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来源:咨询共享    发布时间:2017年10月23日 12:15:59    编辑:admin         

This was supposed to be the moment Mitt Romney finally convinced his own party that he was the president in waiting.罗姆尼要成功说共和党他是总统候选人,成败可能就在这一刻。But he has the air of a man who believes he will win this race, more and more Republicans dont.他充满自信,相信自己会赢得这次预选,而其它共和党人都不是对手。It was a far from Super Tuesday winning where he was expected for only just in a state he couldnt afford to lose--Ohio.用超级星期二来定义这一刻远远不够。全国只有俄亥俄州,他输不起,所以他很看重这个州的选票。The prepared victory speech delivered before the result was in, sound in hollows.选举结果出来后,胜利的演讲稿也准备好了。他用低沉的声音致辞道:;Tonight, we are doing some counting. We are counting up the delegates from that convention that looks good.“今夜举足轻重,发展形势好的代表人数越来越多。And we are counting down the days until November and that looks even better.现在我们正朝着十一月大选开始倒计时,到时候形势会更好。We are gonna take your vote a huge vote tonight in Massachusetts and take that victory all the way to the White House.;今夜在马塞诸塞州,你们的选票举足轻重。这次胜利会成就了我,会帮我在选举的道路上走得更远。”All Romneys money and organization cant shake off Rick Santorum.罗姆尼与桑托勒姆势均力敌。他所募集的选举基金,以及他的选举团队都不足以助他甩掉对手。Its state after state, the former sanetor again showed the Republican hardlines want something other than Romney.一州接着一州,这位前参议员再次表明,共和党目的在于成为执政党,他们不会把所有希望都寄托在罗姆尼身上。;We have won in the west, the midwest and the south and we are y to win across this country.;“我们已经赢得西部,中西部和南部,我们取得全国性的胜利也志在必得。While Santorum wants Newt Gingrich to drop out of the race, he wants his homestate of Georgia struggling for attention.桑托勒姆想要金里奇退出竞选,而金里奇却以赢得他的家乡佐治亚州引起注意。;And now with Santorum, and you just cant quick get across him. Its all right.;桑托勒姆是你的劲敌,不能很快地拿下他是情理之中的事。There are lots bunny rabbits that run through, Im the tortoise so I just take one step at a time. ;很多代表就像那速度飞快的小兔子,赛跑之初大显起手,而我就是那乌龟,坚持不懈,一步一个脚印。”With Ohio, the big Cohona.赢得俄亥俄,这至关重要的一州。It leads the country to reflect on where the Republican Party stands and how long this race will run.这会引起全民对共和党所持立场的反思,会影响选举的时长。;Dramatic race could keep going for a while.;“民主党的选举可以短时间完成。”Perhaps the big winner of the night was the man whose job they want.也许大选那晚最大的赢家就是现任总统奥巴马。While Republicans continue to attack each other, they cant fully focus on Barack Obama.因为共和党人还在持续互相竞争,所以他们不能把全部精力放在奥巴马身上。He begins a three-day swing through three states today to sell his message.今天他开始在三个州连续来回进行竞选,为时三天,以传达他的理念。Mitt Romney remains the favourite to face in November, but it is more evidence than ever that it will be a scrap to the finish line.面对十一月大选,罗姆尼优势虽然明显,但未来数月内,缠斗之势不会终结。201205/181860。

Fire, flood, bomb, whatever the threat to the subway system, Michael Lee can respond. He controls the latest weapon in the arsenal of the Office of Emergency Management--The Mobile Data Center. In a crisis, knowledge is power and Lees team is all mowing. Inside, a computerized map of virtually every citys structure above and below ground, including the entire subway system in unparalleled detail. At a keystroke, they can punch up a station and pinpoint every elevator, emergency exit and fire hydrant. Every stairway in every subway has a unique number registered on a computer, allowing Lees team to guide rescuers who smoke-filled chaos. Today the chaos is water and mud.火灾、水灾、爆炸等等不管对地铁系统有着怎样的威胁,迈克尔;李都可以作出回应。他控制着最新式的武器,它们来自突发事件应急管理办公室;;移动数据中心的兵工厂中。在危机时刻,知识就是力量而且李的队伍都是全能战士。在里面一张电脑化的虚拟地图涵盖了城市上方和下方地面结构的每一处角落,包括整个地铁系统前所未有的细节。只要按下一个按钮,他们就可以定位地铁站,甚至找出每一部电梯、紧急出口和消防栓。每一个地铁的每一处楼梯都在电脑里进行了注册,而且有一个独特数字编码,让李的团队在烟雾弥漫的混乱中引导救援人员。现在的混乱是水和泥土。We have had a 20-inch watermain break. We have found that location and were back always.我们有了一个20英寸的泥石流。我们已经找到那个位置,我们正在进行排除。Steven Zimmerman is among the pontoon workers called up to close the break.史蒂文;泽曼是被征召关闭断裂的浮桥工人。This happens a lot, especially in Manhattan. Theres a lot of infrastructure in a small area, as one top one another.这种情况经常发生,尤其是在曼哈顿。有很多基础设施在一个小的区域,一个挨着一个。The flooding is so bad, it threatens to undermine nearby buildings. Residents are forced to evacuate. It gets worse. Buried beneath the street, right beside the water main, a high voltage powerline.洪水是如此恶劣,它威胁到附近的建筑物。居民被迫撤离。洪水开始变本加厉造成了威胁,侵袭街道,高压电也遭到了殃及。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/173688。

Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;A history of mapmaking;Views of the world;地图史;世界景象;There is no such thing as an objective map;准确地图谁见了;A History of the World in Twelve Maps. By Jerry Brotton.《12幅地图中的世界历史》,作者杰里·布洛顿。 Around 150AD an astronomer named Claudius Ptolemy wrote a book about how to make a proper map of the world. Penned in Greek on a papyrus scroll, the work, known as the “Geography”, is one of the most famous ancient texts on the science of mapmaking. It placed the job firmly in the domain of the geographer, who could use astronomy and mathematics to calculate from the stars what the world looked like below.公元150年前后,一位名叫克劳狄斯·托勒密的天文学家写了一本关于如何恰当绘制世界地图的书。该书用希腊文书写在一卷莎草上,这部被称为《地理学》的著作是地图制图学方面最著名的古文献之一。该书毫不含糊地将这项工作归于地理学家范畴,因为地理学家可以使用天文学和数学知识推测从星球上观测下面的地球是什么样子。Ptolemys “Geography” was an attempt to take myths out of maps. It recommended using geometric lines of latitude and longitude to convey a three-dimensional Earth on a two-dimensional surface, and it included the co-ordinates of over 8,000 locations in the ancient world. Whether Ptolemy drew his own maps is unclear. The “Geography” disappeared for a thousand years, only for an unoriginal copy to appear in the 13th century, replete with coloured maps drawn by Byzantine scribes. Regardless, these geographic drawings and all other maps based on scientific calculation are his legacy.托勒密的这部《地理学》试图揭开地图的神秘面纱。它告诉人们如何用经纬线这样的几何线条在二维的平面上表现出三维的地球来,书中还有古代世界8000多个地点的坐标。托勒密是否亲手绘制地图,目前尚不可知。《地理学》曾消失了一千年,直到13世纪才有一个副本出现,这个副本里倒是有很多拜占庭抄书官绘制的色地图。不管怎样,这些经过科学计算的地理绘图和其它地图都是他留给后人的宝贵财富。But as Jerry Brotton explains in “A History of the World in Twelve Maps”, Ptolemys scientific influence tells only part of the story. Mapmakers operate in environments of subjective knowledge. Their work is influenced by politics and patrons, regional assumptions and religious beliefs, all of which jostles with the science in determining what a map looks like and what it is used for. Mapmakers may be geographers and cartographers, but they can also be artists and imperialists, storytellers and propagandists.但正如杰里·布洛顿在《12幅地图中的世界史》中解释的那样,托勒密的科学影响力只是这个故事的部分。地图绘制者生存的环境主观色浓厚,他们的工作受到政治、赞助人、区域假设以及宗教信仰等因素的影响,在确定地图的面貌及用途时,这些因素与科学相互碰撞。地图绘制者可能是地理学家和制图专家,但他们同时也可能既是艺术家又是帝国主义者,既是故事讲述人又是宣传分子。Mr Brotton, a professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary University of London, examines the complexity of mapmaking through the stories of 12 maps, which stretch across space and over time. The examples are impressively varied, from Ptolemys toils to Google Earth, and include some lesser-known Islamic and East Asian works. Despite their differences, these maps enjoy some intriguing similarities, largely for the way they illustrate the priorities of their authors.作为伦敦玛丽女王大学文艺复兴研究的教授,布洛顿先生通过12幅地图的讲述对绘图的复杂性进行了考察。这些地图跨度巨大,分属于不同时期、不同地区,既有托勒密艰苦劳作的产物,也有谷歌地球,还有一些更鲜为人知的伊斯兰作品和东亚作品。尽管它们之间各不相同,但也有一些有趣的相似之处,主要是由于这些地图反映了制图者在制图时所考虑的优先次序的方式。The medieval Mappa Mundi in Englands Hereford cathedral, for example, is little more than drawings on vellum, or stretched calfskin, and it lacks Ptolemys geometric method. Yet it is a beautifully detailed map of the Christian world, based on the topography of the Bible—bewildering to the geographer, but sensible to people of faith. Oriented east, Jerusalem sits at the centre. Britain clings insignificantly to the edge.比如,中世纪制作的英格兰赫里福德教堂世界地图不过是些绘在羔皮、或者说拉伸了的犊皮上的图案,没有使用托勒密的几何方法。但这幅基督教界的地图,取材于圣经上的记录,细节做得非常漂亮。这张地图让地理学家困惑不解,但对于基督徒来说则是顺理成章。它以东方为重心,把耶路撒冷放在地图的正中,英国则偏居一隅。Time would change this view of the world in the eyes of British mapmakers. By the 19th century maps often placed the British Isles at the core. One such map in the book features a view of the globe with Britain and the North Atlantic in the centre to better portray the empires sea power; Australia and half of South America are left off. Many of these maps, like those of the Spanish and Portuguese imperialists of the 16th century, did more to illustrate dominance and ambition than to improve cartographical practice.在英国制图者看来,人们对于世界的看法会随着时间的改变而改变。到了19世纪,不列颠群岛常被放在地图的中心。这本书中就有一幅这样的全球地图,将英国和北大西洋放在中心位置,以更好地彰显大英帝国的海洋实力。澳大利亚以及半个南美竟被忽落。这其中的很多地图,比如16世纪西班牙和葡萄牙的地图,更多地是为了显示帝国的统治和野心,而不是为了提高制图技术。Even now, when mapmakers have access to tools such as satellite images, there is still no objective and universally accepted map, argues Mr Brotton. “The idea of the world may be common to all societies; but different societies have very distinct ideas of the world and how it should be represented.” The author reckons that Google Earth and other digital mapping applications are just as vulnerable as their predecessors to national priorities and cultural norms. These maps can be cluttered with links to commercial enterprises and are subject to censorship. At their most penetrating, they raise questions of privacy.布洛顿先生认为,即便是现在,虽然绘图者有卫星影像这样的工具可用,准确的、可被普遍接受的地图依然难觅。“世界的概念对所有的社会来说是可能是共同的,但不同的社会中的世界概念及其表现形式千差万别”。作者认为,谷歌地球以及其他的数字制图程序与其前身一样,在国家利益和文化传统面前都显得脆弱不堪。这些地图与商业有着千丝万缕的联系,并且要遵守各种各样的审查制度。最严重的还会牵扯到隐私问题。Though he sets out to examine a mere 12 maps, Mr Brotton cannot help but give dozens more at least a passing mention. Ironically, this can be disorienting. Still, there is much to gain from this rich if overly detailed book. As the products of both art and science, maps are often fascinating interpretations of the perceived world. They are about data and spatial awareness, but also about money, empire and discovery. They tend to reveal more about the mapmakers than the lands they chronicle. Mr Brotton may fall short of providing the promised “history of the world”, but he offers plenty of good reasons to see old maps as windows to lost times.尽管最初着手研究的地图只有区区12幅,但布洛顿先生在书中提及的地图却有很多,令人啼笑皆非地是,这可能让读者有些找不到方向。但不管怎样,只要你仔细阅读定会受益良多。地图既是艺术品,又是科学产品,常常是对这个被感知世界的美妙诠释。这些地图呈现给读者的是数据和空间感,但它也涉及到金钱、帝国和发现,向人们提供更多的是地图背后那些地图制作者的故事。布洛顿先生可能没有提供给读者所谓的“世界历史”,但是,他提供了大量理由来解释,为什么可将看老地图作为了解已逝时代的窗口。 /201209/198385。

Science and technology科学及技术Human communication人类交流Gesture politics形体政治学People talk a lot, but their hand signals may convey more useful information 虽然人类主要通过语言交流,但是一些手势往往能传达更多有用的信息。Silence is golden沉默是金IT IS received wisdom that humanity owes a lot of its evolutionary success to its remarkable ability to communicate. 人类在进化上的成功大部分归功于其非凡的交流能力已经成为一个被接受的常识。So much so, in fact, that few have bothered to test this hypothesis in any systematic way. 尽管如此,事实上还没有人系统地验过这一假设。Now, a group of researchers led by Andrew King, of the Royal Veterinary College in Britain, has tried to plug this gaping hole. 如今,一个由“英国皇家兽医学院”的安德鲁.科恩率领的研究小组正尝试填补这块空缺。Their first results have just been published in Biology Letters.他们的第一个研究成果被发表在了《生物学快报》上。Hunter-gatherers’ practice of scouring their surroundings for edible plants is responsible for half of the name anthropologists have bestowed on them. 采猎者搜集居住区周围可食用植物的行为应了人类学家赋予他们的名字中的一半的内容。And for good reason. 而出于此理由,With hunting likely to have been an intermittent diversion, effective foraging would have been crucial to tiding early humans over to the next woolly mammoth. 狩猎可能变成了一种间歇性的活动,而有效的搜集活动对于帮助早期人类渡过冰河时期起到了关键作用。So Dr King and his colleagues conducted a study to see how, if at all, communication enhances foraging prowess.所以,科恩士及其同事主持了这项研究活动以确认交流是如何促进搜集技巧的。They recruited 121 visitors to, rather appropriately, the London Zoo, and split them into 43 groups. 他们邀请了大约121名游客访问伦敦动物园,并将他们分成了43个小组。Each group contained between two and seven people. 每个小组的成员在2到7人之间, Some were single-sex and some mixed. 且有的为单一性别,有的为男女混合搭配。Some were composed of family and friends whereas others brought together complete strangers. 部分小组由亲戚朋友组成,其他则完全是陌生人。Half the groups were allowed to communicate freely. 在这些小组中,一半可以进行自由交流,The rest were told to exchange no verbal signals or gestures of any kind. 另一半择不允许通过声音信号以及任何肢体动作进行交流。Each group was then asked to a room containing six foraging patches—boxes filled with 300 cards, some green and some white—arranged at a distance from a central home base. 每个小组会被邀请到一个设置了6个搜集区---也就是盛有300张绿色和白色卡片的盒子的房间,这些盒子被放置在离中心基地区域一定距离的地方。The green cards were defined as good and the patches varied from 5% to 95% green. 绿色的卡片为最好,每个搜集区所含绿色卡片的比例由5%到95%不等。The foragers could not see inside the boxes and were allowed to pick only one card at a time, through a hand hole, using their dominant hand. 搜集者看不到盒子的内部情况并且只能惯用手从小孔处一次取出一枚卡片。There were no restrictions on which patches to visit, but each time a card was plucked it had to be returned to the home base, irrespective of colour. 对于访问哪个搜集区并没有设置限制,但是每次卡片在取出之后无论是什么颜色,都必须送回基地区域。The goal was to collect as many good cards as possible in an unspecified short period of time (all trials actually lasted ten minutes). 小组的目标就是在给定的时间段内(事实上每次尝试持续10分钟)搜集尽可能多的绿色卡片。As an incentive, members of the best-performing group would receive an animal-adoption prize worth £30 ().作为鼓励,表现最好的小组将获得价值30英镑(47美元)的动物领养奖励。Before the modern-day foragers were let loose, radio-frequency tags, like those used in swipe cards, were wrapped around everyone’s dominant wrist. 原始社会的搜集者比较分散,所以每个成员惯用手的手腕上都配带了一个与磁卡无线电标签相似的标签。All the good forage cards were similarly tagged. 所有绿色卡片上同样安置了相同的标签。These, together with antennae on top of the boxes and in the home base, allowed Dr King to track the group members’ precise movements. 这些标签和卡片盒上以及基地区域内安置的天线使得科恩士可以精准地追踪每个小组的行动。That, in turn, made it possible to determine how long it took each group to reach a consensus, defined as concentrating more than 90% of activity around a single patch.从而,有可能确定每个小组需要花多长时间来达成共识,即该小组95%的活动都集中在一个搜集区内。Unsurprisingly, the groups that were allowed to communicate proved the more effective foragers. 事实明,那些可以进行交流的小组的搜集者效率相对较高。They were much likelier than their non-communicating peers to converge on the greenest patches. 这也并让人感到不惊讶。与其他不可以进行交流的竞争者相比,他们更有可能汇聚在绿色卡片最多的搜集区。What did come as something of a surprise, however, was the nature of the communication that mattered. 然而让人感到惊讶的却是他们交流的方式。The researchers monitored noise levels and hand gestures. 研究者对他们使用发出的噪音以及手势进行了监测。Noise levels served as a proxy for verbal communication; gestures, for the non-verbal sort. 噪音可以作为有声交流的替代方式,而手势则对应无声交流。Dr King found that the only thing which explained the probability of lighting on the best patch was gesture use, which peaked just before consensus was reached. 科恩士发现唯一可以用来解释存在选择最好搜集区的可能性的原因是肢体语言的使用,并且这种肢体语言的使用在共识达成之前就已经达到了顶峰。Noise levels remained more or less constant the whole time, suggesting that verbal messages were not as important.在整个时间段内,噪音断断续续地得到了持续使用,这显示有声信息并不是那么重要。Constant volume may hide the variable importance of what was said. 不间断的声音可能会影响不同重要性语言的传达。So, Dr King plans to repeat the experiment, controlling for the meaning of both utterances and gestures. 所以,科恩士计划重复试验,以确认发音和肢体语言的意义。Moreover, hand gestures are a relatively local signal. 况且,手势是一种相对本土化的信号。It remains an open question whether they are as crucial to success in groups larger than the half-dozen or so people typical of foraging parties in hunter-gatherer societies. Spoken contributions allow information to be disseminated rapidly to group members far away. 在采猎者社会群落中,典型的搜集者人数大约占到了一半左右,对于那些人数多于搜集者的群落,手势是对于这些人的成功能否起到同样的关键作用仍然是一个问题。That may trump the importance of non-verbal messages as groups grow larger. 声音可以将信息快速地传播给远处的部落成员。并且随着群落的壮大,语言信息的重要性将超过非语言传递信息的重要性。But if gestures convey some vital extra information, people in larger groups may limit their communication to nearby co-foragers. 但是,如果肢体语言可以传达一些额外的重要信息,那么在较大群落中,人们会将交流范围仅限于附近的搜集者。This might lead to the emergence of subgroups.从而导致此次群落的出现。How all this pertains to the “hunter” in “hunter-gatherer” has yet to be investigated. 关于以上这些是如何影响采猎群落中的狩猎者目前还没有相关调查。Getting a project on that past an ethics committee might involve an interesting act of communication in its own right.如果绕开道德层面来开展研究项目,其本身就是一种有趣的交流方式。 /201302/223790。

I really want to ask you, all right?我真的想问你一些问题,可以吗?Come through.请便。What was it like when the postman turned up, the striking postman.当那名邮差,那位罢工的邮递员出现的时候,是什么样的情况。Paul Chalcroft.保罗·克劳福特。Paul Chalcroft.保罗·克劳福特。Its very exciting, actually.实际上非常令人兴奋。Is that one of his?那其中一个是他吗?Thats Van Gogh. And thats just Paul Chalcroft, too.那是梵高。而那只是保罗·克劳福特。He was obsessed of this, wasnt he?他沉溺于此,不是吗?He was absolutely knew everything about Vincent from the day he was born, and the day he went,他绝对是从他出生开始那天就知晓有关文森特的一切,而就是那一天他去了,in fact, his wife told me, I dont know where to put all those pictures drawn of Van Gogh, hes drawn above me.事实上,他的妻子告诉我,我不知道可以把所有这些梵高的绘画挂在哪里,因为他的画作凌驾于我之上。Not very like it when he was here.当他在这里的时候不是那样。Poorly, but itll still be more or less the same. 有些可怜,但它仍然会或多或少相同。How do you have few sort of, fenced in the stairs, havent you?你如何有几类,楼梯中的篱笆,不是吗?Yes, I did. This was the room he slept in.是的,我有。这是他睡的房间。This one here?是在这里吗?This one here. Two windows. Thats all the paintings in there.这一间。里面有两扇窗户。这是所有的绘画作品诞生的地方。Theres the church at Auvers.奥维尔的教堂就在那里。The church, thats right. Thats Paul Chalcrofts work again.教堂,是的。那是保罗·克劳福特的再次工作。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/188624。

Business Oil in Russia Exxonerated商业 俄罗斯石油 奋起的埃克森石油Where BP failed, Exxon succeeds英国石油失落,埃克森石油奋起FOR BP it could hardly have been worse. On August 30th Exxon Mobil struck a deal with Rosneft to explore the same icy blocks of the Arctic Kara Sea that slipped from BPs grasp when its vaunted tie-up with the Russian state-controlled oil firm collapsed in the spring. Then things did get worse: the next day, one of BPs Moscow offices was raided by bailiffs.8月30号,埃克森美孚与俄罗斯国家石油公司签署了一项协议,共同开发北冰洋边海喀拉海的冰层,该冰层曾在今年春天由于BP与俄罗斯国有石油公司夸大的铁关系破裂,而从英国石油公司(BP)手中溜走。对BP来说,几乎没有比这更坏的消息了。而事态却偏偏变得更加严重:第二天,BP的一个莫斯科办事处遭到了一群法警的搜查。The deal is a triumph for Exxon, giving it access to one of oils richest frontiers, with none of the nasty add-ons that tripped up BP. The British firms proposed link with Rosneft would have meant giving the Russian firm 5% of its shares, an arrangement that BPs existing Russian partner, AAR, objected to. AAR took legal action and successfully blocked the deal.该协议对于埃克森来说是一个大胜,使其能够进入最富有的石油开采前线,而不带任何曾经绊倒BP的恶心的附加条款。英国公司原先预想与俄罗斯国家石油公司的联盟将意味着转让其5%的股份予该俄罗斯公司,这一安排受到了BP当时的俄罗斯合作伙伴,AAR的反对,后者采取了法律行动,成功阻止了这次交易。Exxon, in contrast, is neither swapping shares nor violating any previous agreement. It has pledged to spend .2 billion exploring the potentially oil-rich Kara and billion prospecting in the Black Sea. In return, it will allow Rosneft to take minority stakes in its deep-water projects in the Gulf of Mexico and onshore in Texas.相反,埃克森则没有交换任何股份或违法任何先前的协议。其承诺将投资22亿美元来开采储量丰富的喀拉海,并还将在黑海进行10亿美元的投资。作为回报,埃克森将允许俄罗斯石油工业集团拥有其在墨西哥湾和德克萨斯沿岸深水项目的一小部分利益。If all goes well, Exxons total investment in Russian Arctic oil could run into hundreds of billions of dollars over a decade—a figure Russias prime minister, Vladimir Putin, at a ceremony to launch the deal, described as ;scary to utter;. Whether such terrifying sums materialise will depend partly on the financial terms of Arctic exploration and the Kremlins flexibility over the tax status of the project. These are yet to be decided.如果一切进展顺利的话,埃克森对俄国北冰洋石油开采的投资将在未来十年内达到数千亿美元-这一数字被俄国首相普京在该协议签订仪式上描述成了;不敢说出口的;。这一巨额投资能否最终实现将部分取决于北冰洋开采项目的财政情况和克里姆林宫对该项目税收地位的灵活度。这一切都是未知数。Yet Exxons plans aly look more promising than BPs did. When announcing that proposal, Bob Dudley, BPs boss, trumpeted his knowledge of Russian politics. In fact it was BPs misjudgment of Russian politics and corporate culture that did for the deal. Mr Dudley wrongly believed that getting into bed with a powerful Kremlin firm would cow his existing oligarch partners. Having now alienated both, BP appears to have little protection against being pushed around in Russia—as the raid on its offices may suggest.然而埃克森的计划已经看起来比BP的更加令人期待。当BP的老板Bob Dudley宣布他的提议时,他在吹嘘自己对俄国政治的理解。实际上正是BP对俄国政治和企业文化的误判导致了这次协议的失败。Dudley先生错误的认为与一个强大的俄国国有公司联盟能够给其现有的寡头伙伴一点厉害。而现在与两家的间隙难以保BP在俄国不会被人左右-正如其受到的办公室搜查所暗示的那样。To Exxons great advantage, its deal is more important to Russia, which desperately needs foreign investment and expertise in its oil industry, than it is for Exxon, the worlds biggest private oil firm. Rosnefts share price jumped 8% after the announcement. (It also jumped 8% the previous day in the local market, suggesting insider dealing.) Exxons shareholders were less giddy, perhaps reflecting on the pitfalls of doing business in Russia.相比埃克森这个世界最大的私人石油公司,这一协议对俄国这方更为重要,因为其石油行业正急需外国投资和技术,这使得埃克森有了巨大的优势。在协议宣布之后,俄罗斯国家石油公司的股价涨了8%(在此前一天,当地市场的股价就已经涨了8%,说明有内部交易存在。)埃克森的股东则没那么兴奋,也许是因为在俄国做生意的诸多陷阱。They have experienced them. In 2003 Exxon considered buying a large stake in Yukos, then Russias largest oil firm. Yet shortly after Lee Raymond, Exxons chief executive, flew to Moscow to negotiate the deal with Mr Putin, Yukoss main shareholder, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, was arrested, Yukos was dismantled and its assets were swallowed by Rosneft.他们其实已经吃过一亏了。2003年,埃克森曾考虑大量购买俄罗斯当时最大的石油公司-尤科斯-的股份。然而就在埃克森的首席执行官Lee Raymond飞到莫斯科与普京讨论这一协议之后没多久,尤科斯的最大股东,Mikhail Khodorkovsky就被逮捕了,尤科斯随后被解散,资产全被俄罗斯石油工业集团吞并。That outrage could yet cast a shadow over the Exxon deal in America, where politicians continue to condemn the Kremlin over it. Indeed, this may be one reason why Igor Sechin, Mr Putins right-hand man, who oversaw the destruction of Yukos and the Exxon deal, has kept away from America. But American oil firms are a different matter: as Exxon has shown, so long as you sit on colossal oil reserves, they will always be happy to do business.美国公众对这一恼人事件留下的阴影仍然影响着埃克森的此次协议。的确,这也许就是为什么普京先生的得力助手,管理尤科斯的解散和埃克森此次协议的Igor Sechin对美国一直保持距离的原因之一。但美国的石油公司则是另外一码事了:正如埃克森所表现的,只要你坐拥庞大的石油资源,他们就会一直乐意同你做生意。 /201301/221406。

Business.商业。Do-it-yourself apps自己做的应用程序Make your own Angry Birds做自己的;愤怒的小鸟;Homebrew apps have arrived私人制作的软件已经来临LAST year Eddie the pig took Chile by storm. The iPhone game ;ePig Dash;, featuring Eddie, dislodged ;Angry Birds; to become the number-one paid game on the Chilean App Store. By itself, the story of a cute, if flatulent, pig pushing a bunch of irate birds off the top spot is nothing unusual. What is odd is that the creator of ;ePig Dash;, a conjuror and economics teacher, knew little or nothing about programming. Instead he used GameSalad, a do-it-yourself tool for app-makers.去年,小猪爱迪(Eddie the pig)在智利风靡。击败;愤怒的小鸟;后,以爱迪(Eddie)为主角的iphone游戏;ePig Dash;成为智利苹果应用榜上排名第一的付费游戏。就游戏本身而言,它没什么不寻常:以可爱角色为主角,小猪胀气后,将把一群愤怒的小鸟推下顶座。奇怪的是;ePig Dash;的作者是一名魔术师兼经济学教师,他对编程可谓知之甚少,甚至一无所知。但是他使用了一款可以让程序作者自己动手做应用的工具GameSalad。DIY is hot. In May Research in Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry, unveiled a kit that allows people with no programming skills to create a working app within minutes. Apple, too, has applied for a patent indicating it is also building a DIY tool for iOS, its mobile operating system. And in March the Massachusetts Institute of Technology released a beta version of App Inventor, which allows even simpletons to make apps for Android phones.;自己动手做;(DIY)很流行。五月份,黑莓的制造商RIM(Research in Motion)公司就发布了一套允许全无编程经验的人在数分钟内创造出能正常运行的应用的工具。苹果公司申请的一项版权同样表明它在建造一款自家的iOS平台上用的DIY工具。在三月,麻省理工学院也发布了一套测试版的应用构建器。它能以傻瓜式的方式构建安卓手机应用。Several start-ups aly offer DIY app services. Conduit, a firm which was valued at .3 billion after J.P. Morgan acquired a 7% stake for 0m earlier this year, allows people to build mobile apps themselves with a simple graphical interface. AppMakr, a similar service, has helped to create some 10,000 apps. Users include individuals, small businesses and the Harvard Business Review. AppMakr also offers its users help in bringing apps up to standard before submitting them to Apples picky App Store. Other services publish to Android and Windows, or bypass Apple altogether by creating web apps.有一批新成立的公司已经提供自己动手做应用的务了。今年早些时候,根大通以1亿美元价格收购Conduit 7%的股权后,该公司的价值直奔13亿。这家公司便可以让用户通过简单的图形界面构建移动应用。一家与其类似的务公司——AppMakr则已经帮助创建了约10000款应用。其用户包括个人,小型企业和《哈佛商业》。在用户要将应用提交给挑剔的苹果在线商店前,AppMakr也可帮助用户提高应用软件的水平,使其符合标准。其他务公司则发布安卓和Windows平台的应用程序,或者通过创建网页应用彻底绕开苹果平台。Custom-made apps can cost ,000 or more. By contrast, DIY apps are free to create, with a subscription for continued support. Prices vary, typically from about to a month. Magmito, an app-building service that targets small and medium businesses, has a plan that costs as little as a year. AppMakr offers a free, ad-supported service.定制的应用成本高达10000美元或更多。相反,DIY应用则可以免费创建,还可购买后续持。价格一般在每月30~80美元的范围内波动。Magmito是一家定位中小企业的应用构建务公司。它计划着一年仅收取50美元的费用。AppMakr则提供免费的带广告务。Small businesses and tech-savvy amateurs have been the most enthusiastic early creators of DIY apps. But they can also be a profitable business. GameSalad allows users to make 2D games for smartphones, which some choose to sell. According to Steve Felter, GameSalads boss, some developers even make a living designing apps on its platform.小企业与有卓见的科技爱好者都是早期最有热情的DIY应用创建者。但为这些人提供的务也有可能是盈利的。GameSalad让用户能为智能手机制作2D游戏,其中一些人还会销售它们。根据GameSalad经理Steve Felter的说法,一些开发者甚至在它的平台制作应用维持生计。The democratisation of technology is not without drawbacks. Apples App Store aly has some 550,000 apps. Google offers 450,000 for download on its Android operating system. The coming deluge of apps made by amateurs will see those numbers swell.技术普及化也不是没有缺点。苹果在线商店已经拥有550000款应用。谷歌也在它的安卓平台上提供450000款应用供下载。由爱好者制作的应用将如泛滥般袭来,上述数字也会增长。Not all will shine. ;Theres a lot of garbage on YouTube. But once in a while you find a gem and everybody passes it around,; says Ted Iannuzzi of Magmito. Professional app-makers may not be shaking in their boots just yet. But the clever ones, like AppMakr, are moving from creating stuff for mobile phones to creating the stuff that creates the stuff for mobile phones. App-creating software could be the machine tools of the mobile world.不可能所有的都是精品。Magmito 的Ted Iannuzzi 说:;YouTube里有大量的垃圾作品,但是精品从被发现到被人们广泛传播也是一瞬间的事儿。;专业的应用作者还不会感到有压力。可是像AppMakr这样明智的企业正从为智能手机创造应用转向为智能手机创造制造应用的应用。制造应用的软件将会成为移动世界中的机床。201208/194095。