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A treatment that uses “molecular scissors” to edit genes has been used for the first time by UK medics successfully to treat a one-year-old girl with an “incurable” form of leukaemia.英国医生第一次依靠使用“分子剪刀”修改基因的疗法,成功地治愈了一名患有“无法治愈的”白血病的1岁女孩。The case at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London involved the creation of “designer immune cells” programmed to hunt and kill the disease. The girl, called Layla, is now cancer free and doing well, according to the hospital.伦敦大奥蒙德街医院(Great Ormond Street Hospital)的这一病例,生成经过设计的“人工培育的免疫细胞”去捕捉并治疗疾病。医院称,这个名叫“莱拉”(Layla)的女孩目前摆脱了癌症,身体状况很不错。The breakthrough will add to excitement over the fast-emerging field of gene-editing — a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, replaced or removed from genes to fix faults or fight disease.这次突破将令人对基因编辑这一快速发展的新兴领域感到更加兴奋。基因编辑是基因工程的一种,向基因中插入DNA,替换或取下其中的DNA,从而修复缺陷或战胜疾病。Gene-editing has caused controversy because of its potential to be used in ethically dubious ways, such as the creation of “designer babies”. However, the London success helps show why many scientists are so enthusiastic about the technology.基因编辑引发了争议,因为它可能导致令人产生道德疑虑的用法,比如生成“设计婴儿”。然而,这家伦敦医院的成功也明,为何很多科学家那么热衷于这项技术。The so-called UCART19 cells used at Great Ormond Street had shown promise in animals but had never been used in humans before they were administered as a last-ditch attempt to save Layla after other drugs failed.大奥蒙德街医院使用的所谓UCART19细胞在动物身上已显出良好前景,但除了此次为救活莱拉而做的最后努力之前,该细胞从未应用于人体。此前在莱拉身上使用的其他药物全部失败了。The treatment, developed by a French biotech company called Cellectis, consisted of 1ml of UCART19 cells injected into Layla’s bloodstream. After several weeks it was clear the leukaemia cells were disappearing.这一疗法是由法国生物科技公司Cellectis开发出来的,把1毫升的UCART19细胞注入了莱拉的血流中。几周后,白血病细胞明显开始消失。The treatment is similar to cancer therapies in development using modified T-cells from companies including Novartis of Switzerland and Juno and Kite of the US. However, whereas others use cells extracted from the patient’s own blood, UCART19 cells come from healthy donors.该疗法类似于瑞士的诺华制药(Novartis)以及美国的Juno和Kite等公司开发的使用修饰T细胞治疗癌症的办法。然而,其他疗法使用从病人自身血液中提取的细胞,而UCART19细胞则来自于健康的捐献者。This overcomes the problem of many leukaemia patients not having enough healthy T-cells — a type of white blood cell that fights off disease — to be harvested after chemotherapy.这就克了从化疗后的许多白血病患者体内难以提取到足量健康T细胞的难题。T细胞是一种能够对抗疾病的白血细胞。A further possible advantage is that donor cells can be mass produced for use in any patient, making them potentially more affordable than rival treatments that must be personalised for each individual. High costs are viewed as one of the biggest drawbacks of the so-called CAR-T therapies under development by Novartis, Juno and Kite.一个更有可能的优势在于,捐赠细胞可以大规模生产,并用于任何患者,与因患者而异的其他疗法相比,在成本上更低。诺华制药、Juno和Kite正在研制中的所谓CAR-T疗法的最大缺点之一,就是被认为价格太高。 /201511/408543

In an analysis of the challenges that gallerists are facing, Marc Spiegler, the global director of the Art Basel fairs, suggested last month that about 80 percent of the artists selling well today would be “basically unsellable” in 20 years.巴塞尔艺术展全球总监马克·斯皮勒(Marc Spiegler)上月在一份分析画廊所面对挑战的文章中认为,当今销售情况良好的艺术家之中,有80%可能会在未来20年里“基本上什么都卖不出去”。But that is perfectly fine, Mr. Spiegler wrote in The Art Newspaper, “because collecting contemporary art is about engaging with the zeitgeist.”但这完全没有问题,斯皮勒在《艺术报》(The Art Newspaper)上写道,“因为收藏当代艺术已经成了时代精神的一部分。”It remains to be seen whether such a result will be fine with the thousands of buyers who have been led to believe that contemporary art is also a lucrative investment.对于成千上万名相信当代艺术是一种利润丰厚的投资的买家们来说,这样的结果是否能够接受尚不分明。But Mr. Spiegler’s pronouncement, coming at what he characterized as “a starkly transitional moment in the art world,” is a timely reminder of the extent to which collecting is, and always has been, a gamble.但是斯皮勒的宣言正好在一个被他称之为“艺术界一个非常关键的过度时刻”做出,它及时地提醒人们,艺术收藏是、且一直都是一种。“People buy contemporary art for a range of reasons,” said Guy Jennings, the managing director of the Fine Art Fund Group, an art investment and advisory company in London. “And they aren’t under any illusions that all their artists are going to go up in price.”“人们出于各种各样的原因购买当代艺术品,”伦敦艺术投资与顾问公司“美术基金集团”(Fine Art Fund Group)总经理盖伊·詹宁斯(Guy Jennings)说。“他们并不会幻想买下的所有艺术家作品都会升值。”“But we have become more financially minded,” he said. “At times like these, buyers will be more cautious and look to artists they think will survive.”“但是我们也变得愈来愈有经济头脑,”他说。“像这样的时候,买家们会更加谨慎,寻找他们认为可以生存下来的艺术家。”Last week, as the financial markets were buffeted by concerns about a global slowdown, works by hundreds of postwar and contemporary artists were offered at London’s annual February auctions and exhibitions. With the economic outlook seeming increasingly bearish, which names should buyers back in the face of a possible downturn?上个星期,对全球经济放缓的担忧严重地打击了金融市场,与此同时,在伦敦年度的二月拍卖与展会上,展出了数百幅战后与当代艺术家的作品。经济前景日益下跌,面临可能的低迷期,买家们应该关注哪些名字呢?The results in London offered some clues. At Sotheby’s contemporary sale on Wednesday night, individual prices far above presale estimates created a sense that the market was still booming. Examples were the 16.1 million pounds, or about .2 million, given by a telephone bidder for Lucian Freud’s 1961 portrait of his pregnant 17-year-old lover, Bernadine Coverley, valued at £7 million to £10 million, and the £3.1 million for “The Sunflowers in 1937,” a colossal 2014 faux van Gogh painting by the highly regarded Adrian Ghenie.伦敦拍卖会的结果显示出了一些端倪。周三晚上,苏富比的当代艺术品拍卖会上,几个单件作品的成交价格远高出预估价,让人觉得这个市场还在繁荣期。比如一位电话买家以1610万镑(约合2320万美元),拍下了卢西安·弗洛伊德(Lucian Freud)1961年为怀的17岁恋人伯娜丁·卡芙利(Bernadine Coverley)绘制的画像,该作品预估价在700万至1000万英镑;而巨幅梵高仿作《1937年的向日葵》(The Sunflowers in 1937)拍出了310万英镑,作者是极受好评的艾德里安·格尼(Adrian Ghenie)。Mr. Ghenie’s reputation was enhanced last year when he represented his native Romania at the Venice Biennale. Acquired by its seller less than two years ago from Galerie Judin in Berlin, “The Sunflowers” compellingly combines references to Nazi-era “degenerate art” with a monumental wall presence. Ten bidders pushed the price to more than five times the estimate of £400,000 to £600,000, reflecting the lengthy waiting list for Mr. Ghenie’s small output.格林去年代表祖国罗马尼亚参加双年展,因此声誉有了极大增长。不到两年前,这幅《向日葵》被这次的卖家从柏林的Galerie Judin画廊买下,它惊人地结合了对纳粹时期“堕落艺术”的映射,以及一面纪念墙的形象。十个拍卖者数次提价,把价格从预估的40万到60万英镑提高了五倍,表明格林的作品有多么供不应求。Elsewhere, it seemed like wealthy buyers — and sellers — were keeping one eye on the high-end art and another on the financial market indexes.此外,似乎富有的买家与卖家一面关注高端艺术市场,一面也在关注金融市场指数。Overall numbers at Sotheby’s were down sharply. The 55-lot sale brought in a total of £69.5 million, 44 percent lower than the £123.5 million achieved at the company’s equivalent contemporary auction last February. Twenty-two percent of the lots were left unsold.苏富比的拍卖总额出现大幅下跌。这场拍卖会提供了55件拍品,总共拍出了6950万英镑,和公司去年2月在地位同等的当代艺术品拍卖会上拍出的1.235亿英镑相比,下跌了44%。其中22%拍品没有拍出去。Proceeds this year were dented by the 11th-hour withdrawal of a Gerhard Richter abstract valued at £14 million to £20 million. Neither the auction house nor a third party had been willing to risk guaranteeing the sale of such a high-value work in the current environment.影响了今年收益的,主要是在最后关头的时候,一件预估价为1400万英镑到2000万英镑的格哈德·里希特(Gerhard Richter)的抽象作品没有拍出去。拍卖行与第三方都不愿冒险担保这样一件高价作品在如今的环境下能卖出去。“Rightly or wrongly, the capital markets determine confidence levels,” said Andrew Terner, a private dealer based in New York. “It’s the psychology of the moment. The timing has to be right.”“不管是对的还是错的,资本市场决定了信用等级,”纽约私人经纪商安德鲁·特纳(Andrew Terner)说,“这是当下的心理。时机必须正确。”In midday New York trading on Friday, , Sotheby’s stock price was at .07 after having dropped 17.5 percent on Thursday.周五的纽约午盘上,苏富比的股价是20.07美元,比周四降低了17.5%。Year-on-year results at Christie’s on Thursday evening were even more bearish. The £58.1 million total achieved from its contemporary sale was down 50 percent from the February 2015 auction.佳士得周四晚的拍卖会结果与去年同期相比更是凄惨。这场当代艺术拍卖会总共拍出了5810万英镑,比去年2月的当代艺术拍卖会下跌了50%。But if, in general terms, buying museum-endorsed art from the last 100 years — like a Richter or a Ghenie — still remains almost the only game in town for the wealthiest art collectors, what about the more speculative market for artists with emerging reputations?但是,如果总的来说,过去100年里,购买有物馆担保的艺术品(如里希特和格尼的作品)仍然是富有艺术收藏家唯一的游戏,那么针对声誉鹊起的新艺术家们的相对更投机的市场又怎么样呢?On Wednesday, Phillips held a day sale of 178 lots of 20th-century and contemporary art, and conspicuous by their absence were the “process-based” abstract paintings that had been the subject of lucrative resales at Phillips in the boom year of 2014. Once-hot names like Lucien Smith, Mark Flood and David Ostrowski were not in the catalog, and a small 2014 abstract by Dan Rees, “Gravelmaster,” estimated at £6,000 to £8,000, did not attract a buyer.星期三,菲利普斯(Phillips)在日间拍卖会上拍出了178件20世纪与当代艺术品,引人注目的是,拍品中没有被称为“流程基本”的几位抽象画家作品,它们曾在2014年的好年头里成为菲利普斯的高额预拍品。卢西安·史密斯(Lucien Smith)、马克·弗拉德(Mark Flood)与大卫·奥斯特洛夫斯基(David Ostrowski)等一度炙手可热的名字都没有出现在拍品名录里,一幅丹·里斯(Dan Rees)2014年的小型抽象画《Gravelmaster》预估价在6000镑到8000镑,没有吸引到买家出价。This kind of abstraction was looking “basically unsellable,” leaving three bidders to contest instead a safer Rudolf Stingel mock wallpaper painting from 2005 — in highly commercial gold enamel — to a top price of £386,500, just above the high estimate. Most prices at Phillips were at the low estimates, but 72 percent of the works did find buyers.这类抽象作品似乎“基本上卖不出去”了,三名拍卖者转而竞拍一幅更安全的作品:鲁道夫·斯丁格尔(Rudolf Stingel)2005年有高价镀金层的仿壁纸油画,把价格抬到了38.65万镑,正好高过最高估价。菲利普斯拍卖会上的大多数拍品都以最低预估价成交,但72%的拍品都找到了买家。Yet at the galleries that supply these auctions, collectors were continuing to pay significant sums for market-fresh works by artists who they think might still be in demand in the 2030s, or at least at the end of this decade.然而在举办这些拍卖会的画廊里,收藏家们还在花费大笔金钱,购买新上市的艺术家作品,他们觉得到了本世纪30年代,至少是到了2020年左右,这些作品就会被市场需求。The “Ecriture” paintings of Park Seo-bo, a pioneer of the recently re-evaluated Korean monochrome movement called Dansaekhwa, are on show through March 12 at White Cube Mason’s Yard in London. Fourteen of these contemplative calligraphic abstracts, ranging in date from 1967 to 1981, were released for sale by the artist, who is now 84, and all have sold for between 0,000 and 0,000.韩国单色画(Dansaekhwa)的价值这几年正重新被世人认识,其先驱朴栖甫的作品《写作》(Ecriture)将于3月12日在伦敦的白立方梅森苑(White Cube Mason’s Yard)展出。这一系列的14幅当代书法抽象作品是这位现年84岁的画家于1967年到1981年期间创作的,已经全被售出,价格在40万美元到65万美元之间。Nate Lowman, 37, is a New York artist whose 2011 “Marilyn” paintings, which cannily combine echoes of de Kooning and Warhol, resold for as much as 0,000 at auction in 2014. On Tuesday evening, the London gallery of Massimo de Carlo presented some 15 black-and-white paintings by Mr. Lowman derived from photographs of the elaborately patterned ceiling of his studio. Priced at 0,000 to 0,000, four of these paintings quickly found buyers, with several others on hold.37岁的内特·洛曼(Nate Lowman)是一位纽约艺术家,他于2011年创作的《玛丽莲》(Marilyn)系列油画巧妙地结合了德库宁(de Kooning)与沃霍尔(Warhol)的影响,2014年重新拍卖时,拍出了87万美元。周二晚上,伦敦玛西莫·德·卡洛(Massimo de Carlo)画廊将推出15幅洛曼的黑白油画,素材来自他工作室花纹精美的天花板的照片。这些画定价在12万美元到25万美元,其中四幅很快找到了买家,有几幅没能卖出去。Something quite different was on offer at Condo, a new collaborative exhibition by 24 emerging galleries sp across eight spaces in London.Condo是一个由24个新画廊最近推出的合作展,在伦敦的八个空间举行,提供了一些不同的东西。The event, which began Jan. 16 and ends on Saturday, was conceived by Vanessa Carlos, a co-founder of the London gallery Carlos/Ishikawa, as a cost-effective alternative to fairs. Dealers from a range of countries paid just £600 to be guest exhibitors. Unlike at a fair, entrance for visitors was free. Prices for work were generally in four figures.这项活动自1月16日开始,于本周六结束,它与艺术展会相比,可谓经济实惠,创意来自凡妮莎·卡洛斯(Vanessa Carlos),她是伦敦画廊卡洛斯/石川(Carlos/Ishikawa)的联合创始人。各国交易商花费600镑,就可以成为参展者。和艺术展会不同,参观者是免费进入的。作品价格一般在四位数左右。“The habit of collectors going to galleries has diminished because of art fairs,” said Tom Cole, a co-director of The Sunday Painter, a gallery in Peckham, in southeast London. “Trying to find alternative models to show a program and get a name out there has become more and more important.”“由于艺术展,收藏家已经没有进画廊的习惯了,”西南伦敦佩卡姆的“星期日画家”(The Sunday Painter)画廊的总监之一汤姆·科尔(Tom Cole)说,“找到另一种展出项目的模式,推出新画家,已经变得愈来愈重要。”Mr. Cole said that about 500 people visited his gallery on the first Saturday of Condo, compared with the 10 or 20 who might attend the Saturday of a typical exhibition. Among his sales was “Not Too Clever Emoticon,” a 2013 sculpture made from a glass-panel heater by the gallery’s artist Rob Chavasse, priced at £4,000.科尔说,在Condo展开展的第一个周六,有大约500人参观了他的画廊,平日里周六大约只有10到20人来。他出售的作品包括《不怎么聪明的图示》(Not Too Clever Emoticon),这是一件2013年的雕塑作品,由玻璃板加热器制成,作者是画廊签约艺术家罗布·查瓦斯(Rob Chavasse),标价为4000英镑。Largely free from the commercial pressures of an art fair, Condo displayed works that could also be refreshingly confrontational. Arcadia Missa, also in Peckham, showed a joint multimedia installation combining works by the American artist A.L. Steiner, of the collective Chicks on Speed, and the British feminist artist Phoebe Collings-James. The latter’s 2016 sculpture “Oh My Darling, Clementine,” consisting of two glazed ceramic clementines in a plastic netting bag, was sold for a price between £1,000 and £2,000.Condo几乎没有艺术展需要面对的商业压力,展出的作品中不少都颇具挑衅性,令人眼前一亮。阿卡迪亚·米沙(Arcadia Missa)画廊同样位于佩卡姆,展出了一个联合多媒体装置作品,是由美国艺术家A·L·斯坦纳(A.L. Steiner)与英国女权主义艺术家菲比·柯林斯-詹姆斯(Phoebe Collings-James)合作的,斯坦纳属于“Chicks on Speed”组织,柯林斯-詹姆斯2016年的雕塑《啊我亲爱的小柑橘》(Oh My Darling, Clementine)是两个闪亮的陶制小柑橘,放在一个塑料网兜里,价格在1000英镑到2000英镑。At this price level, collectors can happily engage with the zeitgeist, without worrying too much if the work they bought will be salable a few decades down the road.在这个价格水平上,收藏家可以愉快地成为时代精神的一部分,同时又不至于担心这件作品到头来要过几十年才能卖出去。 /201603/429159

Countless arguments have been waged over the superiority of one beverage over the other. But what does the scientific evidence say?关于这两种饮料孰优孰劣的问题已经引发了无数争论。但是科学据是怎样的呢?George Orwell may have written that ;tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in this country;—but even we British have to acknowledge that our national drink is facing stiff competition from the espressos, cappuccinos, and lattes invading our shores.乔治·奥威尔或许写过“茶是这个国家文明的一个柱”这样的句子——但我们英国人也要承认,随着浓咖啡、卡布奇诺和拿铁侵入国门,我们的全民饮料正面临着激烈的竞争。Despite the dangers of wading into such a charged argument, B Future decided to weigh up the relative merits of each drink. There#39;s no accounting for taste, of course, but we have combed the scientific literature for their real, measurable effects on our body and mind.尽管探讨这个敏感话题充满风险,“B未来”栏目还是决定对每种饮品的相对优点进行评估。当然,百人百味,但通过精心梳理科学文献,我们找出了它们对人体和大脑真实的、可测量的影响。The wake-up call醒脑剂For many, the caffeine kick is the primary reason we choose either beverage; it#39;s the oil to our engines when we#39;re still feeling a bit creaky in the morning. Based purely on its composition, coffee should win hands down: a cup of tea has about half the dose (40 milligrams) of the stimulant caffeine that you would find in a standard cup of brewed filter coffee (80 to 115 milligrams). Yet this doesn#39;t necessarily reflect the jolt of the wake-up call.对许多人来说,咖啡因的兴奋作用是我们选择这两种饮料的主要原因;在睡眼惺忪的清晨,咖啡因就像石油一样,给我们身体的引擎以能量。只考虑成分的话,咖啡可以轻松获胜:一杯茶的咖啡因含量(40毫克)大约只有标准杯过滤咖啡(80至115毫克)的一半。然而,这并非反映了它们的醒脑作用。Dosing subjects with either tea or coffee, one study found that both beverages left subjects feeling similarly alert later in the morning.通过让被试者饮用一定量的茶或咖啡,一项研究发现,这两种饮料都能让受试者在早晨晚些时候感到同样清醒。Verdict: Against logic, tea seems to provide just as powerful a wake-up call as coffee. It#39;s a draw.结论:虽然逻辑上讲不通,但茶跟咖啡的醒脑作用似乎不相上下。平局。Sleep quality睡眠质量The biggest differences between coffee and tea may emerge once your head hits the pillow.咖啡和茶之间最大的差异或许将集中体现在睡眠上。Comparing people drinking the same volume of tea or coffee over a single day, researchers at the University of Surrey in the UK confirmed that although both drinks lend similar benefits to your attention during the day, coffee drinkers tend to find it harder to drop off at night—perhaps because the higher caffeine content finally catches up with you.通过对比研究每天饮用等量的茶或咖啡的人,英国萨里大学的研究人员实,尽管两种饮料在白天对注意力集中的作用差不多,但或许是因为咖啡里的咖啡因含量更高,喝咖啡的人晚上更难入睡。Tea drinkers, in contrast, had longer and more restful slumbers.相比之下,喝茶的人睡得更久更香。Verdict: Tea offers many of the benefits of coffee, without the sleepless nights—a clear win.结论:茶不仅拥有咖啡的许多好处,还不会带来不眠之夜——完胜。Tooth staining牙齿变黄Along with red wine, coffee and tea are both known to turn our pearly whites a murky yellow and brown. But which is worse?众所周知,红酒、咖啡和茶都会把洁白的牙齿慢慢染成暗黄色或棕褐色。但哪个最糟糕?Most dentists seem to agree that tea#39;s natural pigments are more likely to adhere to dental enamel than coffee#39;s—particularly if you use a mouthwash containing the common antiseptic chlorhexidine, which seems to attract and bind to the microscopic particles.大多数牙医似乎一致认为,茶中的天然色素比咖啡的更易附着于牙釉质之上——尤其当你使用常见的洗必泰漱口水时,其中的消毒洗必泰能吸引并聚合微观粒子。Verdict: If you want a perfect smile, coffee may be the lesser of two evils.结论:如果你想展现完美笑容,两害相权取其轻,咖啡也许还好一点。A balm for troubled souls...不安灵魂的慰藉……In England, it#39;s common to give ;tea and sympathy; to a distressed friend—the idea being that a cup of Earl Grey is medicine for troubled minds. In fact, there is some evidence that tea can soothe your nerves: regular tea drinkers do tend to show a calmer physiological response to unsettling situations (such as public speaking), compared to people drinking herbal infusions. Overall, people who drink three cups a day appear to have a 37% lower risk of depression than those who do not drink tea.英国人喜欢给烦恼苦闷的朋友送去“茶与同情”——这是由于他们认为伯爵茶能够治愈不安的灵魂。事实上,有据表明,茶可以舒缓神经:与喝中草药的人相比,经常饮茶者在处理一些令人不安的情况(如公开演讲)时确实表现得更为镇静。总的来说,每天喝三杯茶的人比不喝茶的人罹患抑郁症的风险要低37%。Coffee doesn#39;t have the same reputation; indeed, some report that it makes them feel like their nerves are jangling. Yet there is some evidence that it too may protect against long-term mental health problems. A recent ;meta-analysis; (summarising the results of studies involving more than 300,000 participants) found that each cup of coffee a day seems to reduce your risk of developing depression by around 8%. In contrast, other beverages (such as sweetened soft drinks) only increase your risk of developing mental health problems.咖啡并没有这种功效;事实上,有些人觉得咖啡会让人有些神经错乱。但是也有据表明,咖啡能预防长期精神问题。最近的一项“荟萃分析”(总结了超过30万名参与者的研究结果)发现,每天一杯咖啡的人患抑郁症的风险比常人要低大约8%。相比之下,其他饮料(如甜味软饮)只会增加患精神疾病的风险。Verdict: Based on this limited evidence, it#39;s a draw.结论:基于有限的据,平局。...and a balm for bodies...身体的万金油Similarly tantalising, though preliminary, epidemiological studies have suggested that both coffee and tea offer many other health-giving benefits. A few cups of either beverage a day appears to reduce your risk of diabetes, for instance.流行病学研究虽然才刚刚起步,但也很吸睛。该领域研究表明,咖啡和茶都对身体还有其它益处。例如,每天喝几杯会降低患糖尿病的风险。Both drinks also seem to moderately protect the heart, although the evidence seems to be slightly stronger for coffee, while tea also appears to be slightly protective against developing a range of cancers—perhaps because of its antioxidants.饮用这两种饮料能对心脏起到一定的保护作用,尽管据显示似乎咖啡的功效更强,但许是因为茶中的抗氧化剂,茶对预防癌症也有些许功效。Verdict: Another draw—both drinks are a surprising, health-giving elixir.结论:还是平局——这两种饮料都是神奇的、有益健康的灵丹妙药。Overall verdict: Much as we Brits would have liked tea to come out the clear victor, we have to admit there is little between the two drinks besides personal taste. Based solely on the fact that it allows you to get a better night#39;s sleep, we declare tea the winner.总结:大部分英国人都会觉得茶很明显更胜一筹。但除了个人口味,必须承认的是两者的差异并不大。仅仅基于能让人好眠这一点,茶无疑是赢家。 /201602/427676

A few months ago, I stood at the corner of a busy roundabout called Place Lamartine, across from the Roman gates leading into Arles in southern France, on a spot that was pivotal in the life of Vincent van Gogh. Behind me was the Rhone River, where he painted sparkling reflections from the quay on one particularly memorable starry night. Before me was a run-down commercial strip leading toward vast fields of the sunflowers he painted time and again.几个月前,我站在人来人往的拉马丁广场的拐角,马路对面是进入法国南部阿尔勒的古罗马门。这个地方对文森特·梵高(Vincent van Gogh)的一生都至关重要。我身后是罗纳河,一个繁星满天的夜晚,梵高曾在这里的码头画下了河中闪烁的倒影。在我面前是一条破败的商业街,通向大片大片的向日葵花海,而它们曾一次次地出现在梵高的画作中。It was where Vincent van Gogh’s Yellow House once stood, the sun-drenched Proven home that was the subject of his 1888 oil painting, where he took a period of “enforced rest” as he put it, in a pale violet-walled “Bedroom” he depicted in oil paintings three times that year.这里曾经矗立着梵高的黄房子,那个洒满阳光的普罗旺斯住宅是他1888年的油画的主角。用梵高自己的话来说,他曾在里面度过了一段“集中休憩”的时光,“卧室”的墙壁是淡紫色的,那一年曾三次出现在他的油画中。The little house contained legends: It was where one of the world’s most famous artists pushed his painting technique to its peak with works such as “Café Terrace at Night,” “Sunflowers” and “The Sower.” And it was where his personal life turned a dramatic and tragic corner. Here, van Gogh had a tumultuous fight with his friend, Paul Gauguin, and sliced a blade through his own ear, before admitting himself to the local mental hospital.这栋小房子充满了传奇色:在这里,世界最负盛名的艺术家之一把自己的绘画技术推向了巅峰,创作了《夜晚露天咖啡座》、《向日葵》和《播种者》等作品。在这里,梵高的个人生活出现了戏剧性和悲剧性的转折。在这里,他与好友保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)发生了激烈的争吵,用刀割掉了自己的耳朵,入住了当地的精神病医院。From March to August, I traveled to many of the landmarks of van Gogh’s artistic life, beginning in the Belgian mining town of Mons, where the 27-year-old Dutchman was fired from his job as a missionary working among local coal miners for “undermining the dignity of the priesthood” by opting to live in the same squalid conditions as the miners — and where he instead began to draw. From there, I traveled to his renowned painting locations, Montmartre in Paris and Arles and St. Rémy in Provence, and ultimately to the Parisian suburb of Auvers-sur-Oise, where his life was cut short in his 37th year.去年3月到8月,我造访了梵高艺术生涯中的许多重要地点,起点是比利时矿业城市蒙斯。27岁的荷兰人梵高曾在那里失去了在当地煤矿公司传教的工作,原因是他选择和矿工生活在同样肮脏的环境里,“破坏了传道士的尊严”,并开始在画画。此后,我来到了他一些知名画作的诞生地,巴黎的蒙马特、普罗旺斯的圣雷米和阿尔勒,最后是见梵高匆匆走完37年人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦。I was on the trail of the artist during Van Gogh Europe 2015, the year that commemorates the 125th anniversary of his death, observed by cultural events and exhibitions related to van Gogh throughout the Netherlands, Belgium and France. What struck me was that, considering how famous and beloved van Gogh is, there are a number of historical landmarks of his life that have not been preserved, or are neglected. A few spots, however — such as van Gogh’s room at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence and his hotel room in Auvers-sur-Oise, where he died — have been handsomely renovated to great effect for visitors interested in the artist’s life, and for the local communities, which benefit economically from this form of gentle cultural tourism. 我的梵高之旅正好赶上了2015欧洲梵高年。为了纪念梵高逝世125周年,荷兰、比利时和法国举办了大量文化活动和与梵高有关的展览。让我难以置信的是,虽然梵高享有如此的声望和爱戴,他生命中好几处重要地标竟然没有被保护起来,或者无人问津。不过,有几个位置——比如梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院房间,以及他度过最后人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦的酒店房间,都被精心地修葺,迎接着对这位艺术家的人生感兴趣的游客和当地居民。当地人也从这种轻文化旅游中获得了丰厚的经济利益。Hoping to replicate these strong examples, officials involved in Van Gogh Europe 2015 said their aim was to promote the forgotten sites, to focus attention on the fact that many sites linked to van Gogh were still in need of preservation.为了复制这些强大的典范,与2015欧洲梵高年有关的官员称,他们打算大力宣传这些被遗忘的角落,让人们了解到许多与梵高有关的遗迹还需要保护。“There’s a huge amount of interest worldwide in van Gogh’s paintings, and there’s a great audience for his work in museums,” Frank van den Eijnden, chairman of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation, said in a phone interview. “But generally there is less money for restoration and preservation of van Gogh heritage, mainly the local heritage sites that you can find in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. We needed more attention for all the organizations involved, and especially from the governments that were linked to these locations. We really want van Gogh heritage to be a world heritage in the coming years.”“世界各地的人们对梵高的画作都有着强烈的兴趣,他在物馆的作品有庞大的拥趸,”梵高欧洲基金会主席弗兰克·范登艾金登(Frank van den Eijnden)在电话采访中说。“但总体来说,用于恢复和保护梵高遗产的资金却不多,主要包括在法国、比利时和荷兰的遗产。我们需要为相关机构赢得更多关注,尤其是来自政府机构的关注。我们真心希望梵高的遗产在未来几年成为世界性的遗产。”Mostly, in places where van Gogh lived, there are a number of plaques featuring van Gogh images or words from his letters, in sometimes inscrutable locations. In St.-Rémy-de-Provence, for example, there is a plaque that shows his “Green Wheat Field With Cypress” posted in front of the white stucco wall of a private home. 在梵高居住过的地方,往往会看到梵高的照片或用梵高信件中的文字制作的牌匾,有些会出现在不可思议的位置。例如,在普罗旺斯的圣雷米,一户私人住宅的白色灰泥墙前就有一块牌匾,上面印着他的《麦田里的丝柏树》。I wasn’t a van Gogh fan when I embarked on this journey. I moved to the Netherlands nine years ago to do research for a novel on Rembrandt, and my passion lies more in the Dutch old masters. My trouble with van Gogh’s work was that, to me, it had the familiarity of cereal boxes — or, as Andy Warhol might have it, soup cans — copied and reproduced to the point of unseeability. Even when I was standing among the originals, the freshness of his work evaded me. Also, I was weary of what seemed like a triteness in van Gogh’s biography, the tortured-genius-who-never-sold-a-painting-in-his-life.踏上这次旅程时,我并不是梵高的仰慕者。九年前,我为了给一本关于伦勃朗的小说做研究搬到了荷兰,我更偏爱荷兰的早期绘画大师。对我来说,梵高作品的问题在于,它熟悉得就像是麦片包装盒——安迪·沃霍尔可能会说像汤罐头——如此频繁地遭到模仿和复制,到了让人无感的程度。即使站在真迹面前,我也感受不到新鲜。此外,我也厌倦了梵高传记的陈词滥调,它们无一例外地把他描述成“一生中从未卖出一幅画的饱受折磨的天才”。I often write about van Gogh, because I’m an American art journalist based in Amsterdam, where tourists flock by the millions to the largest trove of his paintings anywhere in the world, the Van Gogh Museum, at the center of Amsterdam’s sprawling Museumplein (museum square).我经常写梵高的故事,因为我是驻阿姆斯特丹的美国艺术记者,而每年会有大量游客来到全世界最大的梵高作品收藏地——梵高物馆,它就位于阿姆斯特丹庞大的物馆广场的中央。But when I learned that van Gogh once sat down in front of one of Rembrandt’s most famous works, “The Jewish Bride,” in the Rijksmuseum (also on Museumplein, next to the Van Gogh Museum) and confided to a friend, “I should be happy to give 10 years of my life if I could go on sitting here in front of this picture for two weeks, with only a crust of dry b for food,” I began to think about van Gogh and his creative process. That painting, to which Rembrandt applied yellow paint in such thick impasto that it lifts right out into three-dimensionality, was the link for me into the world of van Gogh.然而当我了解到,梵高曾经坐在阿姆斯特丹国家物馆(也在物馆广场,梵高物馆旁边)里面伦勃朗最著名的画作《犹太新娘》前对一个朋友说,“如果我可以在这幅画前坐上两周,我宁愿少活10年,哪怕只吃干面包充饥都行,”我开始思考梵高和他的创作过程。伦勃朗利用厚重的黄色油塑造出立体形象的这幅画,让我走进了梵高的世界。So, that is what brought me, in the heat of July, to the busy intersection in Arles, to see if, in a place that he once inhabited, I could find traces of van Gogh’s soul. But there was no more Yellow House. It was demolished in the 1940s in World War II, I would find out later. In front of me was a white plaque affixed to a pole that stood on the sidewalk, with an image of van Gogh’s painting, all shades of golden hay, fresh butter and sunlight, under a stippled blue sky. There was that impasto yellow again, straight out of Rembrandt’s palette. But no van Gogh.因此,在7月的炎热天气里,我来到了阿尔勒这个繁忙的交叉路口,想看看在他曾经住过的地方,我是否能找到梵高灵魂的踪迹。但是黄房子已经不在,后来我才知道,它于上世纪40年代在“二战”中被摧毁。我面前是一块白色的牌匾,固定在人行道的柱子上,图片上是梵高的画作:各种色调的金黄干草,新鲜的奶油和阳光,在点手法绘出的蓝色天空之下。画上又见浓墨重的黄色,如同脱胎于伦勃朗的调色盘。但那不是梵高。Disappointed, I got back in my car and decided to try to find another van Gogh location on my list: Langlois Bridge, a drawbridge on the outskirts of Arles, which he depicted nine times in 1888. I knew it was still there because it’s now called Pont Van-Gogh.大失所望的我回到车里,决定寻找我的单子上另一个与梵高有关的地点:阿尔勒郊外的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,他在1888年画这座桥画了九次。我知道它仍在那里,因为它现在叫做梵高桥。The Borinage, Belgium比利时里纳日I began my journey not in van Gogh’s birthplace, but in the location where van Gogh the artist came to life: in the gritty, drab eastern coal-mining region of Belgium called the Borinage, where van Gogh at age 25 went to minister to the destitute, soot-blackened workers of the coal pits. Because this is where he was rejected from the priesthood and began his artistic career, the city of Mons has declared this the “birthplace of the artist,” with a host of events and an exhibition of his early work at the Museum of Fine Arts, in Mons, which ended in May. (Van Gogh’s birthplace was in Zundert, the Netherlands.)我此行的起点不是梵高的出生地,而是梵高作为画家的诞生地:在比利时东部破旧乏味的煤矿区里纳日,25岁的梵高曾在这里向煤矿里贫穷、被煤灰熏得漆黑的工人布道。因为他就是在这里被剥夺了传道士的身份,开始了艺术家的生涯,蒙斯城已经宣布这里是“这位艺术家的诞生地”。蒙斯的美术馆举办了大量活动和早期作品展,这些活动已经于5月结束(梵高的出生地是荷兰的津德尔特)。Van Gogh lived in a few locations in Mons; but he found himself ashamed to be living so well while the people to whom he ministered lived in overcrowded huts, and so he jettisoned his middle-class possessions and moved into smaller and simpler homes. He had started out in a large home up the hill from the local mine, in a red brick house he rented from a landlord named Jean-Baptiste Denis.梵高在蒙斯的几个地方居住过,但是他发现自己羞耻于自己过着优越的生活,听他传道的人们却只能生活在拥挤棚屋里,所以他放弃了中产阶级的财产,搬到了更小更简陋的房子里。他开始时租住在山上的一所大红砖房子里,房东名叫让-巴蒂斯特·丹尼斯(Jean-Baptiste Denis)。Everyone I spoke to told me that Maison Denis was only about a 15-minute drive outside Mons, but it took me an hour of driving in circles. It’s not on any map and I got there by chance: I asked directions from a man who happened to be a private van Gogh tour guide in the area. Finally, there it was: At the bitter end of a seemingly endless stretch of ramshackle rowhouses at 221, rue Wilson was a square red brick house with a red tile roof, only a bit larger than the houses that surrounded it.人们都告诉我,这栋房子位于蒙斯城外,相距只有15分钟左右车程,但我花了一小时才找到。地图上没有这个地方,我能找到全凭运气:我向一名男子问路,而他刚好是该地区的一名私人梵高路线导游。最后,我终于看到了它,在威尔森街221号的一排似乎没有尽头的破破烂烂的房屋的最远端,有一栋方方正正的红砖房子,屋顶铺着红瓦,比周围的房屋稍大一点。The home was one of the sites that Mr. van den Eijnden of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation had told me was nearly dilapidated, but thanks to fund-raising by a local foundation for Van Gogh Year, renovation of the house was underway. The house was still shuttered and there was a large fence around the property, but I walked to the edge of the backyard, where it bordered a grassy field blanketed in wildflowers that followed all the way down the hill to where I could see the colliery of the Marcasse mine, now closed. The refurbished house has since opened as Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine, and can be visited on weekends from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 梵高欧洲基金会的范登艾金登告诉我,许多与梵高有关的宅子都已经倾圮,这座房屋是其中之一,多亏了当地的一家基金会为梵高年进行的筹资,这栋房屋的翻新正在进行当中。房屋仍然关闭,外面围着巨大的栅栏,我走到了后院的边上,它毗邻的草地上开满野花,从山下一直开到我能看到马卡斯煤矿的地方。这座煤矿现在已经关闭。房屋经过修缮目前已经重新开放,叫做“科尔方丹的梵高故居”(Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine),周末上午10点到下午6点可供参观。The attraction’s previously poor state was in sharp contrast to the other landmark van Gogh home in the Borinage, in the village of Cuesmes, Maison Van Gogh, a quaint cottage on a plot of grass at the end of a gravel road where van Gogh lived in 1879 and 1880. This was the location where he regrouped after he was told to abandon his ministry because he had disgraced the church, and where he wrote a letter to his brother, Theo, telling him he would like to try his hand at art. “Try to understand the last word of what the great artists, the serious masters, say in their masterpieces; there will be God in it,” he wrote. “Someone has written or said it in a book, someone in a painting.”这个景点之前的破败景象,与另一处位于尔纳日奎姆村的梵高故居形成了鲜明对比。这所别致的小房子位于一条砂砾路尽头的草地上,梵高1879年和1880年曾在此居住。正是在这里,他因为令教廷蒙羞被要求放弃传教士的工作,他写信给弟弟提奥,跟他说自己想要尝试画画。“试着理解伟大的艺术家、严肃的大师在作品中表达的最后一句话;那里面会有上帝,”他写道。“有人在书里写作或表达,有人在画中。”Inside this tourist site (which has an admission fee of 4 euros, or about .25 at .06 to the euro) I was one of only a few visitors, and watched a short biographical , looked at some of van Gogh’s early, clumsy sketches displayed in a glass vitrine and spent a few minutes among his spartan furnishings — a small wooden writing table, a chair and a wood-burning stove.在这处故居中(门票4欧元,即大约4.25美元),我是为数不多的参观者之一,我观看了一部梵高的传记短片,欣赏了玻璃橱窗里展示的一些粗糙的早期素描,花了几分钟看了看他简朴的家具——一张小木书桌,一把椅子,一个燃烧着木头的壁炉。Nuenen, the Netherlands荷兰纽南After he had resolved to devote himself to art, van Gogh moved back to the Netherlands, to live with his parents for two years in the town of Nuenen, where his father was the local minister. This town is proud of its legacy as the place where the itinerant artist remained for the longest stretch of his adult life, and where he painted “The Potato Eaters,” which is now known as his early masterpiece.决心投身绘画之后,梵高搬回了荷兰,与在纽南的父母生活了两年。他的父亲是当地的一名牧师。令这座小城自豪的是,这位四处漂泊的艺术家成年期间在这里居住了最长时间,而且这里也是《吃马铃薯的人》的创作地。这幅画目前被认为是梵高的早期杰作之一。Nuenen has turned the former town hall into the Vincentre, with a museum largely devoted to van Gogh’s family relationships, a cafe and a gift shop. The center is at the heart of Van Gogh Village Neunen, and the starting point of an outdoor museum, a 22-point walking or biking tour that takes you to some lovely locations where van Gogh painted, and to the Starry Night bike path that lights up with swirls of twinkling stones after dark.纽南已经把从前的市政厅变成了文森特中心(Vincentre),包括一座基本上完全用来展示梵高家庭关系的物馆,一家咖啡馆和一家礼品商店。这个中心是纽南梵高村的核心,也是一个户外物馆的起点,可以步行或骑自行车游览22处景点,包括梵高画过的一些美景,《星夜》自行车道上的石头在天黑之后呈现出螺旋形的灯光。It is also directly across the street from van Gogh’s family home, a two-story brick house, now a private residence that one can’t visit. Next to it is the home of Margot Begemann, the girl next door, who fell in love with the artist and tried to poison herself with strychnine when her family objected to the affair. Her family home, called Nune Ville, which came on the market recently by chance, has become a focus of efforts by local historic preservationists who would like to turn it too into a van Gogh heritage site.马路对面正好是梵高父母的家,一栋两层的砖房,现在是一处私人住宅,无法参观。它旁边是玛高特·贝格曼(Margot Begemann)的家,这个隔壁女孩爱上了梵高,当她的家庭阻止他们的恋情之后,她曾试图用番木鳖碱自杀。她家的房子名叫 “Nune Ville”,已经成为当地历史保护专家的重点保护对象,他们也想把它打造成一处梵高的遗产。Over last summer, when I visited, most of the rooms of the stately home were given over to contemporary artists who had created room-size installations inspired by van Gogh, in an exhibition called “The Vincent Affair,” which ended in October. Since then, attempts to find investors who could help turn the site into a permanent tourist spot have stalled, Mr. van den Eijnden said.去年夏天,我来参观的时候,这个庄重住宅的多数房间都被当代艺术家占据,他们受到梵高的启发,创作了一些房间大小的艺术装置,展览的名字叫“文森特集市”(The Vincent Affair),10月份结束。范登艾金登说,此后,寻找投资者把这里变成长期旅游景点的努力陷入停滞。Montmartre, Paris巴黎蒙马特Van Gogh didn’t stay in Nuenen long after the end of the Margot Begemann affair. He moved first to Antwerp, Belgium, and then to Paris, where his brother Theo had a job as an art dealer with the leading art gallery, Goupil amp; Cie. Van Gogh moved into his brother’s third-floor apartment at 54, rue Lepic in Montmartre, which is a private residence now, and designated only by a marble plaque: “Dans cette maison Vincent van Gogh a vécu chez son frère Théo de 1886 à 1888.” (“In this house Vincent van Gogh lived at his brother Théo’s place from 1886 to 1888.”) And some plastic sunflowers dangle from the window grate.在与玛高特·贝格曼的爱情告终之后,梵高没有在纽南待太长时间。他搬到了比利时的安特卫普,然后又搬到了巴黎。他的兄弟提奥在巴黎顶尖的画廊Coupilamp;Cie做艺术品交易的工作。梵高搬到了弟弟位于勒皮克大街54号三楼的公寓。这里现在是一处私人住宅,只有一块大理石板上写着,“1886年到1888年,文森特·梵高来到这栋房子与弟弟提奥同住。”窗户的格栏上挂着几朵塑料向日葵。The Rue Lepic arcs upward through Montmartre, passing the old windmills, and ultimately arrives at the Sacré-Coeur. On the way up, one can discover many prime landmarks of the nearly two years that van Gogh spent here, including the apartment of his friend Henri Toulouse-Lautrec and the oldest surviving Parisian vineyard, where van Gogh sometimes painted, now on Rue Saint Vincent.勒皮克大街向北蜿蜒穿过蒙马特,经过一些老风车,最终抵达圣心圣殿。在路上可以发现梵高在这度过的两年留下的许多足迹,包括他的友人亨利·图卢兹-罗特列克(Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec)的公寓,以及现在位于圣文森特街的最古老的巴黎葡萄园,梵高有时会在这里画画。The area, which was a hamlet outside Paris when van Gogh lived there, was critical to his progress as a painter, because it is where he met many of the Impressionists and other artists, including his friend Paul Gauguin, and imitated and explored various Parisian painting styles. There are no physical landmarks one can enter and explore in Montmartre to get a sense of how he lived, though there are museums, like the Musée d’Orsay, that now contain his work.梵高在那里居住时,这片地区是巴黎城外的一个小村子。这里对于他作为画家的成长至关重要,因为他遇见了许多印象主义和其他流派的画家,包括好友保罗·高更,模仿并探索了巴黎的各种绘画风格。在蒙马特没有一个有形的场所可以让你走进去探索并感受梵高当时的生活,但是有些物馆收藏了他的作品,比如奥赛物馆。Provence, France法国普罗旺斯Finding original artworks by van Gogh in most of the locations I visited would have been nearly impossible except for the special exhibitions designed for Van Gogh Year. The Fondation Van Gogh in Arles, an expansive exhibition space topped with an artwork of colored glass refracting Proven light through its roof, which opened in 2014, is a notable exception. Through an agreement with the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, the foundation will have one original van Gogh painting on display year-round.在我参观的多数地方,想找到梵高的真迹几乎都是不可能的,除非是在专门为梵高年举办的展览上。阿尔勒的梵高基金会(Fondation Van Gogh in Arles)是一个宽敞的展览空间,顶棚是色玻璃的艺术设计,可以让普罗旺斯的阳光折射进来。这处2014年开设的场所是一个例外。凭借与阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆的一份协议,基金会全年都会展示一幅梵高的真迹。The final stages of van Gogh’s life are the best preserved, and they are also the most moving. After he cut off a part of his ear in Arles, he was admitted to the Arles hospital in Provence, where he painted the lush gardens that are still on display free to the public, as Espace Van Gogh. When he found that this was not sufficient treatment, his brother secured a spot for him at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, about 30 minutes to the north. The drive there took me past the endless stretches of sunflowers now so closely associated with his art, and through the foothills of the range of small mountains at the base of the Alps, called the Alpilles, where he painted a series of “Wheat Fields” and his most famous “Starry Night.”梵高人生最后几个阶段的故居保存最完好,也最打动人。他在阿尔勒切掉了一片耳朵之后,被送到了普罗旺斯的阿尔勒医院,他在那里画下的郁郁葱葱的花园目前仍然免费展示给公众,这家医院目前叫做梵高医院。当他发现这里不能提供足够的治疗时,他的弟弟在北部30分钟路程的普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院为他安排了一个床位。开车前往这家精神病院的途中,我路过了一片片绵延不断的向日葵,以及阿尔卑斯山脚下的山麓丘陵,叫做阿尔皮勒,梵高在这里画下了《麦田》系列和最著名的《星夜》。The municipality of St. Rémy has done van Gogh tourists a service by creating a 19-point walking tour from the city center called Promenade de van Gogh, which can be complemented with an app called Van Gogh Natures that adds information about paintings he made in and around the asylum. I followed this self-guided tour up the hill, finding myself softly whispering: “Vincent, where are you? Are you here?” I realized, for the first time on my journey, that I had come in search of a ghost.圣雷米市为梵高的游客提供了一个从市中心出发的包含19个景点的徒步旅行路线,叫做梵高人行道,游客还可以下载Van Gogh Natures的应用程序,获取关于他在精神病院和周围创作的画作的信息。我按图索骥来到了山上,突然发现自己在轻声低语:“文森特,你在哪呢?你在这儿吗?”我在旅行中第一次意识到,我是在寻找一个灵魂。The destination was the St. Paul de Mausole, a Romanesque former religious cloister that is part of a still-functioning mental hospital, and its sumptuous surrounding gardens. Depending on the season when you visit, you can find all the beautiful irises and lilies that inspired van Gogh’s paintings. And around the asylum are the twisted olive groves and the tall elegant cypresses that he captured with dense, emotional brushwork.终点是莫索尔的圣保罗修道院(Saint Paul de Mausole)和它周围华丽的花园。这里曾经是一个罗曼式建筑风格的修道院,目前属于一所精神病院。在适当的季节,你可以看到为梵高绘画带去灵感的美丽的鸢尾花和百合。精神病院周围是扭曲的橄榄树,以及他曾经用浓烈而情绪化的笔触描绘过的高耸而优雅的丝柏树。Inside the cool cloister, through its medieval stone halls and up the shallow Romanesque stairs, is van Gogh’s preserved former room at the asylum. The steel bars on the windows are a jarring counterpoint to the easel positioned next to his wrought-iron bed, but what is more shocking is the room next door with two steel baths used for administering “hydrotherapy treatments” — only a hint of the therapeutic tortures he might have endured here. I wandered through the gardens for a moment of calm after seeing the hospital cell, my mind raging with thoughts of van Gogh’s suffering, and wondering how he managed to paint at all during the time he was at the asylum — let alone make 143 oil paintings and 100 drawings.在修道院内,穿过中世纪的石头大厅和浅浅的罗曼式的楼梯,就来到了梵高在精神病院住过的房间。窗户上的钢铁栅栏和他铁床边的画架形成了强烈的反差,但更加令人震惊的是,隔壁的房间有两个用于“水疗护理”的钢铁浴盆——这只会让人联想到他可能遭受的折磨。在参观完了病房之后,我在花园中游荡,寻找片刻宁静,满脑子都在想梵高的痛苦,我好奇他在精神病院里是怎么画画的——更不用说他还创作了143幅油画和100幅素描。Auvers-sur-Oise, France法国瓦兹河畔欧韦Van Gogh’s troubles did not end, though he finally left the St. Rémy hospital. He made his way back to northern France, to the town of Auvers-sur-Oise, about a 30-minute drive from Paris. It is where I visited the most poignant landmark, Van Gogh’s Room in the historic inn Auberge Ravoux. This tiny second-floor room (even smaller than his room at the asylum) remained empty for years after van Gogh died, suffering the curse of any French hotel room that was thought to be the scene of a suicide, and has been restored entirely through the efforts of a citizen, Dominique-Charles Janssens. This room, where van Gogh completed more than 80 paintings in just 70 days, with its only access to natural light a small ceiling window, is reminiscent of a coffin. Here is where van Gogh died of a fatal gunshot wound — probably self-inflicted — with his brother at his side.虽然梵高最终离开了圣雷米精神病院,他的不幸没有结束。他回到了法国北部的瓦兹河畔欧韦镇,这里距离巴黎有30分钟车程。我在那里参观了最令人印象深刻的地标,梵高在历史悠久的拉乌餐厅旅馆(Auberge Ravoux)的房间。因为被认为是自杀的不祥之地,这个二楼的小房间(比他在精神病院的房间还小)在梵高去世之后空了很多年,通过一位名叫多米尼克 - 查尔斯詹森的公民的努力得到了完全的修复。在这个房间里,梵高用了仅仅70天的时间完成了超过80幅画作,屋子里只能通过天花板上的小窗获得一些自然光,感觉就像一口棺材。梵高在这里死于致命伤——可能是自己开的——弟弟当时就在他身边。And in close walking distance is his grave, alongside his brother and confidante, Theo, who died six months later, at age 33.他的坟墓就在附近,葬在他身边的是弟弟兼好友提奥。提奥在梵高去世的六个月后去世,终年33岁。What is more compelling, however, was a short walk away from his grave: the wheat fields down the dusty road where he painted his final series of canvases.不过,从他的坟墓走不了多远,有更为值得一看的地方:沿着尘土飞扬的路走下去,是一片麦田,梵高在这里创作了他最后系列的油画作品。By the end, the trip became something of a pilgrimage. I had gone to where van Gogh trekked alone with his easel on his back, gazing at the crooked olive groves, the obelisk-like cypresses and the swirling starry nights.到了最后,这趟旅程已经有了几分朝圣的味道。我来到了梵高背着画板独自远行,以及他凝视着歪橄榄树、方尖碑样的丝柏树和令人眩晕的星夜的地方。When I tramped down a dirt road along a river in Arles to the Pont de Langlois, which van Gogh depicted in four drawings, one watercolor and four oil paintings, I wondered: Why, when living in the center of a city like Arles, dotted with beautiful Roman ruins that filtered evening light in dramatic and wonderful ways, he was instead attracted, over and over again, to this slightly old-fashioned little drawbridge miles outside of town. And, having come all the way from Amsterdam, through so many van Gogh locations, I realized that I knew. Although van Gogh traveled far to discover the right effects, the right light and the right subjects for his paintings, all the while he was longing for a sense of home.当我踏着阿尔勒一条河边的泥土路,来到梵高在四幅素描、一幅水和四幅油画中描绘过的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,我在想:梵高住在阿尔勒这样一座城市的市中心,周围散落着美丽的罗曼式旧建筑遗迹,以奇妙和梦幻的方式照进夜晚的灯光,为何他还一次次地执迷于城外几里地远的这座有点过时的小吊桥?从阿姆斯特丹千里迢迢来到这里,造访了那么多梵高的故居之后,我意识到,我知道。尽管梵高为了寻找恰当的效果、光线和绘画对象而远走他乡,但他一直都渴望家的感觉。The more I traveled the more I became fascinated by this man van Gogh, who transmuted the reality of things he saw into images that are more real than real. The landmarks provided me with a starting point, from which I could travel out, and get a sense of the distances he traveled, both physically and mentally, to achieve the remarkable heights of artistic creation in the short span of a 10-year career.走的地方越多,我对梵高就愈加着迷。他把眼中的世界幻化了比真实更加真实的画面。这些地标是我的起点,我可以继续远行,去感受梵高在短短10年绘画生涯中要达到如此惊人艺术创作高度,其肉体和心灵所走过的距离。IF YOU GO参观建议In the Netherlands荷兰Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam (Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200; Vangoghmuseum.nl) is the world’s largest trove of artworks by van Gogh. It is in the heart of Amsterdam, with a permanent exhibition of his work as well as temporary exhibitions that relate his works to other great artists.阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆(Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200;vangoghmuseum.nl)是世界上最大的梵高作品收藏中心。它位于阿姆斯特丹的中心位置,长期展出他的作品,以及与其作品有关的当代展览。Vincentre / Van Gogh Village Nuenen(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; for biking and walking tours, April through October), a small museum, is the beginning of an open-air walking tour that takes you through important locations for van Gogh’s painting in Nuenen, where he lived with his parents for two years, and fell in love with Margot Begemann. (Above, van Gogh’s father’s Reformed Church in Nuenen.)文森特中心/纽南梵高村(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; 4月到10月,自行车和徒步旅游路线),一家小型物馆,你可以从这里开始一次露天的徒步之旅,途径梵高画作中在纽南的重要景点。梵高在纽南与父母居住两年,并在这里爱上了玛高特·贝格曼。Van Gogh Starry Night Bike Path(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx), which lights up at night, begins at the Opwettense watermill in Nuenen and ends at the Collse Watermill in Eindhoven.梵高星夜自行车道(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx),道路在夜晚会发光,起点是纽南的Opwettense 水车,终点是埃因霍温的Collse水车。Van Gogh House in Zundert(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99; vangoghhuis.com), where van Gogh was born, was torn down in 1903, but the new house was built in 2008 with a permanent exhibition about his birthplace, Zundert.津德尔特的梵高故居(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99;vangoghhuis.com),梵高出生的地方,1903年被拆除,2008年重建,长期举办关于梵高的展览。In Belgium比利时The Borinage: Maison Van Gogh (Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes; en.maisonvangogh.mons.be), just outside of Mons, in bucolic Cuesmes, is a little brick house and museum that tells the story of van Gogh’s time in this part of Belgium. (Above, inside Maison Van Gogh in Cuesmes, the Borinage.)里纳日:梵高故居(Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes;en.maisonvangogh.mons.be),一栋小砖房,如今是一座物馆,讲述着梵高在比利时这个地区度过的时光。Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine), also known as Maison Denis, the newly renovated house van Gogh rented when he arrived in Mons to be an evangelist, is near the Marcasse Mine.科尔方丹的梵高故居(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine),也被称作丹尼斯的房子,这是梵高抵达蒙斯担任福音传道者时租住的房子,目前已经被翻修,位于马卡斯煤矿附近。BAM/Musée des Beaux-Arts in Mons(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/) had an exhibition dedicated to van Gogh in the Borinage in 2015, but that show is now over. But exhibitions are often linked to the painter, who had a tremendous influence in Mons.蒙斯美术馆(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/)2015年举办了一个关于梵高在里纳日的展览,目前已经结束。但这里的展览经常与梵高有关,梵高对蒙斯产生了深远的影响。In France法国Fondation Vincent Van Gogh in Arles(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/), in the center of the old city of Arles, is a great place to begin a tour of van Gogh locations throughout Arles. Exhibitions are connected to van Gogh’s work; and at least one original van Gogh painting is on display in the museum all year round.阿尔勒的文森特·梵高基金会(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/),位于阿尔勒老城的中心,从这里开始在阿尔勒寻访梵高的足迹再合适不过了。这里的展览都与梵高的作品有关,全年至少有一幅梵高的真迹在物馆展出。St. Paul de Mausole Monastery(Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00) is the “asylum” where van Gogh received treatment in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, and where you can visit his former room and see the lush gardens and landscapes he painted during his time there. Different flowers are in bloom throughout the year; check for seasons for irises, almond blossoms and sunflowers.莫索尔的圣保罗修道院 (Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00)是梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米接受治疗的“精神病院”,你可以在这里参观他当时的病房,看到他在此治疗期间画过的茂盛的花园和风景。全年都有不同的花儿绽放;在适当的季节可以看到鸢尾花、杏花和向日葵。Maison de Van Gogh(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60), the restaurant and inn Auberge Ravoux, the last place where van Gogh lived, and where he died. You can see the tiny room he inhabited, and eat a classic French meal at the lovely restaurant downstairs.梵高故居(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60),拉乌餐厅旅馆,梵高居住过的最后一个地方,他也在这里走完了人生。你可以看见他居住的小房间,在楼下的迷人的餐厅享受一顿传统的法餐。 /201602/426533


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