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2017年12月18日 22:24:58来源:ask大夫

  • Business商业报道Advertising广告Nothing more than feelings仅仅是感情的眷顾Admen have made a marketing guru of Daniel Kahneman, a prizewinning psychologist广告人成就了营销大师丹尼尔·卡尼曼,一个获奖的心理学家。FIRST, you realise its a gorilla.首先,你会看到这是一只大猩猩。The opening strains of Phil Collinss In the Air Tonight are playing; the beast is enraptured.菲尔·克斯林令人心潮澎湃的著作《今晚夜空中》的旋律在回响,这只猩猩也随之眉飞色舞。As the camera pulls back, you see that hes seated at a drum kit.随着镜头的拉近,你会看到它坐在一套架子鼓旁,He flexes, raises his drumsticks, then brings them resoundingly down. Only in the final frames do you discover that the gorilla is pitching Cadburys Dairy Milk chocolate.它弯下身体,举起它的鼓槌,一锤击下,全场轰动。只有在最后一幅画面你才会看出,大猩猩所代言的是吉百利牛奶巧克力。The advert, released in 2007, should not have worked.该广告发布于2007年,本不该有如此效果。Conventional wisdom doubted that a jolt of joy from a drumming primate, however rhythmically gifted, would spur sales of chocolate bars.传统的智慧认为,灵长类动物击鼓带来的欢乐震撼,即使具有节奏天赋,也不会刺激巧克力棒的销售增加。A member of the team that developed the ad says that when it was passed to Millward Brown, the worlds biggest tester of adverts, the firm found that it scored poorly among women on its measures of awareness and brand appeal and about average among men.但开发广告的一位成员说,当把这份创意交给世界上最大的广告测试公司明略行之后,他们发现,相对意识和号召力这种创意的成功度在女人中效果更好,在男人中也保持均衡。Yet Cadbury went ahead, and was rewarded with millions of online views, better perceptions of its brand and higher sales.于是,吉百利说干就干,数百万的网上观点作为回报,为该公司赢得了更好的声誉和更高的销售额。Return on investment was three times the average for packaged-goods marketing campaigns.回报是为包装商品所做营销花费的三倍。Behind Cadburys simian success was an unlikely inspiration:吉百利大猩猩的成功,来源于一种不太可能的灵感:Daniel Kahneman, a psychologist who won a Nobel Prize in 2002 for showing that people are not the rational agents that economists had thought they were. He argues, most famously in Thinking, Fast and Slow, a 2011 book popularising his work, that the mind incorporates two systems:丹尼尔·卡尼曼,一位因2002年展现过市民不理性行为而获得过诺贝尔奖的心理学家。他在2011年推广他工作的书中提出了最著名的观点,思考,快与慢,也就是说,思维由两个系统组成:an intuitive system one, which makes many decisions automatically, and a calculating but lazy system two, which rationalises system ones ideas and sometimes overrules them.一个是直观的系统一,会自动做出许多决定;一个是精确但懒惰的系统二,将观点系统化,甚至有时会推翻它们。For Mr Kahnemans disciples advertising is above all a way to groom system one, to nudge consumers towards a buy.对于卡曼尼先生的弟子来说,广告首先是一种方式来培养体系,以引导消费者的购买。Going through the emotions情感判断Kahnemanite advertising prizes emotion over information and pays more attention to a brands purpose than to its products.Kahnemanite将广告情感倾注在信息上,而且更注重品牌目的而不是它的产品。It exploits system ones propensity to react to subtle cues.它利用系统中一个倾向反应的微妙暗示。In a print advert for a Betty Crocker pie, a version with the fork placed on the right triggered a 20% higher purchase intent than one with the fork on the left.贝蒂克罗克馅饼的印刷广告就是如此,其中一个版本是将叉子放在右边的购买意向比放在左边多出了20%,因为大多数人吃饭都是用右手。This demands not just new ways of making adverts but new methods for judging if they will work.这就要求制作广告不仅需要新创意,而且需要新途径来判断创意是否有效。Researchers must laser in on measuring emotion as almost the single metric that predicts success, says John Kearon of BrainJuicer, a market-research firm.市场研究公司BrainJuicer的约翰说,研究人员必须能够成功预测情感几乎是单一衡量指标的创意效果。This seasons crop of televisual tear-jerkers reflects such thinking.本季电视节目产物正是那种催人泪下的电影也反应了这样的思想。A sweaty game of wheelchair basketball ends with all the players but one walking out of the gym.一场酣畅淋漓的轮椅篮球比赛最终以除一人之外,所有人都走出体育馆而告终。The choices we make reveal the true nature of our character, intones the voice-over, in the hope that one of those choices will be to drink Guinness stout.画外音这样吟诵道,人的本质悬置在人的选择之中希望人们会选择健力士黑啤。In the gauzy Christmas offering of Britains Royal Mail, posties of many colours deliver parcels in all weathers, accompanied by an a cappella rendition of the Beatles All You Need is Love.英国皇家邮政提供的圣诞产品中,邮递员在各种气候穿着多种颜色的衣递送包裹,伴随着披头士《所有你需要的就是爱》的无伴奏合唱演绎。Of course, admen were aiming at system one long before they had heard of it: sex sells is one of the oldest mottos in the business, after all.当然,广告人们一直致力于一个系统,甚至在他们听说它之前,就是性销售,这毕竟是在商业上最古老的的格言。Even information-packed adverts that seem to be appealing to reason are really playing on emotions, points out Mr Kahneman, who does not give advice to marketers.卡尼曼先生指出,甚至是信息包装广告,吸引人的真正原因也是在玩情绪游戏,但他从不给营销提供意见。His followers are inclined to dispense with system two altogether.他的追随者们更倾向于将两个系统分配到一起。Marketers at Procter amp; Gamble, maker of Tide detergent and Pampers nappies, were trained to get across the single benefit that a product would give its purchaser, says Jim Stengel, a former marketing chief at the firm, now a consultant.宝洁,汰渍洗衣粉和帮宝适尿不湿的营销人员,都经过过产品给予买方单方利润的培训,公司的前任首席执行官吉姆·腾格尔这样说道,他现在是一个顾问。There was not a whole lot of recognition of emotional connection with a brand or company.没有一种情感能联接所有的品牌与公司。But that has changed.但是,这已经改变了。Pamp;Gs tribute to athletes mothers during last years Olympics was aimed directly at the syrupy soul of system one.去年奥运会期间宝洁对母亲的赞颂已经成为系统的灵魂。Rare is the marketer today who does not spout systemic terminology,在今天的市场,罕见的是谁不使用系统的技巧。but there are disagreements over how to divine what system one is feeling, and over the role of system two.但是在如何分辨两个系统谁表达情感的问题上依然存在分歧。In testing an advert before it goes to market, BrainJuicer asks subjects to say which of eight faces, each expressing a different emotion, best reflects the feeling it arouses and how intense it is.在一个广告进入系统之前的测试中,BrainJuicer要求受试者说明是哪八个方面,每一面如何表达不同的情感,最能唤起什么样的感情和怎么唤起的。The firm tested the gorilla advert after its release.在发布之后,该公司测试了大猩猩广告,It scored the highest emotional-intensity marks of any advert to that point.它在情感强度上超越其他广告得到了最高分,因为观众在看到这一点时感到快乐和惊喜。Decode, a rival, uses implicit association, in which subjects associate images and their reactions are timed.解码,是一个运用内隐联想的对手,将图像和概念的联系认为是定时的,The faster the response, the deeper the link between the two.响应越快,两者的联系越深。Decode, acting independently of Cadbury, found that the gorilla advert conjured up security and enjoyment better than a less-popular successor involving drag-racing trucks, which had unchocolatey overtones of adventure.在吉百利独立的选择了大猩猩广告后,解码发现,这个广告所带来的安全和享受的体验比一个具有冒险色的不太流行的卡车竞速赛的效果更佳。Some say the most telling signals are biological.有人说,最有说力的标志是生物。Neuro-Insight, an Australian outfit, monitors electrical activity in viewers brains.用澳大利亚的神经洞察装备来监视观众的大脑活动时,When viewers watched the Cadbury advert, signals that suggested images were being stored in long-term memory peaked three times:当观众看了吉百利广告,其结果显示图像被储存在长期记忆中最多有三次,when subjects recognised a gorilla, when they saw the drums and, encouragingly for Cadbury, when the brand appeared.而当受试者认出大猩猩,当他们再看到打鼓时,脑海里就会有鼓舞人心的吉百利品牌出现。Millward Brown has always probed for emotional responses, insists Graham Page, its head of consumer neuroscience.Millward Brown公司一直在探讨情绪反应,坚持格雷厄姆页,也就是其头部消费神经科学。People are aware of their feelings, so it is legitimate to discover them by asking questions.人们都能意识到自己的感情,所以更合理的是通过有效的提问来发现。The new biometric techniques are useful for finding out how people came to feel as they do.新的生物识别技术可以找出人们产生感觉的来源,Mr Page says Millward Brown has worked more with them than any other firm.佩奇先生说,Millward Brown已经比其他任何公司做的都多了。Furthermore, he says, do not underrate system two.此外,他说,不要低估系统二,It usually interacts with the system-one response to reach a decision.它通常与系统一回应互动来达成一项决议,That is why passengers overcome their reflexive aversion to some budget airlines; guided by hard-headed system two, they buy the cheap tickets.这也就是为什么乘客会克自己的厌恶而选择一些廉价的航空公司,被系统二的冷静头脑所指导,买了更便宜的机票。Still, Mr Page admits, researchers used to focus too much on thinking.不过,佩琪先生承认,研究人员在思考上关注的太多。Now Millward Brown is as keen as anyone to plumb consumers instincts.现在Millward Brown向其他人一样热心的探索消费者的本能。There is an irony in this. Most ers of Mr Kahnemans bestseller will end up mistrusting system one for its propensity to mislead.关于这一点,还有这样一个讽刺。卡尼曼先生的畅销书读者最终会因系统一的误导倾向而被迷惑。Not marketing folk. System one craves chocolate.没有营销的民俗。系统一迫切的需要巧克力。 /201312/270110。
  • When you have an itch, you scratch it.痒痒就挠挠。What could be more simple than that? 还有什么比这更简单的吗?Scratching itches is one of our most basic instincts, one which we share with many other animals.挠痒是我们与许多其他动物共同具有的最基本的本能之一。Have you ever stopped to wonder, mid-scratch, exactly why scratching is so effective against itching?但你是否在挠舒的同时停下来想过,为什么抓挠能治痒?Well learn the itchy truth, on todays Moment of Science.我们将在今天的《科学一刻》节目中了解有关发痒的事实,。On the most basic level, scratching is a way to remove whatever irritant might be causing the itch in the first place.从最基本的角度上看, 抓挠首先是一种去除任何可能会导致瘙痒刺激的方式。If an insect is biting you, or you have a patch of dead, flaking skin, scratching has a good chance of getting rid of it.如果一只昆虫咬了你,或者你有一块死皮,皮肤剥落,抓挠很有可能将它弄掉。In this case, its pretty obvious why the scratching works.这样的情况很明显说明了为什么抓挠会有效。Much of the time we scratch, however, it seems to be somewhat after the fact.大部分时间我们总是在真正痒了之后才会去抓挠。Perhaps the mosquito has aly bitten us and flown away, and we are left scratching at the swelling bite.也许蚊子已经吸完血飞走了我们才会抓挠被叮咬的肿胀部分。Clearly this wont get rid of the mosquito.很明显,这不会摆脱蚊子。Is there any good reason for this kind of scratching, or is this just an over-zealous instinct that doesnt realize its too late?但这种抓挠有什么好的理由,或者只是一种不知道太晚的过度本能吗?Actually, this kind of scratching can serve two additional functions.实际上,这样的抓挠可以起到两个额外的作用。First, it can stimulate the irritated tissues and cause extra blood to flow to them.首先可以刺激激扩张组织,使额外的血液流动。This can help your immune system remove whatever itchy substances might be below your skin.这可以帮助你的免疫系统清理在你皮肤下任何可能发痒的物质。Second, it can trick your brain into ignoring the annoying itch.其次是可能会欺骗你的大脑忽略这恼人的痒痒。Your nervous system can generally process only one stimulus from a given area of your skin at a time.你的神经系统通常只能处理一次皮肤特定区域的刺激。If you scratch at an area that itches, this new, greater stimulus can override the itching, effectively blocking it out.如果你抓挠很痒的部位,这种新的、更大的刺激可以覆盖瘙痒,有效地阻止它。 201312/270628。
  • Business商业报道Ad space for equity为股票做广告Air for shares股票时间Could an unusual venture-capital model be taking off?一项不同寻常的风险投资模式能够起飞吗?IN AMERICA, venture capital is plentiful.美国风险资金十分丰富,Not so elsewhere.但是并非所有地方都是这样。In Europe, a handful of companies are helping struggling start-ups with an unusual model:在欧洲,一些公司正以非同寻常的模式帮助那些挣扎的新成立的公司:investing advertising space in them instead of money.投资广告版面而非直接投钱。Start-ups usually get their initial seed funding—a few tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars—from family or friends.新成立的公司通常从家人或朋友那里获得初始的种子资金,通常是数万或数十万美元。A venture-capital firm wont step in until the firm is y to raise maybe ten times that amount.只有公司筹集到了数百万的资金时,风险投资才会介入。In America, intermediate sums tend to come from informal angel investors,在美国,过渡的资金通常来自于非正式的天使投资者,typically entrepreneurs who have made a decent bit of money from their own start-ups and want to invest some in projects they like.特别是由新成立的公司发家且希望投资一些中意项目的企业家。But outside Americas technology hubs, such people are rare.但是在美国科技中心之外,这样的人少之又少。However, start-ups of that size are often making their first baby steps into the market and need publicity.然而,这样规模的新成立的公司通常会迈着婴儿步进入市场并需要广告宣传。Aggregate Media Funds, a Swedish firm started in 2002,2002年成立的瑞典媒体公司媒体公基金集合了15家瑞典媒体提供的广告版面,pools excess advertising space provided by 15 Swedish media companies that are shareholders in the fund,并且以交换股权的形式给予新成立的公司。and gives it to start-ups in return for an equity stake.这15家媒体都是该基金的股东。If the firms do well, they buy back the equity in cash, which goes to the shareholders, with a cut for the fund.如果公司运作良好,他们就会用现金买回股权给予股东,并给基金一份利润。Patrik Rosen, Aggregates boss, says it has made some 120 investments—in both start-ups and established firms that want to advertise a new product or a stock offering—and completed around 80 exits,公基金的老板帕特里克·罗森表示给公司已经做大约120笔投资,都是投在需要为新产品或发行股票的新成立的公司或已成型的公司,并完成了大概80个公司的退市,though he wont disclose how much money has been made.但是他并不会透露赚了多少钱。Similar models have taken hold in Germany.德国也兴起了同样的模式。ProSiebenSat.1, a television company, has been offering other firms advertising in return for equity or revenue shares since , and reported making more than 40m in the past year.德国卫星电视频道ProSieben卫星一台在年就开始以交换股权或股份的形式为公司提供广告,去年盈利超过4千万欧元。A newer fund, German Media Pool, founded a year ago, combines a range of shareholders,成立于一年前的德国媒体基金像媒体公基金一样联合了一批股东。as Aggregate does, so it can offer its start-ups ads anywhere from billboards to TV.从广告牌到电视的任何地方,它都能够为新成立的公司投放广告。基金创始人尼科·华思车的目标是使投资者的钱翻倍。So why is the model not more widesp?为什么这个模式并没有更广泛的应用呢?It may have a bad reputation.可能是这个模式名声不好。Media firms that negotiate barter deals directly dont always do well:协商直接易货交易的媒体公司通常盈利状况不佳:they tend to lack the expertise to invest in start-ups, and the deals may not be transparent.他们通常缺乏投资新成立的公司的专业知识,并且协议可能不透明。Indias largest media firm, the Times Group, which publishes papers such as the Times of India, also owns a media-for-equity firm called Brand Capital, with stakes in around 400 companies.印度最大媒体公司时代集团在发行诸如印度时报之类的报纸的同时也拥有一家媒体换股权的公司,名叫品牌资金,该公司拥有大概400家公司的股份。In , under the name Times Private Treatie s, it got embroiled in controversy after Indias stockmarket regulator censured a group of people for conspiring to bump up the share price of one of its portfolio companies, and a Times Group journalist for midwifing media coverage.年,该公司以时代财产转让契约的名义卷入了一场争议。这场争议源于印度股票市场管理机构严厉指责一帮人串通抬高其中一家成员企业的股价和一位时代集团记者为媒体报道推波助澜。Critics say it is still hard to tell when Indian papers have financial links to firms they write about.批评者称目前仍然很难确定事情根底,因为印度报纸和其报道的公司有经济联系。Hence, Mr Rosen argues, the need for independent, diversified media funds to act as middlemen.所以罗森先生主张独立多样的媒体基金作为中间人。Even then, not all start-ups need ads—some are happy with social media—and many others would rather have cash instead.即使是那是也不是所有新成立的公司都需要广告,有些公司乐意使用社交媒体,而许多公司宁愿获得资金。Still, for some it is just what they need.然而对于一些公司来说这正是他们所需要的。And for the media firms, since the ads would otherwise go unfilled, any return is pure profit.对于一些媒体公司来说,若不投给新成立的公司,一些广告版面也会空白,所以一切收益都是纯利润。 /201306/243323。
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