trading of shares in ZTE was suspended in Hong Kong and Shenzhen yesterday after news of a US investigation into whether China’s second-largest telecommunications equipment maker violated US controls on exports to Iran. 中兴通讯(ZTE)股票昨日在香港和深圳停牌,此前有消息称,美国方面正在调查这家中国第二大电信设备制造商是否违反了美国针对伊朗的出口管制。 ZTE said it was co-operating with the US authorities. Reuters reported at the weekend that the US Department of Commerce was set to place export restrictions on the company. ZTE sells 8-10 per cent of the world’s telecoms equipment, according to Nomura, and counts Iran among its customers. 中兴通讯表示,正在与美国有关部门合作。据路透社(Reuters)周末报道,美国商务部(US Department of Commerce)将对该公司实施出口限制措施。野村券(Nomura)数据显示,中兴通讯销售的电信设备占全球的8%至10%,伊朗是其客户之一。 “ZTE has been working with relevant US government departments on investigations, maintaining communication with relevant departments and is committed to fully address and resolve any concerns,” it said in a statement. “中兴通讯一直在配合美国相关政府部门调查,保持与相关部门沟通,致力于全面处理和解决任何问题,”该公司在一份声明中表示。 The company added that it would continue with normal operations while it conducted internal assessments. 该公司还表示,将继续正常运营,同时进行内部评估。 “As a responsible business, ZTE strives to ensure all operational activities adhere to international trade practices and the laws and regulations of host countries,” it said. “作为一家负责任的企业,中兴通讯努力确保所有经营活动遵守国际行业惯例以及所在国的法律法规,”该公司表示。 The company yesterday suspended trading in its shares, according to statements to the Hong Kong and Shenzhen stock exchanges, but did not explain why. 根据提交香港和深圳券交易所的声明,该公司昨日将其股票停牌,但没有解释原因。 ZTE’s Hong Kong-listed shares closed up 3.5 per cent last Friday, but are down 20 per cent so far this year. 中兴通讯在香港上市的股票上周五收涨3.5%,但今年以来累计下滑20%。 Leping Huang, telecoms and tech-nology analyst at Nomura in Hong Kong, said notice from the Department of Commerce, expected today [March 8], should clarify the scope of the restrictions. 野村券常驻香港的电信和技术分析师黄乐平表示,美国商务部预计今日(3月8日)将发布的通知,应该会说明限制措施的范围。 Nomura does not expect any impact on product sales in the US, but says restrictions would probably require any company shipping US-made parts or equipment to ZTE to first obtain a licence from the Department of Commerce. 野村券不认为限制措施会影响中兴在美国的产品销售,但表示这些措施很可能要求向中兴发运美国制造部件或设备的任何公司首先取得美国商务部的许可。 In an analyst note, Nomura estimated that 10-15 per cent of the components used in ZTE’s telecom equipment and smartphones were supplied by US-based vendors as of last year. It said major suppliers include Qualcomm, which supplies smartphone chips, and Xilinx and Altera for base station chips. 野村券在一份分析师简报中估计,就去年而言,中兴通讯电信设备和智能手机所用的10%至15%组件是由总部位于美国的供应商供应的。它称,主要供应商包括供应智能手机芯片的高通(Qualcomm),以及供应基站芯片的Xilinx和Altera。 A person briefed by ZTE on the situation said the company does not foresee an immediate impact on production because it has just finished procurement of US parts for 2016. 听取了中兴通讯情况介绍的一名人士称,该公司并不预见生产将立即受到影响,因为它刚刚完成2016年的美国部件采购。 However, if restrictions remained in place over the long term, ZTE may experience somedisruptionto its supply-chain. 但是,如果限制措施长期实行下去,中兴通讯可能会遇到一些供应链中断的问题。 This is not the first time the company has run into trouble with US authorities. In 2012 ZTE and Huawei, its larger domestic competitor, were informally blocked from selling telecoms infrastructure in the US and barred from investing in US companies after the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence accused both of spying on behalf of Chinese authorities. 这已经不是该公司第一次在美国当局那里遇到麻烦。2012年中兴和规模更大的国内竞争对手华为(Huawei)被非正式地禁止在美国销售电信基础设施或投资于美国企业,原因是众议院常设特别情报委员会(House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence)指控两家公司为中国政府从事间谍活动。 Both companies have long rejected the spying accusations. 两家公司一贯否认有关间谍活动的指控。 /201603/430766。

  

  A 12-year-old girl who had an inkling she might be quite clever has taken a test and proved she was absolutely right。一位12岁的天才少女,在一项测试后,明了她的超群智慧。Lydia Sebastian achieved the top score of 162 on Mensa’s Cattell III B paper, suggesting she has a higher IQ than well-known geniuses Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking。莉迪亚塞巴斯蒂安在门萨卡特尔考试中取得了最高分—162分,这一高分表明她的智商比著名天才爱因斯坦和霍金都要高!The comparison doesn’t sit well with the British student, who’s currently in Year 8 at Colchester County high school, a selective girl’s grammar school in Essex, England。这个女孩,目前在英国埃塞克斯科尔切斯特县一所女子文科高中八年级就读,对测试结果还有点难以接受。;I don’t think I can be compared to such great intellectuals such as Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking. They’ve achieved so much. I don’t think it’s right,; Lydia told CNN。“我和爱因斯坦和霍金这样的伟人根本无法相提并论。他们有着卓越的成就,我和他们根本无法比,”莉迪亚告诉CNN。Lydia sat the test in her summer holidays, after raising the idea with her parents and pestering them for the best part of a year。莉迪亚和父母有了这样的想法后,在一年中最好的时间—暑假进行了这项测试。It turns out the test wasn’t that hard after all。然而,莉迪亚发现测试并没有那么难。;I was really nervous before the test and I thought it was going to be really hard. But as I started the test, I thought it was a bit easier than I thought it was going to be,; she said。她说,“测试之前我真的很紧张,以为会很难。但测试开始后,我发现它比我想象的要容易一些”。Lydia’s not quite sure what she wants to do when she leaves school, although she’s leaning toward something ;based around maths, because it’s one of my favorite subjects.;莉迪亚对毕业后要做什么并没有什么打算,但她可能会选择“和数学相关的东西,因为这是我最喜欢的科目之一。”;All I’m going to do is work as hard as I can, and see where that gets me,; she said。“我现在要做的就是努力、努力学习,看我能做到怎样,”她说。To put Lydia’s mark in perspective, the top adult score in the Cattell III B test, which primarily tests verbal reasoning, is 161. A top 2% score -- which allows entry to Mensa, the club for those with high IQs -- would be 148 or over. Lydia scored 162, placing her in the top 1% of the population。从莉迪亚的分数来看,门萨卡特尔III B测试主要测试言语推理,成年人最高分也才161。前2%的分数才能被允许进入门萨俱乐部,该俱乐部只面向分数在148以上、智商极高的人群。莉迪亚得分162,在所有人中处于前1%的位置。 /201509/400910SAN FRANCISCO — The basics of the Apple Watch have been known since September, but now, a few weeks before the watch’s arrival in stores, Apple has finally revealed how much it will cost.旧金山——从去年9月开始,外界就已经知道Apple Watch的基本情况了,但现在,在离这款手表上架只剩几星期时,苹果(Apple)终于公布了它的价格。The company on Monday held a media event here to remind people about the features of the Apple Watch and share more details about the product, including its cost. It also demonstrated what the watch was capable of doing with apps made by other companies.周一,苹果公司在这里举行了媒体发布会,向人们介绍Apple Watch的功能,并分享了这款产品的更多细节,包括其价格。公司还展示了这款手表能通过其他公司开发的应用,实现怎样的功能。“Apple Watch is the most personal device we have ever created,” said Timothy D. Cook, Apple’s chief executive. “It’s not just with you. It’s on you.”“Apple Watch是我们所开发的最私人的设备,”苹果公司首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)说。“你不只是带着它,而且是戴着它。”The Apple Watch is a miniature computer worn around a person’s wrist, with a touch screen and a so-called digital crown for navigating the device. You can receive and respond to calls on the watch, but it requires an iPhone to fully operate.Apple Watch是一台戴在人手腕上的微型电脑,配有触摸屏和用于操作的所谓“数字表冠”。用户可以在这款手表上接听和回拨来电,但需要有一部iPhone才能正常运行。“I have been wanting to do this since I was 5 years old,” Mr. Cook said.“从五岁开始,我就一直想这么做,”库克说。Unlike past Apple products, the Apple Watch has a complex pricing structure. Because a smart watch is both gadget and fashion accessory, Apple designed its device to be highly customizable to suit the tastes of various consumers, from fitness buffs to collectors of luxury watches.不同于过去的苹果产品,Apple Watch有着一个复杂的定价结构。因为智能手表既是一种小型电子设备,又是一款时尚配饰。经过苹果的设计,这款手表十分便于定制,从而适应各类消费者的品味,从健身爱好者到奢侈手表藏家。Apple will offer three models of Apple Watch, each with a casing made of a different material: Watch Sport, a version with an aluminum case; Watch, which has a stainless steel case; and Watch Edition, which has a case made of 18-karat gold.苹果将提供三款Apple Watch,各款表壳材质不同:Watch Sport是铝制表壳;Watch是不锈钢表壳;Watch Edition的表壳则由18K金制成。Each model comes in two case sizes — 1.5 inches and 1.65 inches. And for each watch, customers will be able to choose from a variety of interchangeable bands in different colors and materials.每款的表盘都有两个尺寸——1.5英寸和1.65英寸(38毫米和42毫米)。消费者还可以为每一款手表选择颜色和材质各异的表带,这些表带可以换着用。The cheapest model is the Apple Watch Sport, the one tailored to athletes, which starts at 9. The larger Apple Watch Sport costs 9.最便宜型号的是为运动爱好者定制的Apple Watch Sport,起售价349美元(约合2200元人民币),表盘较大的Apple Watch Sport售价399美元。The next step up is the Apple Watch, with a more fashionable stainless steel case. The smaller version of this watch costs 9 to ,040, and the larger one costs 9 to ,099. The price range for both depends on the band.接下来是拥有更时尚的不锈钢表壳的Apple Watch。表盘较小的Apple Watch售价在549美元至1040美元之间,表盘较大的售价在599美元至1099美元之间。两款的价格区间视表带而定。The Apple Watch Edition, which has a case made of 18-karat gold, is a sure sign that Apple has entered the luxury market. Pricing for the high-end version starts at ,000.表壳由18K金制成的Apple Watch Edition明确地显示出,苹果已进入了奢侈品市场。这款高端产品的起售价是1万美元。Preorders for the various versions of the watch start April 10, and it will go on sale on April 24. It will first be available in a number of countries, including the ed States, Australia, China and Japan.苹果从4月10日开始接受各款手表的预订,产品将在4月24日发售,首发国家包括美国、澳大利亚、中国和日本等国。At the event, Apple also stressed some of the signature features of the device.在媒体发布会上,苹果还强调了这款设备的部分标志性的功能和特性。Apple has highlighted the crown as its latest signature innovation for controlling a device, similar to the mouse pointer for the personal computer, the click wheel on the iPod and the touch screen for the iPhone. On the Apple Watch, the crown can be twisted to zoom in or out of the screen or to scroll through a web page.苹果还着重介绍了其在设备控制上最新的标志性创新设计表冠,它类似于个人电脑上的鼠标指针、iPod上的点击轮,或者iPhone的触屏。在Apple Watch上,可以旋转表冠来放大和缩小屏幕上的图标,或者上下滑动浏览网页。The watch includes a heart rate sensor and a sensor for tracking movement to complement fitness applications. It has a chip that helps it make wireless payments.这款手表内置了一个心率感应器和一个追踪运动的感应器,以持健身应用。它内置的一个芯片还可以实现无线付。The watch also includes Digital Touch, an application that enables a new method of communication between watch users. Watch wearers can scribble sketches on the watch screen and send them to one another, or even send their heartbeats.这款手表还带有一款名为“数字触碰”(Digital Touch)的应用,它可以让手表用户以一种新的方法交流。用户可以在手表屏幕上简略地写下一些内容发给其他用户,甚至可以发送自己的心跳声。Apple also added to the watch a so-called taptic engine, which “taps” users on the wrist with a tactile sensation when they receive alerts, messages or notifications.苹果还为这款手表增加了所谓的“轻拍引擎”(taptic engine),它在收到提醒、消息或通知时会“轻拍”用户的手腕,产生触碰的感觉。Apple said the watch’s battery would last 18 hours. To help users prolong battery life, Apple designed a mode called Power Reserve, which runs the watch in low energy while only displaying the time. Power Reserve can be toggled on and off.苹果称,这款手表可续航18个小时。为了帮助用户延长电池寿命,苹果设计了一个叫做“蓄能”(Power Reserve)的模式,以较低的电量维持手表的运行,屏幕上只显示时间。用户可以选择是否开启这个功能。Apple demonstrated third-party apps working on the watch. An app developed by Starwood hotels sends a notification to watch wearers when they are near their hotels; the app can also unlock the user’s room door. The watch also supports the Uber app for summoning a car. The app shows where the driver is on a map, and from there, the user can place a phone call to the driver.苹果还展示了一些第三方应用在手表上的运行情况。喜达屋酒店(Starwood)开发的一款应用,可以在用户临近旗下酒店时,向用户发送通知,该应用还可以打开用户的房间门。这款手表还持叫车应用Uber,该应用可以在地图上显示司机的位置,用户还可以用手表给司机打电话。Apple also announced a new MacBook laptop with a 12-inch high-resolution “retina” display. Philip Schiller, the company’s head of marketing, said the new MacBook was the thinnest and lightest laptop the company had ever made. It weighs two pounds and measures 13.1 millimeters at its thickest point.苹果还发布了一款配有12英寸高分辨率视网膜(retina)屏的新MacBook笔记本电脑。苹果的市场营销总监菲利普·席勒(Philip Schiller)说,这款新MacBook是公司迄今为止推出的最轻薄的笔记本电脑。它的重量为两磅,最厚的地方只有13.1毫米。The MacBook also includes a trackpad with sensors that can detect how hard a user is clicking. A hard click on the fast-forward button on a , for example, will make the run faster.这款MacBook上的触摸板带有传感器,可以检测用户的点按力度。例如,如果用户使劲按住视频的快进键,快进的速度就会加快。The new MacBook features a new battery design to provide all-day battery life, Mr. Schiller said.席勒说,新的MacBook拥有新的电池设计,可以续航整整一天。The MacBook uses a new port called USB-C. It is a versatile port that can be used for charging, plugging in a monitor, or hooking up a USB accessory like a keyboard. Like the latest iPhones, the new MacBook comes in silver, dark gray and gold. It starts at ,300 and shipping begins April 10.这款MacBook采用了一种叫做USB-C的新接口,它有很多功能,可以用来充电、连接视频监控,或者连接USB配件,比如键盘。和最新的iPhone一样,新款MacBook有银色、深灰和金色三种颜色。最低售价为1300美元,将于4月10日开始发售。Apple on Monday also released upgrades for some of its other notebooks, including the MacBook Air.周一,苹果还发布了一些其他款式笔记本电脑的最新型号,其中包括MacBook Air。 /201503/363484

  Goldfish Now Have Better Attention Spans Than We Do人类注意力比金鱼还差Last week, Microsoft released a study that sought to analyze the impact that technology – cellphones and social media specifically – is having on our attention span and the quality of our focus. They found some pretty significant changes compared with research conducted 15 years ago. Let#39;s take a look at the findings.上周,微软公司就现代科技——手机和社交媒体对我们注意力时长和质量的影响做了一项调查。研究发现,与15年前做的调查相比,有了很大的改变。让我们来看看调查结果。1. The average attention span has fallen to just eight seconds.1.平均注意力时长降到了8秒The average human attention span in 2000 was 12 seconds, and now it#39;s just eight. The decrease was found across genders and all age groups. Apparently, a goldfish has an attention span of nine seconds. Measuring the attention span of animals is sort of tricky stuff though … so it#39;s possible we still have them beat.2000年人类平均注意力时长为12秒,现在只有8秒。各个年龄段的注意力时长都有下降。连一条金鱼的注意力时长都有9秒。不过研究动物时会有其他不确定因素,所以也许我们仍领先。。。2. Young people were most likely to demonstrate addiction-like behaviors when it came to digital technology.2.年轻人更容易痴迷科技产品Seventy-seven percent of 18- to 24-year-olds responded ;yes; when asked if the following statement was true for them: ;When nothing is occupying my attention, the first thing I do is reach for my phone.; Only 10 percent of people over 65 said the same thing.当问及以下问题是,18到24年龄段的青年中有77%人回答“是的”。这些问题是:“如果眼前没什么可做的,我会想到第一件事就是看手机。”而65岁以上人群中仅有10%会这么做。3. Young people may be more alert, just for shorter increments of time.3.相对下降的注意力,年轻人更灵敏The good news is that these young people, ;early adopters of technology,; as the study sometimes refers to them, have developed some strengths to accommodate for their shorter attention spans. 好消息是这项研究提到,那些走在科技前沿的年轻人已经进化出其他能力来弥补较短的注意力时长。4. The ability to multitask has improved.4.同时处理多重事件的能力有改变Part of the explanation for the shortened attention span comes from what the study refers to as ;multi-screening; – viewing multiple screens at once, using social media while consuming the latest news, etc. As long as the environment is active, early tech adopters are able to process information and commit it to memory more efficiently. But, their capabilities fall short if the digital experience is passive – probably due to their decreased ability to focus for long periods of time. 变短的注意力时长有些方面也可归因为“多屏”处理能力,即人们可以同时注视多个屏幕,比如看新闻的时候使用社交应用,等等。在主动环境下,使用科技产品的老手可以更有效的处理信息并把信息储存在记忆里。但是,如果是被动的,这些能力很可能会因为他们下降的注意力时长而减弱。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201509/393785Wu Wenjun and Wu#39;s Method吴文俊及“吴方法”wu Wenjun, a well known mathematician, born in Shanghai in May 1919, graduated from Shanghai Jiaotong University in 1940. In 1947,he went to France for advanced study in University of Strassbourg. In 1949, he obtained his national doctor s degree of France.In 1957, he was elected as an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences ( CAS). In 1990, he was elected as an academician of the Third World Academy of Sciences.吴文俊,1919年5月12日出生于中国上海,著名的数学家,1940年毕业于上海交通大学,1949年获得法国斯特拉斯堡大学士学位。1957年,他被选举为中国科学院( CAS)的院士。1990年,被选举为第三世界科学院科学院士。His research work covered a wide area of mathematics.lts main achievements involved two areas of topology and mathematical mechanization. In the late 1970s, against the background of great development of computer technology, he has inherited and developed the tradition of ancient Chinese mathematics (that is, algorithm of thinking), and turned to study automated theorem proving, completely changed the face of this area. As a disciplinary precursor, Wu made monumental contributions to the field of topology by introducing Wu#39;s imbedding and characteristic classes and establishing Wu#39;s Formulae, well-known for Wu#39;s Method, which have been widely accepted by his counterparts and had exerted worldwide influence. Wu#39;s research has made a series of international leading results and has been applied internationally popular symbolic computation software.吴文俊的研究工作涉及数学的诸多领域,其主要成就表现在拓扑学和数学机械化两个领域。他为拓扑学做了奠基性的工作。20世纪70年代后期,在计算机技术大发展的背景下,他继承和发展了中国古代数学的传统(即算法化思想),转而研究几何定理的机器明,彻底改变了这个领域的面貌,是国际自动推理界先驱性的工作。他的示性类和示嵌类研究被国际数学界称为“吴公式”,“吴示性类”,“吴示嵌类”,并在国际上产生了深远影响,被称为“吴方法”。吴的研究取得了一系列国际领先成果并已应用于国际上当前流行的符号计算软件方面。 /201602/419404

  In the past, companies sought to please old customers and entice new ones by offering small holiday gifts. They gave away refrigerator magnets, calendars, and Christmas ornaments emblazoned with the company logo.过去,公司会在节日提供一些小礼品来取悦老顾客,招徕新顾客。他们会送出带有公司标志的冰箱贴、日历、以及圣诞装饰等。But in today’s geo-encoded, app-enabled world, sophisticated companies are trying something new to build trust and relationships with customers. We call them ‘benevolent apps.’ Unlike some apps that are designed to generate sales and promote special deals, benevolent apps are created to offer useful information or otherwise help with decision-making. The idea is not simply to sell products or services, but instead to build trust and relationships that eventually will lead to economic success.但如今,那些成熟老道的公司正尝试用一些新手段赢得消费者的信赖,并与他们建立情感联系。我们把它们称作“亲善应用”。与那些用来提升销量和推销打折商品的应用不同,亲善应用旨在提供实用或其他能帮助用户决策的信息。这样做并不是为了促进产品或务销售这么简单,而是为了建立信赖和联系,从而最终获得经济上的成功。One good example comes from Sea Tow Service International, a company located in Southold, New York. Sea Tow offers emergency towing and rescue services for boaters in the ed States, the Caribbean and Europe. The free Sea Tow app supports boaters’ navigation needs by offering information about local tide tables, detailed marine weather forecasts, GPS coordinates and bearing and speed.Sea Tow Service International就是一个很好的例子,这家位于纽约州绍斯霍尔德的公司,为美国、加勒比海和欧洲的船员提供紧急拖曳和救援务。他们的免费应用Sea Tow会提供当地潮汐表、详细的海洋天气预报、GPS坐标、航行方位和速度等船员定位所需的信息。A traditional marketer might argue that to the extent that Sea Tow furnishes information that can reduce accidents (thereby reducing Sea Tow calls), it is undercutting its own business. A boater, however, might be favorably disposed toward calling Sea Tow instead of its competitor, Tow Boat US, if faced with an emergency.传统的营销人员也许会认为,从某种意义上说Sea Tow提供的信息会减少事故(因此也就减少了Sea Tow收到的呼救数),这会妨碍公司本身的业务。然而,感受到这份友善的船员当面临紧急状况时,可能就会倾向于呼叫Sea Tow,而不是它的竞争对手Tow Boat US。To further study this concept, we worked with two companies—Liberty Mutual and Suruga Bank—to create two benevolent apps and then test the results.为了进一步研究这个概念,我们与利宝互助保险集团和骏河两家公司合作,创建了两个亲善应用并测试它们的效果。The Liberty Mutual app was aimed at people who were in the process of moving. The app included a digital “safe,” where they could record with text and photos their valuable-items and an inventory tool where they could record the contents of their boxes.这款利宝互助应用面向正在搬家的人群。该应用拥有一个数字“保险箱”,可以让用户用文字和照片记录自己的贵重物品;还有一个清单工具,可供用户记录箱子中的物品。Although Liberty Mutual offers auto, homeowners and personal property insurance, it does not offer moving insurance. So why did the company find the idea of creating an app to help people move appealing? Their goal was to build trust through benevolence and to improve brand image, consideration and purchase intent. On the final screen of the app, users could contact Liberty Mutual for more information on the products they offer including home, life and accident insurance. So although the app was benevolent, it had a mechanism for capturing goodwill by linking users to the company’s agents.尽管利宝互助提供汽车、房屋和个人财产保险,却并不提供搬迁保险。那么为何公司会有兴趣做一款帮人搬迁的应用呢?它的目标是通过这款亲善应用建立信赖,提高品牌形象、关注度,增强顾客的购买意愿。在应用的最后一个页面,用户可以联系利宝互助,获得更多关于该公司产品的信息,包括家庭保险、人寿保险和意外保险。所以尽管它属于亲善应用,却能建立用户和公司员工的联系,从而提高公司的商誉。The app was tested in 2010 in a comprehensive market research study of 750 consumers. Overall, respondents viewed the Liberty Mutual moving app as meaningful, believable and relevant. The favorable user experience led to positive attitude changes toward Liberty Mutual, which considers responsibility and trust to be among its key brand attributes. The company saw a significant increase in its trust rating, believability and confidence attributes.2010年,该应用经过了面向750名顾客的综合市场调研。总体来说,调查对象认为利宝互助的搬迁应用很有意义、很可靠,与他们的生活密切相关。这种良好的用户体验使得人们对该公司的态度有了正向的转变,他们觉得负责和值得信赖是该公司的品牌特质。利宝互助在信用评分、可信度和品牌信心上都有了显著提升。The second app we created was for Suruga Bank, a bank based in Shizuoka, Japan. Called, Dream Mover, it helped Japanese consumers choose new homes to purchase or rent and assisted them in understanding the financial implications of different decisions. Based on the user’s location and budget criteria, the app presented a set of home choices with details such as size, layout and proximity to public transportation. In addition to helping users screen potential places to live, the app acted as a budget-planning advisor, providing information on personal loans and mortgages as well as providing targeted advice.我们的第二个应用是为位于日本静冈市的骏河(Suruga Bank)创建的。这个应用名为Dream Mover,可以帮助日本顾客选择要购买或租赁的新房,并帮助他们弄清不同情况下涉及的财务问题。该应用能根据用户的地址和预算要求,显示一系列备选房屋,并给出大小、布局、是否便于搭乘公共交通工具等细节。此外,为了帮助用户筛选可能的居住地,Dream Mover还扮演了预算规划顾问的角色,为用户提供个人贷款和抵押信息以及其他具有针对性的建议。To assess the impact of Dream Mover, we surveyed 1,500 randomly selected respondents and found that among those who used the app, there was a measured increase in awareness, trust and positive consideration of Suruga Bank. Specifically, the bank’s ratings were significantly improved for characteristics such as being “open, honest and transparent” and offering “believable advice or information and a brand you can trust.”为了解Dream Mover的影响力,我们随机选择了1,500名受访者,发现那些用过这款应用的人对骏河的关注度、信赖度和正面印象都有提升。尤其要指出的是,骏河在“坦率、诚实和透明”等公司特色和提供“可靠的建议或信息,是一个你可以信赖的品牌”等选项的评分都有了显著提高。Our two studies show that benevolent mobile apps can positively impact a company’s brand perception, consideration and preference and therefore improve the bottom line. People using the Liberty Mutual app became significantly more inclined to prefer Liberty Mutual and switch to it for insurance versus competitors. Additionally, the brand attributes related to trust increased. In the Suruga Bank study, consideration of Suruga also rose significantly. As with the Liberty Mutual study, brand attributes related to trust rose significantly.我们的两项研究明,亲善应用可以加强人们对公司品牌的认知、关注和偏好,并由此提升公司营收。使用利宝互助应用的用户明显对利宝互助更有好感,更倾向于在保险务中选择它而不是其他竞争者。此外,用户对品牌的信赖感也有所增强。在骏河的案例中,用户对该公司的关注度同样有显著提升。而与利宝互助的案例一样,用户对骏河的信赖感也增强了。These are powerful forces that can lead to increased revenue from consumers who perceive that the brand has their interests in mind.这些亲善应用可以让顾客认为该品牌关心他们感兴趣的东西,并因此成为促进营收增长的强大力量。(财富中文网) /201412/350920

  

  

  New iPhone release date leaked新一代iPhone发布日期揭晓Apple#39;s next iPhone will be released on Sept 25, it has been revealed by Vodafone, a provider of telecommunications services.据电信务提供商沃达丰透露,下一代iPhone将于9月25日面市。In an email to staff, the operator also outlined pre-launch information, including plans to begin taking pre-orders for the device from Sept 18.在一封沃达丰写给内部员工的电子邮件里,沃达丰还介绍了新产品发布前的一些计划,包括新产品将从9月18日开始接受预订The email described the device as the ;New iPhone;, suggesting Apple may look to follow its strategy with its iPads by not giving it a number.邮件将新产品称作;新iPhone;,这意味着,苹果对下一代iPhone的命名可能会效仿iPad,不用数字直接命名。 /201506/379316

  Xu Xiake and The Travel Diaries of Xu Xiake徐霞客与《徐霞客游记》A traveler and geographer of the late Ming Dynasty(1368一1644) Xu Xiake, also named Hongzu(1587一1641)was born in today’s Jiangyin of East China’s Jiangsu Province. He studied the ancient classics as a small boy and teamed to write the eight-part essay prescribed for the imperial civil service examination,but refused to take part in the imperial examination. Instead,he de-veloped an interest in historical books,especially such books on different places,and devoted himself to traveling all over the country.徐霞客(1587-1641),原名弘祖,字振之,别号霞客,江苏江阴人,明代杰出的地理学家、旅行家。童年上私塾时,即听背经书,作八股文。但徐霞客偏偏没兴趣,有兴趣的是看古今史书,尤其是地方志并遍游名山大川。From the age of 21,Xu Xiake began to travel around and for thirty years he conducted surveys in 16 provinces,leaving his footsteps in virtually every part of the country. In conducting his surveys and investigations,he would never blindly embrace the conclusions recorded in previous documents. Instead,he discovered that the documentations made by his predecessors in their geographical studies were quite unreliable in many aspects.21岁开始出游,30年间足迹遍及现在江苏、浙江、安徽、山东、河北、山西、陕西、河南、湖北、湖南、福建、广东、广西、江西、贵州、云南等16个省区。在他的调查研究中,他从不盲目轻信前人留下的文献总结。相反,他发现了前人在文献中记述的地理研究有很多谬误偏差。To ensure that his reconnaissance were real and detailed,he seldom traveled by ship or by wagon. He climbed over mountains and hills and traveled long dis-lances almost entirely on foot.为了使自己的勘察具体准确,他几乎舍弃了乘车或乘船,而是不畏艰险,徒步跋涉。Xu’s main contributions to geography include:他在地理学上的重要贡献主要有:-A detailed scientific study of the karst landform. Xu visited over 270 caves in the(South China) Guangxi Autonomous Region and in(Southwest) Guizhou and (Southwest)Yunnan provinces,kept records of their directions, height, and depth,and elaborated on the cause of the formation. He was a pioneer in system-alit karst studies in both China and the world.对喀斯特地貌类型分布和差异,有详细的考察和科学的记述。仅在广西、贵州、云南三省,他亲自探察270多个洞穴,且有方向、高宽、深度之具体记载并初步论述成因,他是中国和世界广泛考察喀斯特地貌的卓越先驱;-Correcting some mistakes of the records on the source and waterways of Chinese rivers.纠正了文献记载的关于中国水道源流的一些错误;-Observing and recording the species of many plants,explicitly putting for-ward the influences that landform,temperature,and wind speed might have on the distribution and blooming of plants.观察记述了很多植物的生态品种,明确提出了地形、气温、风速对植物分布和开花早晚的各种影响;-Conducting survey on the vol-cano relics of Tengchong Mountain in South China’s Yunnan Province.Xu kept records of the shape and quality of the red pumice expelled from the volcano,and provided sci-entific explanation on the phenome-non.调查了云南腾冲山的火山遗迹,科学记录与解释了喷发出来的红色浮石的形状、质地或成因;-A detailed depiction of the phenomenon of terrestrial heat, the earliest of its kind in China.对地热现象的详细描述在中国也是最早的;-An excellent account of the people and places he had traveled.对所到之处的人文地理情况作了不少精的记述。Xu Xiake contribution to the ancient Chinese geography was unprecedented,especially his detailed narration of the karst landform. His travel journal was tom-piled by the later generations into a book called The Travel Diaries of Xu Xiake,which is of high scientific and literary value.他在中国古代地理学史上作出了超越前人的贡献,特别关于喀斯特地貌的详细记述。经后人编辑的《徐霞客游记》,不但具有极高的科学价值,而且具有很高的文学价值,被誉为“千古奇书”。 /201512/410694

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