首页>要闻>天下           天下         

      

深圳市人民医院做红色胎记手术多少钱康泰新闻

2018年01月17日 01:02:21 | 作者:丽健康 | 来源:新华社
Christmas is one of the most beautiful holidays of all time. It is the day when God#39;s son was born on earth. Hence, this day is sacred for all Christians around the world. The Christmas season gives rise to a number of Christmas traditions that come along. Here are a few of them that are celebrated with zest and enthusiasm worldwide for centuries.圣诞节一直是个美好的节日。这是上帝之子诞生的日子,因此对世界各地的基督徒来说,这一天是非常神圣的。圣诞季节自然少不了各种圣诞传统。下面这些传统,可是几个世纪以来一直世界各地的人们一直热闹欢庆的习俗。Preparation of the Christmas cake烘烤圣诞蛋糕This was an English tradition which started centuries ago. On Christmas eve, plum porridge was served to the people. As years passed, various other things like dry fruits, honey and spices were used. Soon this porridge got replaced with the Christmas cake. Christmas cakes are made using eggs, butter, confections, fruits, etc. Today a Christmas cake is an integral part of a Christmas .这项英式传统早在几个世纪以前就流传开了,以前人们在平安夜喝梅花粥。随着时间慢慢推移,人们还会享用果脯、蜂蜜及香料食物等,随后圣诞蛋糕便代替梅花粥出现了。圣诞蛋糕由鸡蛋、黄油、甜点、水果等烘制而成。现如今,圣诞蛋糕已成为圣诞菜谱不可或缺的一部分。木头形蛋糕:不可缺少的圣诞礼物你会做吗? /201312/269913Not long after moving to the University of Southampton, Constantine Sedikides had lunch with a colleague in the psychology department and described some unusual symptoms he#39;d been feeling. A few times a week, he was suddenly hit with nostalgia for his previous home at the University of North Carolina: memories of old friends, Tar Heel basketball games, fried okra, the sweet smells of autumn in Chapel Hill.搬到英国南安普顿大学之后(University of Southampton)不久的一天,康斯坦丁·斯蒂基特(Constantine Sedikides)和一个心理学系的同事共进午餐,讨论他最近一些不同寻常的感觉:每周里总有那么些时间,他会突然被怀旧之情所击中,想念他之前在美国北卡罗来纳州立大学(University of North Carolina)的家、老朋友、大学著名的Tar Heel篮球队的比赛、炸秋葵,还有教堂山城中秋天甜美的气息。His colleague, a clinical psychologist, made an immediate diagnosis. He must be depressed. Why else live in the past? Nostalgia had been considered a disorder ever since the term was coined by a 17th-century Swiss physician who attributed soldiers#39; mental and physical maladies to their longing to return home — nostos in Greek, and the accompanying pain, algos.斯蒂基特的同事是一位临床心理学家。他迅速给斯蒂基特做了个诊断:一定是抑郁症。还有什么其他原因会让你沉浸在过去呢?自从17世纪的瑞士医生发明“怀旧”这个单词以来,怀旧一直被认为是一种心理紊乱。这位瑞士医生将士兵们的精神与身体疾病都归咎于他们急切回家的心理,这在希腊语中被称为nostos——“怀旧”的英文单词nostagia的前半部分词根。而后半部分词根的algos,则意为“随之而来的痛苦”。But Dr. Sedikides didn#39;t want to return to any home — not to Chapel Hill, not to his native Greece — and he insisted to his lunch companion that he wasn#39;t in pain.但斯蒂基特士并不想回家——至少不是美国教堂山的家,也不是他的老家希腊。他坚持己见,告诉他的同事:他并没有痛苦的感觉。;I told him I did live my life forward, but sometimes I couldn#39;t help thinking about the past, and it was rewarding,; he says. ;Nostalgia made me feel that my life had roots and continuity. It made me feel good about myself and my relationships. It provided a texture to my life and gave me strength to move forward.;“我告诉他我是一个向前看的人。有时我确实忍不住会怀念过往,但这是有好处的。”他说,“怀旧让我觉得生活有根源与连续性。它让我喜欢自己和身边的人,将我的生活历程编织理顺,给我前进的勇气。”The colleague remained skeptical, but ultimately Dr. Sedikides prevailed. That lunch in 1999 inspired him to pioneer a field that today includes dozens of researchers around the world using tools developed at his social-psychology laboratory, including a questionnaire called the Southampton Nostalgia Scale. After a decade of study, nostalgia isn#39;t what it used to be — it#39;s looking a lot better.他的同事还是表示怀疑,但最终斯蒂基特士赢得了辩论。1999年的这顿午餐给予他启发,使他开创了一个新领域。他在其社会心理学实验室里研制了一套工具,包括一个叫“南安普顿怀旧量表”的调查问卷,如今世界上许多研究者依然在使用这些工具进行研究。经过十余年的研究后,怀旧已经不像人们当年所想的那样糟糕,它的形象变得好多了。Nostalgia has been shown to counteract loneliness, boredom and anxiety. It makes people more generous to strangers and more tolerant of outsiders. Couples feel closer and look happier when they#39;re sharing nostalgic memories. On cold days, or in cold rooms, people use nostalgia to literally feel warmer.从研究结果看来,怀旧可以减少孤独、无聊与焦虑。它让人们对陌生人更加慷慨,对外人更加容忍。当夫妻们拥有共同的怀旧记忆,他们会感觉更亲密快乐。在寒冷的房间里,怀旧会使人们感觉温暖。Nostalgia does have its painful side — it#39;s a bittersweet emotion — but the net effect is to make life seem more meaningful and death less frightening. When people speak wistfully of the past, they typically become more optimistic and inspired about the future.怀旧确实也有痛苦的一面。这是一个苦中带甜的体验,但将利弊权衡来看,怀旧依然能让生活显得更加有意义,让死亡感觉不那么可怕。当人们无限依恋地谈论着过往时,他们通常会对未来更加乐观与富有信心。;Nostalgia makes us a bit more human,; Dr. Sedikides says. He considers the first great nostalgist to be Odysseus, an itinerant who used memories of his family and home to get through hard times, but Dr. Sedikides emphasizes that nostalgia is not the same as homesickness. It#39;s not just for those away from home, and it#39;s not a sickness, despite its historical reputation.“怀旧使我们更人性。”斯蒂基特士说。他认为第一个伟大的怀旧者是奥德修斯(Odysseus,《荷马史诗》中的希腊伊卡岛王,流浪十年终回故土与亲人团聚——译注),曾用亲人与家庭的回忆以撑他度过痛苦的岁月。但斯蒂基特士强调,怀旧并不等同于思乡病,它并不只作用于离家的游子。即使其历史声誉不良,怀旧也不是一种病。Nostalgia was originally described as a ;neurological disease of essentially demonic cause; by Johannes Hoffer, the Swiss doctor who coined the term in 1688. Military physicians speculated that its prevalence among Swiss mercenaries abroad was due to earlier damage to the soldiers#39; ear drums and brain cells by the unremitting clanging of cowbells in the Alps.约翰森·贺佛尔(Johannes Hoffer),那个最初在1688年发明“怀旧”单词的瑞士医生,将它定义为“可导致器质恶性疾病的神经系统疾病”。军队医生们猜测,派驻外国的瑞士雇佣兵中无比流行的怀旧病,是因为他们的耳膜与脑细胞有过早期损伤。受伤的来源则是阿尔卑斯山上永不停息的声声牛铃叮当。A Universal Feeling同样的感受In the 19th and 20th centuries nostalgia was variously classified as an ;immigrant psychosis,; a form of ;melancholia; and a ;mentally repressive compulsive disorder; among other pathologies. But when Dr. Sedikides, Tim Wildschut and other psychologists at Southampton began studying nostalgia, they found it to be common around the world, including in children as young as 7 (who look back fondly on birthdays and vacations).19到20世纪时,怀旧曾被归于“移民精神疾病”、“抑郁症中的一种”、”脑部压抑强迫症”等各种疾病里。但当南安普顿大学的斯蒂基特士、提姆·维尔德舒特(Tim Wildschut)与其他心理学家开始研究怀旧后,他们发现这在世界范围内是一个很正常的现象,甚至年幼如7岁的孩子们,就已经有怀旧现象(他们会愉快地怀念生日与假期)。;The defining features of nostalgia in England are also the defining features in Africa and South America,; Dr. Wildschut says. The topics are universal — reminiscences about friends and family members, holidays, weddings, songs, sunsets, lakes. The stories tend to feature the self as the protagonist surrounded by close friends.“英国对怀旧特征的定义,和在非洲与南美是相同的。”维尔德舒特说。它们拥有共同的主题,如对朋友家人、假期、婚礼、歌曲、落日、湖泊等的怀念。每个故事里都倾向将自己定义为主角,有亲密朋友环绕四周。Most people report experiencing nostalgia at least once a week, and nearly half experience it three or four times a week. These reported bouts are often touched off by negative events and feelings of loneliness, but people say the ;nostalgizing; — researchers distinguish it from reminiscing — helps them feel better.大部分人称每周内至少会经历一次怀旧感受,而几乎一半人每周会有3至4次怀旧体验。研究者们将“怀旧”与“思乡”加以区别,怀旧情绪通常由消极事件与孤独感受唤起。但人们说,怀旧能帮助他们情绪变好。To test these effects in the laboratory, researchers at Southampton induced negative moods by having people about a deadly disaster and take a personality test that supposedly revealed them to be exceptionally lonely. Sure enough, the people depressed about the disaster victims or worried about being lonely became more likely to wax nostalgic. And the strategy worked: They subsequently felt less depressed and less lonely.南安普顿的研究者们也在实验室里测试了这些影响。他们让人们阅读一篇描述致命事故的文章,另外用性格测试找出那些有极度孤独情绪的受试者。果不其然,那些为事故受害者伤心的人与害怕孤独的人们,相比而言更容易沾染上怀旧情绪。而怀旧确实有所作用:他们会感觉并不那么抑郁与孤单了。Nostalgic stories aren#39;t simple exercises in cheeriness, though. The memories aren#39;t all happy, and even the joys are mixed with a wistful sense of loss. But on the whole, the positive elements greatly outnumber the negative elements, as the Southampton researchers found by methodically analyzing stories collected in the laboratory as well as in a magazine named Nostalgia.但这些怀旧的体验并不只有积极的一面。我们的回忆里并不全是笑声。而回忆带给我们的欢乐中,也总掺杂着若有所失的怅惘。但总体而言,怀旧的益处还是大大超越其害处。南安普顿的研究者们进行了系统分析,他们在实验室中采集数据,还分析了一本叫《怀旧》(Nostalgia)的杂志中刊登的故事,得到这一结论。;Nostalgic stories often start badly, with some kind of problem, but then they tend to end well, thanks to help from someone close to you,; Dr. Sedikides says. ;So you end up with a stronger feeling of belonging and affiliation, and you become more generous toward others.;“怀旧的故事通常有很不好的开头,一般都带着一些问题,但它们总能有个好的结局,因为有亲近的人给予你帮助,”斯蒂基特士说,“所以你能以一种强烈的归属感结束怀旧体验,而会对他人更宽容慷慨。”A quick way to induce nostalgia is through music, which has become a favorite tool of researchers. In an experiment in the Netherlands, Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets of Tilburg University and colleagues found that listening to songs made people feel not only nostalgic but also warmer physically.音乐可以很快引发怀旧,于是它成为研究者们最喜欢的工具。在荷兰蒂尔堡大学(Tilburg University)的一个实验里,研究者文格霍特(Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets)与其同事发现,听音乐不仅可以让人怀旧,还能感觉到身体更温暖。That warm glow was investigated in southern China by Xinyue Zhou of Sun Yat-Sen University. By tracking students over the course of a month, she and colleagues found that feelings of nostalgia were more common on cold days. The researchers also found that people in a cool room (68 degrees Fahrenheit) were more likely to nostalgize than people in warmer rooms.在中国南方的中山大学里,周欣悦仔细探索了这种温暖效应。她和她的同事花了一个月时间追踪记录学生们,结果发现在寒冷天气里,这种怀旧情绪更为常见。研究者们也发现,当人们呆在20度的凉爽房间里时,他们比呆在暖和房间里更容易怀旧。Not everyone in the cool room turned nostalgic during the experiment, but the ones who did reported feeling warmer. That mind-body link, Dr. Wildschut says, means that nostalgia might have had evolutionary value to our ancestors long before Odysseus.在实验中,并不是所有呆在凉爽房间里的人都会怀旧,但那些怀旧的人确实表示感觉更温暖了。斯蒂基特士说,这个心理与身体的联系表示,也许早在奥德修斯之前,怀旧已经对我们的祖先产生进化上的意义。;If you can recruit a memory to maintain physiological comfort, at least subjectively, that could be an amazing and complex adaptation,; he says. ;It could contribute to survival by making you look for food and shelter that much longer.;“如果回忆可以至少让你自我感觉身体舒适,这都会是一种神奇并复杂的环境适应,”他说,“它让你可以坚持更长时间以寻觅食物与庇护,这有助于生存。”Finding a Sweet Spot寻找甜蜜的时刻Of course, memories can also be depressing. Some researchers in the 1970s and #39;80s suggested that nostalgia could worsen a problem that psychologists call self-discontinuity, which is nicely defined in ;Suite: Judy Blue Eyes,; by Stephen Stills: ;Don#39;t let the past remind us of what we are not now.; This sense of loss and dislocation has repeatedly been linked to both physical and mental ills.当然,回忆也可能让人绝望。20世纪七八十年代的研究者们认为,怀旧可以恶化“自我中断”(self-discontinuity)这种疾病。史蒂芬·史提斯(Stephen Stills,美国歌手——译注)在《组曲:朱迪蓝色的眼睛》(Suite: Judy Blue Eyes)中准确地描述了这个问题:“不要让过去来提醒我们现在已不再如此。”这种怅然所失与情绪错位经常与身体或脑部疾病相联系。But the feeling of discontinuity doesn#39;t seem to be a typical result of nostalgia, according to recent studies. In fact, people tend to have a healthier sense of self-continuity if they nostalgize more frequently, as measured on the scale developed at Southampton. To understand why these memories seem reassuring, Clay Routledge of North Dakota State University and other psychologists conducted a series of experiments with English, Dutch and American adults.但根据新近研究结果,这种自我中断的感觉并不一定是怀旧体验的结果。事实上,根据南安普顿怀旧量表问卷,如果人们增加怀旧频率,他们会倾向于拥有一种更健康的自我中断情绪。为了了解记忆令人欣慰的原因,北达科他州州立大学(North Dakota State University)的克雷·罗德里奇(Clay Routledge)与其他心理学家在英国、荷兰与美国成人中进行了一系列实验。First, the experimenters induced nostalgia by playing hit songs from the past for some people and letting them lyrics to their favorite songs. Afterward, these people were more likely than a control group to say that they felt ;loved; and that ;life is worth living.;在实验中,部分受试者先听了一些过去的流行歌曲,并读了一些他们所喜爱歌曲的歌词,使他们产生怀旧情绪。相比起对照组,这些受试者更可能感觉“被爱”与“生活有意义”。Then the researchers tested the effect in the other direction by trying to induce existential angst. They subjected some people to an essay by a supposed Oxford philosopher who wrote that life is meaningless because any single person#39;s contribution to the world is ;paltry, pathetic and pointless.; Readers of the essay became more likely to nostalgize, presumably to ward off Sartrean despair.接着,这些研究者尝试唤起受试者的焦虑,以测试怀旧在另一个极端的作用。他们让部分受试者阅读一篇由所谓牛津哲学家写作的文章,文章里讲述因为个人对世界的作用“微不足道、悲惨与无意义”,生活只是虚无。结果表明,文章的读者们更容易产生怀旧情绪,这也许是为了驱赶这种萨特(Sartre)式的绝望。Moreover, when some people were induced to nostalgia before ing the bleak essay, they were less likely to be convinced by it. The brief stroll down memory lane apparently made life seem worthwhile, at least to the English students in that experiment. (Whether it would work with gloomy French intellectuals remains to be determined.)另外,如果这些被试者的怀旧情绪被唤起后,再来阅读这篇讨论人生荒凉的文章时,他们比较不容易被作者说。至少对接受实验的英国学生们而言,在记忆隧道中流连体验能让他们认识到生活的价值。(这是否能对忧郁的法国文人起作用则有待分解。);Nostalgia serves a crucial existential function,; Dr. Routledge says. ;It brings to mind cherished experiences that assure us we are valued people who have meaningful lives. Some of our research shows that people who regularly engage in nostalgia are better at coping with concerns about death.;“怀旧对于存在感至为关键,”斯蒂基特士说,“它唤起了珍贵的记忆,让我们相信个人的价值,觉得我们拥有有意义的生活。我们的一些研究表明,那些经常沉入怀旧情绪的人更能面对死亡这一概念。”Feeding the Memory Bank在记忆里储存The usefulness of nostalgia seems to vary with age, according to Erica Hepper, a psychologist at the University of Surrey in England. She and her colleagues have found that nostalgia levels tend to be high among young adults, then dip in middle age and rise again during old age.怀旧的效果似乎取决于年龄。这是英国萨里大学(University of Surrey)心理学家爱丽克·何派(Erica Hepper)的研究结果。她和同事发现,年轻人的怀旧程度相对较高,中年人程度偏低,而老年人则又重新回到较高的怀旧程度中。;Nostalgia helps us deal with transitions,; Dr. Hepper says. ;The young adults are just moving away from home and or starting their first jobs, so they fall back on memories of family Christmases, pets and friends in school.;“怀旧可以帮助我们面对生活的转折期。”何派士说,“当年轻人刚刚搬离家乡,开始他们第一份工作时,他们会沉浸于圣诞节家庭团聚、宠物和学校朋友的回忆里。”Dr. Sedikides, now 54, still enjoys nostalgizing about Chapel Hill, although his range has expanded greatly over the past decade. He says that the years of research have inspired strategies for increasing nostalgia in his own life. One is to create more moments that will be memorable.斯蒂基特士现在54岁了,他依然很享受对美国教堂山城的怀旧,虽然他的怀旧范围已经在过去十年中被大大扩展了。他说,多年的研究给予他一些启发,以增加自己生活中的怀旧对象,其中一项是:创造更多值得回忆的时光。;I don#39;t miss an opportunity to build nostalgic-to-be memories,; he says. ;We call this anticipatory nostalgia and have even started a line of relevant research.;“我不愿意错过任何机会,以制造值得怀旧的记忆。”他说,“我们管这个叫可预期的怀旧,我们甚至已经开始这个相关研究了。”Another strategy is to draw on his ;nostalgic repository; when he needs a psychological lift or some extra motivation. At such moments, he tries to focus on the memories and savor them without comparing them with anything else.斯蒂基特士从研究中还得到了另一个启发。当他需要让自己快乐起来,或者需要一些心理激励时,他便从其“怀旧储备”中汲取能量。在这样的时刻里,他会试着让自己专注于回忆,细细品尝往事,而不去将它们与其他事情做对比。;Many other people,; he explains, ;have defined nostalgia as comparing the past with the present and saying, implicitly, that the past was better — ‘Those were the days.#39; But that may not be the best way for most people to nostalgize. The comparison will not benefit, say, the elderly in a nursing home who don#39;t see their future as bright. But if they focus on the past in an existential way — ‘What has my life meant?#39; — then they can potentially benefit.;“许多其他人,”他解释道,“将怀旧定义为用往事与现状对比,然后自我暗示地认为过去的生活更美好,感叹着‘那些年#39;。”但对于大多数人而言,这都不是最好的怀旧方法。比如当老年人在养老院里对比现状与过往,这并无法让他们觉得未来无限美好。但如果他们将往事看成一种人生存在的方式,思考‘我的生活意味着什么?#39;,他们则可能从怀旧中获益。This comparison-free nostalgizing is being taught to first-year college students as part of a study testing its value for people in difficult situations. Other experiments are using the same technique in people in nursing homes, women recovering from cancer surgery, and prison inmates.这种不做对比的怀旧已经作为研究的一部分,用于一年级本科生,以测试人们在不同情况下时怀旧的作用。其他实验则采用相同的方法,用以测试养老院中的老人、刚从癌症手术中恢复的妇女与监狱的囚犯。Is there anyone who shouldn#39;t be indulging in nostalgia? People who are leery of intimate relationships — ;avoidant,; in psychological jargon — seem to reap relatively small benefits from nostalgia compared with people who crave closeness. And there are undoubtedly neurotics who overdo it. But for most others, Dr. Sedikides recommends regular exercises.有没有完全无法陷入怀旧的人呢?有的,相比起渴望亲近的人,那些对亲密关系持怀疑态度的人便在怀旧中收获较少,他们在心理学术语中被称为“回避型人格”。当然也有神经病患者会过分沉浸于怀旧之中。然而对大部分人而言,斯蒂基特士建议我们可以对此做有规律的练习。;If you#39;re not neurotic or avoidant, I think you#39;ll benefit by nostalgizing two or maybe three times a week,; he says. ;Experience it as a prized possession. When Humphrey Bogart says, ‘We#39;ll always have Paris,#39; that#39;s nostalgia for you. We have it, and nobody can take it away from us. It#39;s our diamond.;如果你没有神经机能病,也没有回避型人格,我觉得如果你一周怀旧两到三次,会对你有帮助。”他说:“将怀旧的体验作为一种珍贵的经历,亨弗莱·鲍嘉(Humphrey Bogart)说:‘我们会永远拥有巴黎#39;(电影《卡萨布兰卡》的经典台词——译注)时,怀旧便是我们的‘巴黎#39;。我们拥有这些记忆,没有人能将它们夺去。这是我们的无价之宝。” /201410/334696

In order to improve the lives of women and girls around the world, “it’s not enough to just to talk about women and girls,” Melinda Gates says. Speaking directly to an audience of women CEOs, executives, and business leaders, she said that people have to be willing to use their voice, dollars, and network in order to make an impact. “We have to be willing to stand up and say, ‘I’m willing to fund some of these things.#39;”为了改善全球妇女和女孩的生活状况,梅琳达·盖茨表示,“仅仅口头谈论这个话题是不够的。”面对由女性首席执行官、高管和商界领袖组成的听众,她直言,人们必须得心甘情愿地调动起他们的声音、财力和人际网络,才能产生影响力。“我们必须站起来说:‘我愿意为这些事情提供资助。’”Gates, a philanthropist and co-founder of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, was interviewed on Wednesday by Fortune senior editor-at-large Pattie Sellers at the Fortune Most Powerful Women Summit at Laguna Niguel, Calif.梅琳达·盖茨是一名慈善家,也是比尔和梅琳达o盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)的联合创始人。在上周三于加利福尼亚州拉古纳尼格尔举行的《财富》最具影响力女性峰会(Fortune Most Powerful Women Summit)上,她接受了《财富》(Fortune)资深编辑帕蒂o塞勒斯的采访。The Gates Foundation, one of the most active private foundations in the world, recently declared in Science magazine that it aims to put women and girls “at the center of development.”作为全球最为活跃的民间基金会之一,盖茨基金会最近在美国《科学》(Science)杂志上表示,他们准备把妇女和女孩放在“未来发展的中心地位”。“One of the things that I’ve gotten to do for the foundation is really to travel,” Gates said. She talked about how she would break away from city centers during her trips on behalf of the organization to explore nearby villages and slums and speak to women who lived there. The side trips brought her a greater understanding of the lives they lived, she said, and how the Gates Foundation could have greater impact on their day-to-day existence. Gates realized her foundation wasn’t doing a lot for women at scale.梅琳达表示:“我在基金会的工作之一就是实地考察。”她谈到了自己是如何离开城市中心,代表基金会去考察邻近的乡村和贫民窟,并与那里的女性交谈。梅琳达称,这一系列旅途让她更好地了解到这些女性的生活状况,以及盖茨经济会应当如何对她们的日常生活产生更大影响。梅琳达意识到,她的基金会还没有为广大女性做出很大的贡献。“As a foundation, we do pre-siloed work,” she said, indicating its work on eradicating malaria and polio. “We weren’t getting the impact we wanted for women and their families,” she said. “We needed to move the foundation to do more of this work. We need to move the world to do more of this work.”梅琳达表示:“作为一个基金会,我们做的是一些本质上比较封闭的工作”,她指的是基金会在根除疟疾和小儿麻痹症上的工作。“我们没有对女性和她们的家庭产生预期的影响力。我们需要让基金会更多地投入这方面的工作,还需要鼓动全世界更多地投入这方面的工作。”The Gates Foundation was started as a research and development organization, with a focus on mass diseases. “We also need to do delivery,” Gates said. It wouldn’t be enough to create a vaccine or cure for a disease if the mothers of at-risk children wouldn’t allow its distribution. “I want to make sure we do the right thing for women and girls,” she said.盖茨基金会起初是一个研发机构,工作重点在于大规模疾病防治。梅琳达表示:“我们也需要参与配发药品的工作。”仅仅研发出治疗疾病的疫苗或药剂是不够的,如果病危儿童的母亲根本拿不到这些疫苗或药剂的话,这些工作就没有意义。她说:“我想要确定我们对妇女和女孩们做了正确的事。”Gates also spoke about her number-one priority: the importance of family planning and contraceptives. Family planning, she said, can change the trajectory of a woman’s life and the lives of her children. “We think about 14 million girls are married before the age of 18,” she said, and the maternal mortality rate is still “huge around the world.”梅琳达还谈到了她认为最需要优先做的事:计划生育和避用品。她表示,计划生育可以改变一名女性的生命轨迹,乃至她孩子的人生。她说:“我们认为有大约1,400万女孩在18岁以前就结婚了”,而产妇死亡率“在全球仍然居高不下”。The ability for a women to plan when and how often to have children is crucial for her health and key for her economic growth. One of the goals of the foundation is to fund research into new types of contraceptives. Gates spoke about a Washington University scientist who is looking to develop an oral contraceptive that would dissolve under a woman’s tongue like a breath mint.女性能否计划好怀的时间和频率,对女性的自我健康和经济发展至关重要。盖茨基金会的目标之一,就是为研发新型避用品提供资金。梅琳达特别提到了华盛顿大学(Washington University)一位科学家的研究工作,这位科学家试图研发一种能像薄荷糖一样在舌头下融化的口避药。In addition to the focus on women and girls, the Gates Foundation is still looking to help tackle mass diseases, and recently gave million towards the fight against Ebola. Gates Foundation head Sue Desmond-Hellmann saw the crisis coming and convinced Bill and Melinda Gates to put their money towards early prevention. Gates spoke about how a Gates Foundation-funded polio clinic in Nigeria decided to convert to an emergency Ebola clinic, helping that nation to keep its Ebola rate to only 19 cases.除了关注妇女和女孩之外,盖茨基金会还在努力帮助应对大规模疾病,并于近期捐助了5,000万美元用于对抗埃拉病毒。基金会的领导者之一苏o德斯蒙德-赫尔曼预见了即将来临的危机,并说了比尔和梅琳达投入资金进行早期防治。梅琳达表示,在尼日利亚,一家盖茨基金会赞助的小儿麻痹症诊所被改造成了一家紧急的埃拉病毒诊所,并且已经帮助该国将埃拉的病例数控制在了仅仅19例。When asked by Fortune managing editor Alan Murray how the Gates Foundation works with governmental organizations like the World Health Organization, Gates spoke about the need for public-private partnerships. For instance, UNICEF, the Gates Foundation, and the University of Washington might have different, but complementary, takes on how similar research and health initiatives, and use those differences to improve each other’s work.当《财富》杂志总编辑艾伦o默里问到盖茨基金会是如何同世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)等政府机构合作时,梅琳达谈到了政府和民间合作的必要性。比如说,联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)、盖茨基金会和华盛顿大学在类似的研究和卫生倡议问题上有着不同却互补的成果,利用这些差异,各组织能够促进彼此的工作。“Intellectual pushback is what you want in a private-public partnership,” she said.梅琳达表示:“在政府与民间的合作中,智慧的碰撞正是我们想要的。” /201410/336513

Famed novelist Gabriel García Márquez passed away on Thursday, according to a family member cited by the Associated Press. He was 87 years old.据美联社报道,著名小说家加夫列尔·加西亚·马尔克斯在周四逝世,享年87岁。The Colombian Nobel Prize winning author was hospitalized for nine days in late March for an infection in his lungs and urinary tract. He had been recovering in his home in Mexico City since April 8.在今年三月份,这位哥伦比亚籍的诺贝尔奖得主因肺部和尿道感染住院9天,从4月8号开始,他就一直在墨西哥的家中休养。García Márquez was born in Aracataca, Colombia on March 6, 1927. The northern Colombian town inspired the setting for his 1967 novel One Hundred Years of Solitude, which earned international critical acclaim and tens of millions of ers. García Márquez earned even more fans with his 1985 book, Love in the Time of Cholera. He was considered by many to be the most popular Spanish-language writer since Miguel de Cervantes, who wrote Don Quixote in the 17th century.加西亚·马尔克斯于1927年3月6日出生于哥伦比亚的阿拉卡塔卡,这座哥伦比亚北部的小镇曾是马尔克斯写于1967年的《百年孤独》里的故事背景,这部《百年孤独》赢得了国际界与万千读者的广泛赞誉。加西亚·马尔克斯出版于1985年的小说《霍乱时期的爱情》,吸引了更多的读者。他被认为是自米格尔·德·塞万提斯(他在17世纪时期创作了《唐吉诃德》)以来,最受欢迎的西班牙语作家。García Márquez won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1982 for his novels and short stories. When he won the award, he called Latin America a “source of insatiable creativity, full of sorrow and beauty, of which this roving and nostalgic Colombian is but one cipher more, singled out by fortune. Poets and beggars, musicians and prophets, warriors and scoundrels, all creatures of that unbridled reality, we have had to ask but little of imagination, for our crucial problem has been a lack of conventional means to render our lives believable.” He is credited with helping to invent the literary genre of magical realism.加西亚·马尔克斯凭借他的长篇小说和短篇小说获得了1982年的诺贝尔文学奖。他在领奖时,表示拉丁美洲是一个“永不枯竭的、充满不幸与美好事物的创作源泉,而我这个游浪和思乡的哥伦比亚人,只不过是一个被命运圈定的字码而已。诗人和乞丐、音乐家和预言家、武士和恶棍,总之,我们,一切隶属于这个非同寻常的现实的人,很少需要求助于想象力。因为对我们最大的挑战,是我们没有足够的常规手段来让人们相信我们生活的现实。”他被视为文学魔幻现实主义的创始人。 /201404/289614

Coach, the maker of luxury handbags and other sundry accessories, has been having a rough year. Poor sales prompted a leadership shuffle in July, and after a particularly bad earnings report Tuesday, the stock took its biggest dive in years. Which is odd, because the luxury market has been doing really well overall, fed by a global elite with assets that seem to have fully recovered from the recessionary dumps. So what#39;s the problem?蔻驰(Coach)是世界著名奢侈品品牌,主营男女精品配饰,尤以手袋闻名,但今年业绩欠佳。7月,因销量惨淡,蔻驰高层发生了变动,再加上本周二,蔻驰公布了令人失望的收益报告,双重打击之下,蔻驰股票大跌,跌幅创历史新高。然而,在富有的精英阶层似乎完全从经济危机中恢复过来,并带动整个奢侈品消费市场走向繁荣之时,蔻驰糟糕的销售业绩实在令人觉得费解。那么,蔻驰究竟出了什么问题?Part of it is certainly hard-charging competition from newer brands, like Kate Spade and Michael Kors, that appeal to a younger audience. For them, Coach is their rich auntie#39;s label, more 5th Avenue than Mission District.攻势猛烈的新兴品牌自然是挑战之一,如凯特·思蓓(Kate Spade)和迈克·科尔斯(Michael Kors),这些品牌更得年轻消费者青睐。他们认为蔻驰是富有阿姨辈的专属,打个比方说,新兴品牌就像是纽约年轻时尚的教会区(Mission District),而蔻驰则像是第五大道(5th Avenue),更为奢侈古板。But the bigger problem may have been growing too fast in the first place. Coach, under pressure from investors to boost revenue, added line after line of merchandise and dozens of factory outlet stores over the past few years, fueling a dramatic run-up in earnings -- to the point where Coach isn#39;t really Coach anymore.但更大的问题可能来自于产品初期的过速发展。投资者急于追求利润的增长,蔻驰因此不得不在过去的几年间不断扩大生产规模并增开几十家工厂直销店,这样做的确使其利润有了飞跃,但这时蔻驰已不再是原来的蔻驰。;If you#39;re a luxury brand with outlet stores, maybe you#39;re not a luxury brand,; mused Tim Hanson of Motley Fool Funds on a podcast Tuesday. ;They took a growth-at-any-costs attitude that has done brand damage that they are paying for, but at the time that they were doing [it], it fielded stock price gains because it allowed them to put up very heady revenue numbers.;蒂姆·汉森是美国著名投资论坛“衣傻瓜”(Motley Fool Funds)的全球收益顾问,本周二,他在自己的播客中沉思自问:“一个奢侈品牌如果有了工厂店,那还能叫奢侈品吗?为了追求利润而不择手段,品牌形象会受损,他们将自食恶果,但收益表上的数字确实让人飘飘然,也带动了股价增长。”It#39;s a problem all luxury brands face, especially public ones: How can you both sell enough on a quarterly basis to make Wall Street happy while at the same time maintaining the aura of exclusivity that got you where you were in the first place?不仅是蔻驰,全球所有奢侈品牌,尤其是公众品牌,都在面临这样一个问题:如何在保持一个令华尔街满意的季度销量的同时维持产品独有的格调而不违背其品牌初衷。Mark Cohen, a professor of retail at the Columbia University Business School, ticks off the companies that have fallen into the ubiquity trap. Bill Blass ;never met a licensee he didn#39;t do a deal with,; he says. Neiman Marcus ;has opened stores in the last seven, eight years that they wish they could take back.; Saks Fifth Avenue ;took developer deals 25 years ago that gave them the immediate appearance of growth, which was false.; Martha Stewart, Ralph Lauren, and Barney#39;s haven#39;t done themselves any favors either by going mass market either.哥伦比亚大学商学院零售学教授马克·科恩列举了几个陷入“普遍性陷阱”的公司实例。比如比尔·布拉斯(Bill Blass),它从来不会拒绝任何一个授权方的交易请求;尼曼(Neiman Marcus)在过去的七八年间开了好几家分店,而现在他们却后悔了;萨克斯第五大道精品百货店(Saks Fifth Avenue)25年前接受了开发商的协议,并因此带来了繁荣的假象;玛莎·司徒沃特(Marsha Stewart),拉尔夫·劳伦(Ralph Lauren)和巴尼斯纽约精品店(Barney#39;s)此类品牌也未从扩大的市场中获得任何优势。;It#39;s the designer toilet seat problem,; Cohen says. ;The luxury business is entirely contingent on limited availability, limited supply, and limited exposure.;科恩说:“这关乎设计上的供求问题,奢侈品需要做到供不应求,要知道这个行业完全是依靠限量生产、限量供应和限量发行来运作的。”In recent years, big luxury retailers have found a way around the problem by pivoting to Asia, leveraging their iconic status in places like Japan and China to achieve huge sales without tarnishing their image at home. Coach hasn#39;t had as much success there, perhaps because it doesn#39;t have the same kind of world-wide super-appeal of a Prada or Gucci. Hermes and Tiffany#39;s are typically seen as the gold standard in maintaining brand purity -- compensating for small sales volume with really, really high margins. Privately-held Godiva has managed to operate on two tracks, selling pricey chocolates both in convenience stores and its own, super-luxe retail spaces.近年来,一些奢侈品零售巨头找到了两全其美的办法,即以亚洲为销售重心,利用自身“品牌效应”在中国、日本等国取得巨额销量,而丝毫不影响在国内的形象。但是蔻驰没有像普拉达(Prada)和古奇(Gucci)那样的国际产品知名度,所以并未在亚洲市场上取得多大的成功。爱马仕(Hermes)和蒂凡尼(Tiffany)则是业内严守产品高贵血统这一黄金准则的楷模,它们用高利润来填补销量的不足。私人企业歌蒂凡(Godiva)则采用了两种营销模式:将公司生产的昂贵巧克力同时在便利店和自己的奢侈专卖店中出售。Coach is also at a disadvantage because it#39;s not part of a large umbrella corporation that can compensate for slow growth in one of its portfolio companies with fast growth in another. A lot of the luxury marketplace falls into a few big spheres of influence: LVMH owns Hennessy, Louis Vuitton, Veuve Clic, Dom Perignon, Givenchy, Marc Jacobs, Fendi, Christian Dior, Belvedere, Thomas Pink, Donna Karan, Sephora, and many more. Richemont owns Montblanc, Cartier, Piaget, and Van Cleef amp; Arpels. Kering owns Gucci, Balenciaga, Alexander McQueen, Stella McCartney, etc. Because they#39;re diversified, they can invest in new designers, much like a big record label can -- or could, in better days -- take chances on minor artists on the off chance they take off.蔻驰的另一个劣势在于它不隶属于任何一个大公司,因此也不存在销售业绩较好与较差的投资组合公司之间的互补。许多奢侈品公司旗下都有多个颇具影响力的品牌,如法国酩悦·轩尼诗-路易·威登集团(LVMH),该公司旗下拥有如下品牌:轩尼诗(Hennessy)、路易·威登(Louis Vuitton)、凯歌香槟(VeuveClic)、唐培里侬香槟(Dom Perignon)、纪梵希(Givenchy)、马克·雅各布(Marc Jacobs)、芬迪(Fendi)、克里斯汀·迪奥(Christian Dior)、雪树伏特加(Belvedere)、托马斯·品客(Thomas Pink)、唐纳·卡兰(Donna Karan)、丝芙兰(Sephora)等等;历峰集团(Richemont)旗下拥有:万宝龙(Montblanc)、卡地亚(Cartier)、伯爵表(Piaget)以及梵克雅宝(Van Cleefamp;Arpels);开云集团(Kering)所属品牌有:古奇(Gucci)、巴黎世家(Balenciaga)、亚历山大·麦昆(Alexander McQueen)、斯特拉·麦卡特尼(Stella McCartney)等。就像规模较大的唱片公司现在或景况好时,会在二流艺术家身上试试运气,即使成功的希望渺茫。;Between the moment they invest in them and the moment they will get their return will be five to seven years,; says Ketty Maisonrouge, a luxury branding consultant. ;If you look at most brands, what#39;s successful today, they all try to understand what it is to make sure you don#39;t grow too fast.;奢侈品顾问凯蒂·梅森卢兹称:“投资者从投入资金到收回成本大概需要5到7年的时间。你看那些现在很成功的品牌,他们中大部分都试图找到规律,来确保自身发展速度不过快。”If Coach is to recover, Wall Street is going to need to let it ease off the gas pedal, make like Burberry, and realize that a sterling brand and massive sales are a contradiction in terms.蔻驰要想重振旗鼓,华尔街就应该适当放手,效仿巴宝莉(Burberry)的做法,并意识到品牌的高贵形象与巨大的销量是不可兼得的。 /201312/268701

  • 中医优惠深圳伊斯佑医院光子嫩肤手术多少钱
  • 深圳北大祛痣多少钱
  • 深圳去肥胖纹哪里比较好
  • 快问诊疗深圳伊斯佑医院植发哪家好
  • 美丽时讯深圳自体脂肪填充费用
  • 深圳市人民医院做双眼皮多少钱
  • 快乐分类深圳伊斯佑整形美容医院副乳切除怎么样
  • 福田区脸上祛斑多少钱
  • 深圳伊斯佑整形美容医院鼻翼缩小怎么样
  • 搜医优惠深圳鼻头鼻翼缩小价格
  • 深圳丰胸手术多少钱华龙时讯
  • 深圳市伊斯佑整形医院口腔美容中心
  • 深圳第八人民医院激光除皱多少钱快乐知识深圳市人民医院丰胸多少钱
  • 深圳中医院韩式三点双眼皮多少钱
  • 深圳福田腋窝脱毛多少钱快问咨询深圳市第五人民医院整形中心
  • 深圳妇女儿童医院韩式三点双眼皮多少钱中国问答
  • 百度健康深圳祛痣
  • 深圳医学整形美容激光去斑手术多少钱
  • 深圳曼托隆胸哪家医院好
  • 深圳脂肪移植术
  • 中国医学科学院肿瘤医院深圳医院激光去痣多少钱千龙卫生深圳南山脱小腿毛多少钱
  • 深圳市中心医院激光去烫伤的疤多少钱千龙分享
  • 深圳光子脱体毛美容
  • 华大全深圳南山人民妇幼保健医院整形美容
  • 深圳市人民医院激光祛斑多少钱
  • 大鹏新区去除红色胎记费用医苑助手
  • 豆瓣共享龙岗区第三人民医院整形美容科
  • 深圳超声刀的医院
  • 深圳市第十人民医院祛眼袋多少钱
  • 深圳市人民医院绣眉多少钱
  • 相关阅读
  • 明天开始一年内赚的盆满钵满穷的只剩钱的生肖
  • 百倍的热情千遍的呵护万分的用心品鉴华菱星马运煤专线上
  • 洛阳城市建设勘察设计院有限公司招聘信息
  • 阿梅你真的学了中医比较擅长是哪一方面的?你是在乡下学的吗
  • 深圳互金协会发布通知严禁成员单位开展首付贷等违规业务
  • 乌兰察布市召开十三五人才发展规划座谈会
  • 《梦想的声音》本周逆势上扬田馥甄浓妆惊艳颠覆
  • 特朗普要废了耶伦?华尔街的小心脏都要跳出来了!
  • 车市之星专访上海锦俊总经理尤悦梅
  • 地铁时代常青城暂无房源可售(图)
  • 编辑:乐视诊疗

    关键词:深圳市人民医院做红色胎记手术多少钱

    更多

    更多