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武汉/阿波罗生植中心任建枝预约盒子

2017年10月23日 12:12:14|来源:国际在线|编辑:询价特惠
Science and techonolgy科学技术The evolution of co-operation合作关系的演变Make or break?建立还是终止?Social networking tames cheats社交网络驯欺骗者HOW people collaborate, in the face of numerous temptations to cheat, is an important field of psychological and economic research.在无数互相欺骗的诱惑中,人们如何建立合作关系?A lot of this research focuses on the tit-for-tat theory of co-operation:这是心理和经济学研究的一个很重要的领域。关于这个领域的很多研究都集中在以牙还牙的合作理论:that humans are disposed, when dealing with another person,那就是,一个人在处理和另外一个人的关系时,to behave in a generous manner until that other person shows himself not to be generous.开始都会选择慷慨的态度,直到对方显露出不慷慨的迹象,这个时候也是合作关系终止的时候。At this point co-operation is withdrawn. Fool me once, in other words, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.用另外一种话说,就是欺我一回,罪过在你,欺我二回,罪过在我。When he encounters such a withdrawal of collaboration, the theory goes, the malefactor will learn the error of his ways and become a more co-operative individual.当遭遇这样的一次合作终止,如理论所说,作为合作规则的破坏者,他会开始反省他处事的过错,并且开始变成更加乐于合作的个体。And there is experimental evidence, based on specially designed games, that tit-for-tat does work for pairs of people.在特殊设计的游戏基础上得出的实验据显示,以牙还牙理论在两个人的关系中确实奏效。Human societies, though, are more complex than mere dyads.然而人类社会关系远比两两之间更为复杂。And until recently, it has been difficult to model that complexity in the laboratory.直到最近,这种复杂的关系还难以在实验室中模拟出来。But a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Nicholas Christakis and his colleagues at Harvard has changed that.但在这周,哈佛大学Nicholas Christakis和他的同事在国家科学院院刊上发表的论文改变了这个状况。Dr Christakis arranged for a collaboration-testing game to be played over the web, with many participants.Christakis士在网上安排了一场多人参与的实验测试游戏。As a result, he and his team have gained a more sophisticated insight into the way co-operation develops.经过这个实验,他和同事对人际合作发展方式有了更深的理解。Dr Christakis used what is known as a public-goods game for his experiment.Christakis士在这个实验中采用称为公共利益的游戏。At the beginning of such a game, points are doled out to each participant.游戏之初,每个参与者分发到少量的分数。During every round, players are given the opportunity to donate points to their neighbours.在接下来每一轮游戏中,参与者都有机会赠送分数给他的邻居。Points so donated are augmented by an equal number from the masters of the game.赠送者的分数能够在游戏管理者那里得到与之舍出分数相等量的增长。If everyone co-operates, then, everyone ends up richer.如果参与者都合作的话,每个人最终分数都会比最开始的多。A defector who refuses to donate to his co-operating neighbours will, however, benefit at the expense of those neighbours.而拒绝赠送分数的破坏者却从他邻居们的损失中获益。At the game’s end, the points are converted into real money, to ensure that proper incentives are in place.为了保适当的奖励到位,游戏后这些分数可以变换成钱。To play his large-scale public-goods game, Dr Christakis recruited 785 volunteers via Mechanical Turk—a service provided by Amazon,为了展开这个大型的公共利益游戏,Christakis士通过网上零售商亚马逊提供的土耳其机器人网络务招收了785名志愿者。an online retailer, that works by farming out small tasks to an army of individual workers.这是个发包小任务给个体劳动队伍的务网络。Each volunteer was randomly assigned links to, on average, eight other players.在这个网络上,每个志愿者大约和八个随机分配的参与者连接组队,Together, they played repeated rounds of one of three variations of the game.并根据三种设定的游戏模式重复开展。In the first, participants always interacted with the same group of people.第一种模式,参与者总是和同一组人合作。In the second, the connections were randomly reshuffled after each round.第二种模式,每一轮游戏后合作者都随机重组。In the final version, one-third of the possible pairings between participants were chosen at random after each round.最后一种,每一轮后,三分之一的组合将被选中并随机重组。One player from each pair was first told or reminded of how the other had behaved in the previous round, and was then asked whether he wanted to break his connection with that player,组合中一人会被告知或提醒他的合作对象在前面一轮游戏中的表现,他可以选择是否解除和这个人的合作,如果他已经有一个合作对象的话;if he aly had one, or form a new connection, if he had not.如果他没有合作对象,他则可以选择是否建立新的合作联系。In all versions of the game, roughly 60% of players started out co-operating.在所有三种模式中,大约60%的参与者最开始都是遵守合作规则。However, in the first two, this decreased over time as the pernicious influence of the freeloaders sp.可是头两种模式中,随着吃白食恶劣影响的扩展,遵守的人数也跟着下降。The larger the fraction of a subject’s partners who defected in a given round, the less likely that person was to co-operate in the next—classical tit-for-tat.一个参与者合作过的对象中破坏规则的人数比例越高,这个参与者在下一轮的游戏中越不可能遵守合作规则-典型的以牙还牙。However, this tit-for-tat retaliation was not enough to save co-operation, and after a dozen rounds only 10-20% of the players were still willing to co-operate.然后,这种以牙还牙的报复并不能拯救合作的持续,在十几轮游戏后,只有10-20%的参与者还愿意合作。In the variant where participants had some choice over whom they interacted with, though, the amount of co-operation stayed stable as the rounds progressed.然而在参与者可以选择合作对象的模式中,合作的人数随着游戏的进行保持稳定。When Dr Christakis and his team looked at how the relationships between players were evolving in this third version,而Christakis士和他的团队观察第三种模式中参与者的关系如何演变时,they found that connections between two co-operators were much more likely to be maintained than links that involved a defector.他们发现没有碰到过破坏者的组合更容易保持合作。Over time, the co-operators accumulated more social connections than the defectors did.在游戏中,合作者比破坏者积累了更多的合作关系。Furthermore, as they were shunned, the defectors began to change their behaviour.而且,被拒绝后,破坏者也开始改变他们的行为。A defector’s likelihood of switching to co-operation increased with the number of players who had broken links with him in the previous round.在前面一轮游戏中和他中止合作的人越多,他越有可能转向合作者。Unlike straightforward tit-for-tat, social retaliation was having a marked effect.不像简单的以牙还牙,社会报复有一个标记作用。The next question, then, is whether such a mechanism holds outside the laboratory.接下来的问题是,这样的一个机制在实验室外是否可行?To find out, Dr Christakis has forged links with some anthropologists. They hope to report the answer soon.为了找出,Christakis士已经和一些人类学家取得联系。他们希望能够很快得出结论。 /201306/243470You can see the planet Jupiter on a clear night, but Jupiter ishumongous.在晴朗的夜空下我们能够看到木星,那是因为木星够大;Mars and Mercury are smaller than that, and youcan see them, too.尽管火星和水星比木星要小,但我们依然能看到。Wait a minute, our moon is even smaller,and you can see that.等等,月球更要小一些,我们还是能看到。Could anything smaller than the moon be visible without a telescope?那么,在不使用望远镜的情况下,我们还能看到比月亮更小的天体吗?Actually, yes.事实上,是肯定的。Though it takes a lot of patience and excellent sky conditions, it is possible to see atiny object called Vesta.只要我们足够有耐心,天公也作美,我们还有机会看到一个小天体—它就是被命名为灶神星的小天体。Although it had a molten interior and volcanoes, Vesta isnt a planet or amoon: its an asteroid.尽管它以溶化的金属为核心且地表遍布火山,灶神星却既不是行星也不是月球:它仅仅是一颗小行星。Asteroids are straychunks of rocky or metallic materials that orbit thesun but were never drawn into any of the planets.小行星是由岩石或是金属块构成的小天体,他们绕太阳运动但绝不会卷入其他行星的运行轨道中。Vesta is quite far away.灶神星距地球的距离很远。Like many asteroids, it has an orbit out between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.像其它许多小行星一样,它在火星与木星之间有自己的运行轨道。Astronomers first spotted it when looking for a new planet they thought should existbetween these two.天文学家们首次发现它时是在寻找介于这两大行星间的另一个行星。As I said, Vesta is quite small-about three hundred and twenty-five miles across.正如我所说,灶神星是很小的—它的直径也就只有325英里而已。So if its small and far away, how come we can see it from here?那问题就是,它又小,距离我们又远,我们怎么能从地球上靠肉眼就看到它呢?Vestas surface has a coating of pyroxine and olivine,two minerals that are actually also spewed up by volcanoes here on earth.在灶神星的表面覆盖了厚厚的一层玄武岩和橄榄石,这两种矿物质都是由此处的火上喷发而出的。They give it a whitishexterior that reflects well,这两种矿物质使得灶神星的表面呈白色,且发光的效果相当好。making it just possible to see Vesta with your eyes, even when the onlytwo larger asteroids, Ceres and Pallas, are completely invisible.如此一来,我们便仅凭肉眼就可以看到灶神星了。甚至在比它还大的另外两个小行星—谷神星和智神星都无法看到的情况下,我们还是能看到它。 201407/316601

And for me its the beginning of by far away, one of my remote South African adventure yet.对我来说这只是刚刚开始,我的一次远程南非冒险才迈出第一步。Tietoway is the top end of the Northen Cay, Rinwasmark is in a quiet corner South Africas emptiest province.提托威坐落于凯恩斯顶端,这是南非最空旷的省一处安静的角落。But despite of periences, there is a plenty of life here, and there are walking roots to be explored.尽管资源缺乏,这里仍然有大量的动物,还需要步行去探索。The landscape in Juice one massive nature life line, the orange river, it over 2000 kilometers as South Africas longest.南部非洲重要河流奥兰治河, 作为南非最长河流的它超过2000公里。Its vital water sustains a remarkable human population and a surprising agriculture industry. 其重要水源维持着显著的人口及令人惊讶的农业产业。201309/255563

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