楼主:京东新闻 时间:2017年12月16日 09:27:19 点击:0 回复:0
More government support, including subsidies and a favorable pricing mechanism, is neededfor the country to use desalinated seawater to quench its thirst, a top industry expert said.;The lack of an effective pricing mechanism for desalinated water and support for an operablepolicy is affecting the development of the country#39;s sea desalination industry,; said Li Linmei,director of the State Oceanic Administration#39;s Institute of Seawater Desalination andMultipurpose Utilization in Tianjin.The country aims to produce 2.2 million cubic meters of desalinated seawater daily in 2015,about three times current capacity, according to a National Development and ReformCommission plan released last year.Current domestic water prices range from 2.4 yuan to 4.9 yuan a metric ton in the coastalregions, while the price of water for industry ranges from 3.3 yuan to 7.9 yuan a ton, accordingto ChinaWaterNet.However, desalination plants can produce 674,000 tons daily at a cost of about 5 yuan (PreviewTheme: BalancityHighlights: Hovering exhibition structuresDesigner: Milla amp; PartnerNational Pavilion Day: May 19展馆主题:和谐都市展馆亮点:悬浮于空中的建筑设计团队:米拉联合设计策划有限公司国家馆日:5月19日 /201005/104726.80)a ton - not including infrastructure such as pipelines.Li said the government should consider bringing desalinated water into the water grid.Aside from subsidies and funding for pilot programs, Li believes desalination is a key part ofwater security.尽管中国已将海水淡化视为解决沿海未来淡水资源短缺的措施之一,但是业内专家认为,淡化水的广泛应用仍存在一定难度。国家海洋局天津海水淡化与综合利用研究所所长李琳梅在接受本报专访时指出,“尚未形成有效淡化水价格机制以及缺乏具体可操作的优惠政策在一定程度上影响了中国海水淡化产业的发展。”相关数据显示,我国海水淡化装机能力为67.4m3/d,海水淡化水综合成本价格约为5元/吨左右。中国水网显示目前我国沿海居民生活用水价格介于为2.4元/吨~4.9元/吨;工业用水价格3.3元/吨~7.85元/吨。与自来水相比,淡化水显然没有价格优势。李琳梅提出,为了促进中国海水淡化产业的发展,国家首先要将海水淡化水视为保障国家水资源安全的重要组成,将淡化水纳入国家水资源配置体系和区域水资源规划。同时,政府应为公益性海水淡化工程提供补贴。;The seawater desalination industry is as important as water conservancy projects for China tocope with its water shortage,; Li said.China suffers from severe water shortages, nearly 54 billion cubic meters on average everyyear. This means that more than 66 percent of cities experience water shortages.To compound that difficulty, water consumption is expected to surge to about 700 billion cubicmeters in 2030, up from 600 billion cubic meters.根据去年国家发展改革委员会发布的《海水淡化产业发展“十二五”规划》,到2015年,海水淡化产能规模将达到220万立方米/日以上,约为目前产能的3倍。该规划还提出,到2015年,海水淡化对解决海岛新增供水量的贡献率达到50%以上,对沿海缺水地区新增工业供水量的贡献率达到15%以上。李琳梅指出,目前中国海水淡化技术发展已基本成熟,但其市场的培育和发展需要实质性的产业政策持。她认为国家财政应设立专项资金,用于持具有自主创新的海水淡化技术及其规模化示范的试点项目。李琳梅说:“作为中国应对水资源短缺的措施,海水淡化与水资源保护同等重要。”根据水利部发布的统计数据,我国年平均缺水量接近540亿立方米,66%以上的城市受到水资源短缺的困扰。水资源缺口仍在不断扩大。到2030年,年水资源消耗量将由目前的600亿立方米增至7000亿立方米。Facing such a severe shortage, authorities are taking measures.In March, the NDRC identified the regions and companies selected to carry out the firstdesalination projects, including heavily populated areas such as Zhejiang and Hebei provinces,and the municipalities of Shenzhen and Tianjin.The commission asked regions and companies to encourage desalinated water use forindustrial and domestic purposes.The industry is expected to get a 10-billion-yuan boost from the plan.Li said the policy showed the country#39;s determination and confidence in boosting the industry.面对如此严峻的水资源短缺,国家开始采取措施以推动海水淡化产业发展。三月份,国家发改委公布了第一批海水淡化工程试点区域和企业,浙江、河北、深圳和天津均榜上有名。发改委要求试点区域和企业积极促进将淡化水应用于工业和住宅。国家发改委预计,海水淡化设备的快速发展将使该行业年均增长达10亿元。李琳梅说,这些政策初步显示了国家推动海水淡化产业发展的决心和信心。Key technologyReverse osmosis technology and other areas of development vital for desalination have beenmastered, Li said.Osmosis technology pushes water under high pressure through fine membranes, filtering thesalt.Coupled with the distilling process of high-pressure steam and evaporators, this means that thetechnology is, in more ways than one, on tap.The country has 16 seawater desalination plants with a daily capacity of more than 10,000metric tons of fresh water, according to the NDRC.;Although we have made great progress in technology, large-scale plants in China still dependon foreign technology,; Li said.中国海水淡化技术李琳梅说,经过50多年的研究,我国已经掌握了反渗透海水淡化技术和低温多效蒸馏海水淡化技术。反渗透技术利用高压推动水通过膜分离出盐,而低温多效蒸馏则由多级组成,通过利用低压蒸汽以产生高纯水。国家发改委表示,2012年我国产水量高于10000立方米/天的海水淡化工程有16个。“尽管我们在海水淡化技术领域已经取得了长足的进步,但目前国内大型海水淡化工程仍主要使用国外技术。”李琳梅这样表示。将国产海水淡化技术应用于工程实践,是提高我国海水淡化自主创新能力的关键。Desalination is used in more than 150 countries to supply water to more than 200 millionpeople.The Tianjin Institute of Seawater Desalination and Multipurpose Utilization is strengtheninginternational cooperation to raise China#39;s domestic seawater desalination technology and boostexports, Li said.There are concerns about the potential environmental effects of large-scale seawaterdesalination plants, especially wastewater discharges.Li said the government should launch an environmental assessment before any major upgrade.至2010年,海水淡化工程已被应用于世界上150多个国家,解决了2亿多人的饮水问题。李琳梅说,目前淡化所正积极开展国际合作,以提升我国自主海水淡化技术在国际市场中的地位,促进国产淡化设备大规模向国外输出。面对迅速发展的中国海水淡化产业,也有人对大规模海水淡化工程的潜在环境影响表示担忧。因为浓海水排放可能会影响临海水域的水质,引起受纳海域盐度、温度的升高。李琳梅表示政府应对高盐度浓海水的排放进行环境影响评估,并提供排放标准。 /201305/238396The 25-year-old Shanghai native Liu Yiwei has had an exhausting holiday during the past seven days. Rather than traveling or working overtime, she was busy hopping from nuptial to nuptial arming "red bombs" with piles of cash.  上海-25岁的上海人刘仪薇度过了一个疲倦的七天长假。她并没有出门旅行或者加班,而是带着塞满现金的“红色炸弹”奔波于婚礼现场间。  "Red bomb" is the popular name for the red envelopes with money that are given as wedding gifts.  “红色炸弹”是个流行词汇,指的是装现金的红色信封(红包),做为给新人的结婚礼物。  "Weddings are supposed to be joyful occasions filled with blessings. But when too many pile up, you feel rushed to complete a series of tasks," said Liu, who attended two weddings in the past week, one of which she was also "working" as the bridesmaid.  “婚礼本来应该是充满祝福的欢乐场景,但是当许多婚礼集中在一起,你会觉得自己是赶着去完成任务。”刘表示,她在过去的一周里参加了两次婚礼,其中一次她还是伴娘。  The weddings can also be a "burden" because, according to Chinese tradition, guests should give couples red envelopes containing money as blessings.  婚礼也是种负担。因为根据中国的传统,参加婚礼的客人需要给新人夫妇一个装钱的红包以示祝福。  "There are no rules specifying how much money you should give at a wedding. It's generally determined by how close you are to the couple," Liu said.  刘说:“没有具体的规定说参加婚礼要给多少钱红包,基本上取决于你跟新人的关系有多亲密。”  "But the common practice is to give no less than 300 to 500 yuan ( to ). Sometimes, it can be a huge proportion of your salary."  “不过,一般的惯例是不能少于300到500元(47-78美元),有时候红包会是工资的很大一部分。”  A netizen nicknamed "xiaoxie", in Guangdong province, has had a similar experience. The office clerk in her twenties attended five weddings in three days during the holiday. She wrote in her blog that she had become "more familiar with the routines of wedding ceremonies than the brides and grooms were".  一位昵称“小谢”的网友称,在广东省也有这样的习俗。20多岁的办公室文员小谢在长假期间三天内参加了5次婚礼。她在客中写到,自己已经比新娘新郎更熟悉婚礼仪式的流程了。  As most of the eighties generation in China has reached prime marriage age, Liu, like millions of her peers, is seeing a new boom of weddings. The weeklong National Day Holiday, one of the two longest holidays in China, has become the most popular time for weddings.  在中国,由于大部分的80后已经到了黄金结婚年龄,和无数的同龄人一样,刘在见中国新的结婚潮的来临。为期一周的国庆节假期作为中国两个最长的假期之一,已经成为最流行的结婚时间。  "It's marriage season," said Liu. "Almost all of my friends are either getting married during these seven days or going to weddings."  刘说,“现在是结婚季。国庆长假,基本我所有的朋友不是在结婚就是去参加婚礼。”  Although statistics on the number of marriages during the long holiday are not yet available, the Shanghai Wedding Trade Association estimates there has been at least a 20 percent increase in the number of weddings compared with the same period of last year.  虽然国庆长假期间的婚姻数量尚未有统计数据,但上海婚庆贸易协会估计,与去年同期相比,今年的婚礼数量至少上涨了20%。  "The peak season for weddings has arrived," said Zhang Jie, the office director of the Shanghai Wedding Trade Association. "And the boom is unlikely to fade for the next five years, if not longer, because the nineties generation may soon join."  “婚礼旺季已经来了。”上海婚庆贸易协会的办公室主任张洁表示,“在今后五年内,就算不能重现今年的旺季场面,这股热潮也不太可能消退,因为90后很快也会加入进来。”  With the huge demand, it's springtime for the wedding planning industry.  由于面临着巨大需求,婚礼策划行业也将迎来新的春天。  According to the association, there are more than 1,000 people trained and registered as wedding announcers on its website this year, which brings the total to more than 4,000.  据该协会统计,今年其网站有超过1千多人接受训练并登记成为婚礼主持人。目前该网站上的婚礼主持人总数已超过4千人。  But during the National Day Holiday, there was still a shortage, which was "unprecedented", according to the association.  不过根据该协会的数据,国庆长假期间也暴露了一个前所未有的人员短缺现象。  Yin Li, a 27-year-old bridal makeup artist, said she had to work throughout the holiday, without the help of her assistant, who was also fully booked during the week.  27岁的新娘化妆师尹丽说,国庆长期期间她一直在工作,而且是在没有助理帮助的情况下,因为她的助理在长期期间也是日程排满。  "All 20 artists and dozens of assistants and students in our studios were totally booked this holiday," said Yin, who had been a film makeup artist until two years ago, but left to enter the more "promising" bridal industry.  尹以前是一位电影化妆师,两年前才转行进入更有前景的婚礼行业。她表示,国庆长假期间工作室里所有20位化妆师以及所有助理和学生全被订满。 /201110/156399Irish homeowners applying for debt writedowns will have to give up satellite television, foreign holidays and private school educations for their children under a strict new insolvency law introduced to tackle the country’s debt crisis.根据新通过的一部旨在化解国家债务危机的严厉的破产法,申请债务减记的爱尔兰房主将被迫放弃卫星电视、外国度假和子女私校教育。Ireland’s Insolvency Service yesterday set out monthly spending limits for people seeking debt deals from creditors, emphasising the impact austerity is having on Irish spending habits. A single person will be allowed only /201304/235920For today's Christian, the origin of Christmas is, and should be, the birth of Jesus Christ as recorded in the Bible. Nothing more and nothing less. However, most of what we witness on December 25th each year has absolutely nothing to do with that blessed day, which probably occurred in late summer or early fall about 2,000 years ago. In fact, most of the customs and traditions of Christmas actually pre-date the birth of Jesus, and many of them are downright deceptive in their meaning and origin. Anyway, who cares whenChrist was born? 耶诞节是一个宗教节日,世人把它当作耶稣的诞辰來庆祝,因而又名耶诞节。这一天,世界所有的基督教会都举行特別的礼拜仪式。但是有很多圣诞节的欢庆活动和宗教并无半点关联。又有人说耶稣诞生是在夏末秋初,并非圣诞之日。然而,圣诞节究竟是否耶稣诞辰之日对于现代人来说已经不那么重要,它就像我们的春节一样,大家相聚一堂,交换礼物,寄圣诞卡,吃火鸡大餐,圣诞节是一个普天同庆的日子。 /200912/92953


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