2018年03月18日 21:43:04|来源:国际在线|编辑:新浪极客
Demography人口统计学The strange case of the missing baby婴儿的离奇流失As the financial crisis hit, birth rates fell in rich countries, as expected. But a persistent baby bust is a real puzzle正如人们所预料那样,金融危机的冲击导致发达国家的出生率下降。但持久的生育低谷才是一个真实的谜团。HE IS not exactly leading by example, but Pope Francis wants more babies. “The great challenge of Europe is to return to being mother Europe,” he said last year, while suggesting that young people might be having too few children because they preferred holidays. Europe certainly lacks young souls, particularly in Catholic countries such as Italy and Spain. But the baby shortage is broader: mother America and mother Australia have gone missing, too.他自己并非以身作则,但教宗方济各想要有更多的婴儿出生。他在去年说道,“欧洲所面临的重大挑战就是,恢复作为一名欧洲母亲的身份,”同时也暗示,年轻人也许不喜欢多生几个孩子,因为他们更喜欢假期。确实,欧洲缺乏年轻人,尤其是在意大利和西班牙这样的天主教国家。但婴儿短缺的范围更为广泛:美国母亲和澳大利亚母亲也越来越少了。They were certainly present a decade ago. Although birth rates were low in the former communist countries of eastern Europe, and in traditionalist places where it is hard to combine work with motherhood—think Japan, South Korea and southern Europe—many countries were having a baby boom. In the decade to 2008, the total fertility rate (the number of children a woman can expect to have in her lifetime based on present patterns) rose in much of the rich world. In Britain it went up from 1.68 to 1.91; in Australia from 1.76 to 2.02; and in Sweden from 1.5 to 1.91. America even managed to reach the “replacement rate” of 2.1, meaning its population was sustaining itself, without taking migration into account.在十年前,他们是确实存在着的。尽管在东欧的前社会主义国家,以及难以将工作与母亲身份结合的传统之地中,如日本、韩国和欧洲南部地区,出生率低下—但许多国家都经历过婴儿潮时期。到2008年为止的十年间,大部分发达国家的生育率均上升了(生育率是指在既有模式下,一位女性希望在其一生中生育的孩子的数量)。在英国,生育率从1.68上升至1.91;在澳大利亚,生育率从1.76上升至2.02;在瑞典,该指标从1.5上升至1.91。美国甚至达到2.1的“人口置换率”,这意味着,在不考虑移民的情况下,该国人口基本保持不变。There were two reasons, says Tomas Sobotka of the Vienna Institute of Demography. First, women who had delayed having children while they studied and started careers hurried to the maternity wards while they still could. Births to women in their 30s, which had been rising gently for years, went up further in Norway and elsewhere. Second, fertility among women in their 20s stopped falling.维也纳人口统计学研究所的托马斯·索特卡表示,导致这种现象的原因有两个。首先,那些因为学习或者事业刚起步而延迟怀的女性都趁自己身体状况允许的条件下着急生育。这些年来,30几岁才生育的女性数量一直在缓慢增加,在挪威以及别的地方增长得更快。其次,20几岁生育的女性数量也逐渐减少。The financial crisis abruptly turned the boom to bust. Countries in the European Union delivered 5,469,000 babies in 2008 but only 5,075,000 in 2013—a drop of over 7%. That was too much for Kimberly-Clark, the maker of Huggies nappies, which announced in 2012 that it would pull out of most of Europe. In America the fertility rate fell from a peak of 2.12 in 2007 to 1.86 in 2014. Ken Johnson, a demographer at the University of New Hampshire, estimated that America was missing 2.3m babies.金融危机突然地将婴儿潮转变为生育低谷。在2008年,欧盟国家共有5,469,000名婴儿出生,而在2013年,仅有5,075,000名——下跌超过7%。这对于好奇纸尿布的制造商金佰利克拉克而言,实在是太多了。金佰利在2012年宣布将退出大部分欧洲市场。在美国,生育率从2007年的顶点值2.12跌至2014年的1.86。新罕布尔什大学的人口学家肯·约翰逊估计,美国已流失230万婴儿。The crunch was unsurprising: anxiety about jobs and money puts people off children. But a rich-world baby bust that began predictably turned into a puzzle.这一窘境在人们意料之中:对工作和金钱的担忧使得人们推迟要孩子的计划。但原本可预计的生育低谷发生在发达国家却变成了一个谜。 译文属译生译世 /201605/444566

France, Africa and terrorism法国,非洲和恐怖主义An African journey非洲之行The French government has new African worries in the Sahel法国政府对萨赫勒地区忧心忡忡Hollande with rare new friend奥朗德和其罕见的新朋友It is a rite of passage for every new French president to head to French-speaking Africa and reaffirm faith in la Francophonie. So it was with Francois Hollande, who has just visited Senegal and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Like his predecessor, Nicolas Sarkozy, he said “francafrique”—the cosy post-colonial ties of party financing, arms, contracts and influence—was over and that human rights were paramount. He praised the shared use of French, “language of liberty”. But behind the warm words lie grimmer concerns, the biggest being the entrenchment of terror networks in the al-Qaeda-held Sahel.每个新上任的法国总统都要经历这样一个仪式:走访非洲讲法语的国家,并重申其对法语区的忠诚。法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德刚刚访问了塞内加尔和刚果民主共和国。和前任总统尼科拉·萨科奇一样,他强调“法兰西非洲”——这个包含政府融资、武器输送、契约协定、施加影响在内的”亲密“的后殖民关系——将不复存在,人权才是至高无上的。他对共同使用法语的做法大加赞赏,称之为“语言自由”。但是在这一番温暖人心的话语背后却隐藏着深切的担忧,尤其是针对萨赫勒地区的基地组织网络的防卫工事。Islamist fighters tied to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) have ruled a big swathe of northern Mali since March, dividing the country in two. In the far north extreme sharia law is being applied. Mr Hollande spoke in Senegal of “a reign of terror” in Mali, with “hands cut off, women raped and an area awash with weapons”. There are also two French hostages in Mali, whose families the president has just met in Paris, as well as four in Niger.3月份以来,伊斯兰北非基地组织的武装分子们已经控制了马里北部的大部分地区,马里被分成了两片,其遥远的北部开始施行极端伊斯兰教法。在塞内加尔,奥朗德怒斥其为“恐怖统治”马里,“人质双手被砍断,妇女被奸淫和机扫荡了整个地区。”还有2个法国人质被困在马里,奥朗德总统刚在巴黎会见了他们的家人,除此之外,尼日尔也有4名受困人质。Despite France’s reluctance to play post-colonial gendarme, Mr Hollande is starting to sound tougher on Mali. During his African trip, he tried to rally regional leaders to the cause. Manuel Valls, the interior minister, visited Algeria to narrow differences. France drafted a UN Security Council resolution, unanimously adopted on October 12th, that authorises the dispatch of an African force to retake rebel-held territory in Mali. Jean-Yves Le Drian, the French defence minister, says such a force could be y “within weeks”.尽管法国不愿意扮演后殖民宪兵的角色,但是奥朗德先生已经对马里问题发表了严正声明。在这次非洲之旅中,他试图号召地区领导人加入这项事业。法国内政部长曼纽尔·瓦尔斯拜访了阿尔及利亚以试图缩小分歧。法国起草了一份联合国安理会决议,批准派遣一驻非洲军队以重新夺回反动派在马里控制的地区,该决议受到一致通过,并于10月12日施行。法国国防部长让一伊夫·勒德里昂表示“几周之内”就能组建好一驻非队伍。Yet his enthusiasm may be overdone. The plan is that a force would be made up of troops from Mali and other countries in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). But, even if willing ones can be lined up, regional forces do not have the capacity to mount an offensive operation without logistical and intelligence support. The French are y to contribute, but have ruled out sending in ground troops. Although the European Union says it will send trainers under an EU flag, the Americans are reluctant to get involved.然而,他信誓旦旦的表态似乎有些夸张了。他们原计划由马里和其他西非国家经济体国家的军队组成一军事力量。但是,即使这些有意愿的国家可以组成一队伍,但是地方军队在没有后勤和情报持的情况下却不能发动袭击行动。法国已经准备好了付诸行动,但是却不会派遣地面部队。尽管欧盟表示他们会在欧盟的旗帜下派遣训练员,美国却不愿意卷入其中。France’s anxiety is that, if nothing is done, the Sahel might become a crucible for Islamist terrorism. “What makes people very nervous is the idea that it will become Africa’s Afghanistan,” says Francois Heisbourg of the Foundation for Strategic Research, a think-tank. France, with its colonial history and commercial ties, is an obvious target. One Malian Islamist group has explicitly threatened Mr Hollande since his push for military action, and said that French hostages are in greater danger.法国担心的是,如果不采取行动,萨赫勒地区可能会成为伊斯兰恐怖主义的聚集地。“最让民众所担忧的是马里可能会变成非洲的阿富汗,”战略研究基金会的研究员弗朗索瓦·海斯伯格说道。拥有殖民历史和贸易关系的法国很显然会成为恐怖分子袭击目标。一驻马里的伊斯兰组织已经对奥朗德推进军事行动的行为发表了明确的威胁,宣传法国人质将会更加危险。As it is, France is aly fretting about terrorist threats. Although there is no direct link to AQIM, French police dismantled an Islamist cell in France earlier this month, arresting 12 suspects and shooting one dead. Two were wanted in connection with an attack on a kosher grocer in a Paris suburb last month, which rattled France’s big Jewish population. Seven have been charged with terrorist offences.事实上,法国已经开始担心恐怖主义威胁。本月初,法国警方捣毁了位于法国的一个伊斯兰组织,抓捕了12个嫌疑人,并击毙了一人,虽然他们与伊斯兰北非基地组织并没有直接联系。还有两个嫌犯正在被通缉,他们与上个月巴黎郊区发生的一起袭击犹太食品杂货店的案件有关,这使法国犹太群体人心惶惶。其中七个人以恐怖袭击罪被起诉。Francois Molins, the Paris public prosecutor, called the cell “extremely dangerous”. Some suspects were French converts to Islam. The threat is “increasingly coming from within”, Mr Valls told the Senate, adding that radicalisation can take a matter of months. The country was shocked earlier this year when seven people, including three Jewish children and a rabbi, were shot dead in Toulouse by a French Islamist who claimed to have been trained by al-Qaeda. The surveillance of radicals has been stepped up. Mr Valls is putting a law before parliament to give the police new powers to pursue French nationals abroad suspected of links to terrorism or of attending foreign training camps. With or without a French-backed operation in Mali, France is on high alert.法国公共检察官弗朗索瓦·莫林斯声称这个组织“非常危险”,一些嫌疑人是皈依伊斯兰教的法国人。“越来越多的威胁来自我们的内部”,瓦尔斯先生通告参议院,并强调极端主义可能会持续几个月。今年年初,图尔兹发生的惨案令法国震惊,包括三名犹太小孩和一名法师在内的七个公民被击毙。凶手是法国伊斯兰教主义者,他声称受到基地组织的训练。法国已经加强了对激进分子的监控。瓦尔斯先生正在向议会提交一部法律,该法律将赋予警方追踪可能与恐怖主义有联系的或参加外国训练营的在外法国公民的新权力。不管法国有没有插手马里的运动,他们都将处于高级戒备状态。 翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201608/459766

It induces euphoria, and excites the sexual regions of the brain.它能引起快感,刺激大脑的性区域,It is quite possibly hallucinogenic.引起幻觉。It leads to strange, unpredictable, and unproductive behavior in those who use it.使用它的人可能产生奇怪,出乎意料的,不明智的举动。Whats more, it growswild, much as a weed.更重要的是它和杂草一样是野生的。Is this the latest menace to society? No, its catnip.这是对社会的最新威胁吗?不,它是猫薄荷。The catnip plant is actually an herb, and a relatively common member of the mint family.猫薄荷实际上是一种药草,是薄荷家族中常见的一员。If kitties ever decided to have a war on drugs, catnip would be outlawed because of a chemical called“nepetalactone.”如果猫咪们决定来一次反毒品大战,那么猫薄荷将会被认定为非法药物,因为它含有一种叫做荆芥内酯的化学物质。Lactones carry chemical messages inside a body, and nepetalactone carries its message straightto the pleasure center of a cats brain, where it can randomly excite the cats neural circuits associatedwith sex, playing, hunting, and feeding.内酯在身体内传送化学信息,荆芥内酯则直接将信息传入猫脑的“快乐中枢”,在那里可以随意刺激猫与性欲,玩耍,捕猎以及喂养有关的神经环路。Although a cat may try to eat catnip or a catnip toy, it is only the smell of catnip that transfers the drug toa cats brain, not the actual ingestion.尽管猫会尝试吃掉猫薄荷或者猫薄荷玩具,但这仅仅是猫薄荷的气味将药物传输至猫的大脑中,并不是实际的摄取。This is why a small amount of catnip inside a toy can make a cathappy again and again.这就是为什么玩具里的一小点猫薄荷就能让猫不停地兴奋。Its also why a cat will sometimes be more interested in the cardboard box that acatnip toy came in than the actual toy-the cardboard might carry more of the smell.这也是为什么猫有时会对装猫薄荷玩具的箱子而不是猫薄荷玩具更感兴趣,因为箱子可能有更多的气味。If your cat seems unaffected by catnip, dont worry.如果你的猫不受猫薄荷的影响,不用担心。A cats sensitivity to catnip is genetically determined,and some dont respond at all.猫对猫薄荷的敏感度是由其基因决定的,有些根本毫无反应。 201411/341640

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