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Americans are expected to mark the annual Thanksgiving holiday Thursday with family gatherings, meals and bargain shopping.星期四美国人庆祝每年一度的感恩节,与家人团聚,共享美餐,购买折价商品。The celebration is traditionally held on the fourth Thursday in November and marks the beginning of a holiday season that culminates in New Year#39;s celebrations in early January.按照传统,美国人在每年十一月的第四个星期四庆祝感恩节。这一天标志着假日季节的开端。季节的高潮是一月初的新年。The day after Thanksgiving Day is a day for big sales on clothing, toys, and appliances, as people begin their holiday shopping in earnest.感恩节的第二天就是大减价日,所谓的“黑色星期五”。装、玩具和家用电器等商品都折价出售。So-called ;Black Friday; sales begin Thursday on Thanksgiving Day, or even a few days before, and generally end the following Monday, known as Cyber Monday.人们从这一天开始节日购物。折价出售在感恩节甚至更早几天开始,一直持续到星期一。星期一网络促销开始。According to the National Retail Federation, about 68 million people in the U.S. say they expect to shop over the Thanksgiving Day weekend.据美国全国零售商联合会统计,大约6800万美国人表示要在感恩节这个周末购物。On Wednesday, President Barack Obama took care of business, both frivolous and serious. He conducted the traditional ;turkey pardon,; assuring two specially-selected turkeys in a White House ceremony that they would not be made into Thanksgiving dinner.星期三,奥巴马总统处理了大小各类公务。在白宫举行的“赦免火鸡”传统仪式上,奥巴马赦免了两只火鸡,一只叫“诚实”,另一只叫“阿贝”,使它们免于成为餐桌上的美味佳肴。The president also assured the nation that at a time of heightened security, there is no need to worry about terrorist threats as they go about their holiday travels and traditions.此外,奥巴马让美国民众放心,不必担心恐怖主义威胁,尽可依照传统欢度节日。 /201511/412445Philip Hammond, the UK chancellor, has said Britain must adopt a realistic negotiating position with the rest of the EU or face years of damaging economic uncertainty.英国财政大臣菲利普#8226;哈蒙德(Philip Hammond)表示,英国必须对欧盟其余部分采取现实的谈判立场,否则将面临多年有害的经济不确定性。Speaking to journalists at the G20 meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors in Chengdu, China, Mr Hammond said the way to send a reassuring signal to business and restore UK confidence was to get a “positive” EU response to Britain’s negotiating stance on terms for leaving the bloc.哈蒙德是在中国成都举行的20国集团(G20)财长和央行行长会议上对记者们发表这一言论的。他表示,让企业放心和恢复英国信心的方式,是争取欧盟方面对英国的退欧谈判立场作出“积极”回应。The G20 pledged to use “all policy tools” to support growth, saying they were y to respond to any negative fallout from Brexit amid uncertainty over protectionism and Britain’s future relations with the EU.20国集团承诺使用“所有政策工具”来持经济增长,称它们准备应对英国退欧造成的任何负面冲击波。围绕保护主义和英国与欧盟的未来关系,目前存在不确定性。“The outcome of the referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU adds to the uncertainty in the global economy,” a joint communiqué released by China’s finance ministry. “Members of the G20 are well positioned to proactively address the potential economic and financial consequences stemming from the UK referendum. In the future, we hope to see the UK as a close partner of the EU.”“英国脱欧公投结果也加大了全球经济的不确定性,”由中国财政部发布的联合公报表示,“G20成员已经准备好积极应对英国公投带来的潜在经济和金融影响。今后,我们希望看到英国作为欧盟的密切伙伴。”Global risks from Brexit dominated the two-day meeting.英国退欧带来的全球风险笼罩着为期两天的G20会议。The G20’s call to use “all policy tools” echoes similar language at a meeting in Shanghai in February and contained no concrete commitments on fiscal stimulus. Policymakers broadly agree that scope for further monetary policy stimulus is limited but faultlines remain over more aggressive moves.G20有关使用“所有政策工具”的呼吁,呼应了今年2月上海会议的类似措辞,在财政刺激方面没有具体承诺。政策制定者大体上承认,进一步的货币政策刺激空间有限,但各方对于更激进的行动存在分歧。In addition to Brexit, full-throated protectionism expressed by Donald Trump, US Republican presidential nominee, is also rattling global confidence.除了英国退欧以外,美国共和党总统候选人唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)发出的裸保护主义言论也动摇了全球信心。The G20 communiqué cited “geopolitical conflicts, terrorism, and refugees” as further sources of economic uncertainty.20国集团的公报提到“地缘政治冲突、恐怖主义和难民流动”是经济不确定性的进一步来源。Mr Lew and his Chinese counterpart Lou Jiwei agreed to work together to cut global excess capacity in sectors including steel and aluminium. They will also work on new global guidelines on government provision of export credit, amid complaints that Chinese companies unfairly benefit from government support. Mr Lew expressed support for multilateral negotiations on cutting steel capacity.美国财长杰克#8226;卢(Jack Lew)和中国财长楼继伟同意共同努力,在钢铁和铝等行业削减全球过剩产能。他们还将共同拟定针对政府提供出口信贷的新版全球指引,目前有人抱怨中国企业不公平地获益于政府持。卢对削减钢铁产能的多边谈判表示持。 /201607/456429The way is clear for Donald Trump to become the Republican party’s nominee for the presidency of the US. In all probability, Hillary Clinton will be the Democratic nominee. As a result, American conservatives are suddenly faced with a strange and unexpected dilemma: who should they support? Who is actually the more conservative candidate in this election?对唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)来说,已经锁定共和党总统候选人提名。而希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton)也十有八九会成为民主党的提名人。于是,美国的保守主义者突然面临一个诡异而意料之外的两难境地:他们应该持谁?在这轮选举中,谁是更保守的候选人?Part of the answer depends, of course, on what is meant by “conservative”. Though always a broad church, the Republican party has transformed itself in recent years, accommodating conspiracy theorists, acquiring the populist wing that backed Sarah Palin and now Mr Trump, and losing a lot of former supporters, myself included. But for those inside the party who still believe in a set of recognisably conservative ideas, the dilemma is profound.当然,在一定程度上要看“保守”的含义是什么。尽管共和党始终是个成员广泛的政党,但近年该党发生了巨大变化,它接纳了阴谋论者,还发展出了曾经持过莎拉#8226;佩林(Sarah Palin)、如今又持特朗普的民粹主义派别,并失去了包括我在内的许多曾经的持者。不过,对那些依然留在共和党、相信一套明确的保守主义理念的人来说,他们深陷两难境地之中。For one subset of the party, the outlook is bleak. If you are a genuine “social conservative”, a person who believes in a narrowly defined version of traditional morality, then you have no candidate in this election at all. Mrs Clinton supports gay rights. She is pro-choice. She uses feminist rhetoric that social conservatives do not like.对一部分共和党人来说,前景是黯淡的。如果你是真正的“社会保守主义者”,相信一套十分严格的传统道德标准,那么这次选举中根本没有适合你的候选人。希拉里持同性恋权益,持堕胎,她还使用社会保守主义者不喜欢的女权主义措辞。But what is the alternative? Mr Trump is a twice-divorced philanderer who makes not just sexist but sexual comments about his own offspring: “If Ivanka weren’t my daughter, perhaps I’d be dating her,” he told an interviewer. There is no evidence that he goes to church or believes in God. He has called himself both pro-choice and pro-life over the years, so for single-issue opponents of abortion he is anathema.然而,另一位是个什么样的人呢?特朗普是离过两次婚的,在谈到自己的子女时,他不只发表大男子主义的言论,甚至还会说些带有性意味的话。他曾向一位采访者表示:“如果伊万卡(Ivanka)不是我女儿,也许我会与她约会。”没有据表明他去教堂或信上帝。多年来他既自称反对堕胎,也说过自己持堕胎,因此对单纯反堕胎的人来说,他也是非常讨厌的人。If, on the other hand, you are what Americans call a “fiscal conservative”, a person who believes in balanced budgets and careful spending, then the choice is much easier: Mrs Clinton is your candidate. Judging by what he has said, Mr Trump’s budget and spending proposals are either absurd or mathematically impossible.从另一方面来说,如果你是美国人所谓的“财政保守主义者”,赞成预算平衡和量入为出,那么你的选择要容易得多:希拉里是适合你的候选人。从特朗普的言谈判断,他就预算和开提出的方案要么十分荒谬,要么从数学上就不可能做到。This week he suggested he might save money by refusing to pay America’s creditors, instead leading the country down the Argentinian road to default. By contrast, Mrs Clinton comes with the best advertisement possible: when her husband was president, America had not just a balanced budget but a surplus. According to her website, she sees debt as a “national security threat” and opposes an increase.相反,他近日暗示说,他也许可以通过拒绝向美国的债权国偿付债务来节省资金,带领美国走阿根廷式的违约道路。相比之下,希拉里则自带可能是最好的广告:她的丈夫当总统时,美国不仅实现了预算平衡,甚至还有盈余。根据希拉里网站的说法,她将债务视为“国家安全威胁”,反对增加债务。For “free-trade conservatives” the contrast is more nuanced but Mrs Clinton still wins. Mr Trump has called for tariffs on China and Mexico for starters. He has used xenophobia to whip up crowds against foreigners and foreign trade. He opposes the free trade agreements with Asia and Europe which are now under negotiation.对“自由贸易保守主义者”来说,两者的差别比较细微,不过希拉里仍会胜出。特朗普从一开始就呼吁向中国和墨西哥征收关税。他利用人们的排外情绪,煽动民众反对外国人和对外贸易。他还反对美国与亚洲和欧洲正在磋商的自由贸易协议。Mrs Clinton has supported these deals in the past, and, like her husband, has long been an advocate of free trade, but she has lately made different noises. In a year when anti-trade populism is winning votes, she has tempered her rhetoric. Nevertheless, if you fear trade barriers and the return of protectionism, then Mrs Clinton is still your best bet.希拉里过去一直持这些协议,而且和她的丈夫一样,长期以来她一直是自由贸易的倡导者。然而,最近她却发出了不同的声音。在这个反贸易民粹主义正在赢得选票的年头,她在措辞上有所缓和。不过,如果你担心出现贸易壁垒、担心保护主义回归,那么希拉里仍是你的最好选择。For “national security conservatives”, whether realist or interventionist, there is no nuance at all. If you believe in basic things — that America’s role in the world is important, that America’s alliances are a source of inter#172;national stability or that American military and political influence has kept Europe free and Asia peaceful — then Mrs Clinton is the only possible candidate. She has a long foreign policy record: she was secretary of state for four years. While it is possible to dislike some of her decisions, during those four years she was committed to Nato, to nuclear deterrence, to America’s historical allies in Asia.对“国家安全保守主义者”来说——不论你是务实派还是干预派,两者的区别是泾渭分明的。如果你相信如下基本事实:美国在世界舞台上扮演重要的角色;美国的同盟关系是国际稳定局势的来源;美国军事和政治影响力确保了欧洲自由和亚洲和平——那么希拉里就是唯一可能的候选人。她有着长期从事外交政策工作的履历,干过四年的美国国务卿。尽管你可能不喜欢她的部分决定,在四年的国务卿任期内她致力于北约事务、与核威慑有关的问题、以及与美国在亚洲的传统盟友打交道。There is no reason to think that Mr Trump, if elected, would support any of those commitments. If elected, he would instead be the first isolationist American president since the second world war. He has not only criticised Nato for its reliance on America, he has questioned its fundamental purpose.至于特朗普,没理由认为他当选后会持上述任何做法。相反,一旦当选后他或将成为二战后首位奉行孤立主义的美国总统。他不仅曾批评北约对美国的依赖,还质疑过北约的根本宗旨。In a book he wrote in 2000, he declared that European conflicts “are not worth American lives. Pulling back from Europe would save this country millions of dollars annually.”在2000年写的一本书中,他宣称欧洲的冲突“不值得美国人付出生命代价。撤出欧洲每年能为美国省下数百万美元”。He has called for Japan and South Korea to acquire nuclear weapons, and is not bothered by the prospect of a nuclear arms race in Asia. He is neither interested in democracy nor bothered by dictatorship. He could not promote American values in the world because he does not believe in them himself.他呼吁日本和韩国应拥有核武器,不在乎亚洲出现核军备竞赛的可能性。他对民主不感兴趣,对独裁也无所谓。他不会向世界宣扬美国价值观,因为他自己也不信这些价值观。But will conservatives take the logical step and support Mrs Clinton? Personally, I do not find this a hard decision. But the speaker of the House, two former Republican presidents and a host of leaders still cannot bring themselves to do it.不过,保守主义者会顺应常理持希拉里么?从我个人来说,我觉得这个决定并不难做出。然而,众议院议长、两位前共和党总统以及多位领导人仍然没有下决心这么做。Instead they are either refusing to endorse Mr Trump, refusing to attend the Republican convention or refusing to say anything at all. With six months to go until November, there is still time for all of them to do the calculations and make the only responsible conservative choice.相反,他们要么拒绝持特朗普,拒绝参加共和党全国代表大会,要么拒绝做任何表态。距11月大选还有6个月,他们仍有时间仔细思量,做出唯一负责任的符合保守主义理念的选择。 /201605/442602An advertising about Hangzhou, the host city of the upcoming G20 summit, was released last Monday and will be seen in Europe in the coming months.二十国集团(G20)峰会即将召开,一则关于主办城市杭州的宣传视频于上周一发布,未来数月将在欧洲播放。The one-minute-long English made by B World News features iconic attractions in Hangzhou such as Alibaba Group, West Lake, LongJing tea garden and Leifeng Pagoda accompanied by light music and catchy lyrics.这则时长1分钟的英文视频由英国广播公司(B)国际新闻台制作,伴随着欢快的音乐和朗朗上口的歌词,视频展现了阿里巴巴集团、西湖、龙井茶园、雷峰塔等杭州地标性观光地。It will be broadcast on B World News from Aug 8 to late October to an estimated audience of 20 million in 44 European countries.该视频于本月8日至10月底在B国际新闻台播出,预计将覆盖44个欧洲国家的2000万名观众。Hangzhou received 423,000 European tourists last year, according to Xinhua reports. The 2016 G20 summit which will be held from Sept 4 to 5 is expected to bring more visitors around the world to the city in East China#39;s Zhejiang province.据报道,杭州去年接待了42.3万名欧洲游客。将于9月4日至5日举办的2016年G20峰会预计将吸引更多来自世界各地的游客来到这座位于中国东部浙江省的城市。According to its official website, G20 was initiated in 1999 and consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the ed Kingdom, the ed States and the European Union (EU).根据官网显示,二十国集团是于1999年成立的,成员国包括阿根廷、澳大利亚、巴西、加拿大、中国、法国、德国、印度、印度尼西亚、意大利、日本、墨西哥、韩国、俄罗斯、沙特阿拉伯、南非、土耳其、英国、美国以及欧盟。The first G20 summit was held in 2008.第一届G20峰会于2008年召开。 /201608/461192

WASHINGTON — For decades, visitors to the ghostly dome in Hiroshima that stands like a sole survivor from the dropping of the atomic bomb there more than 70 years ago entered a world that mixed unspeakable tragedy with historical amnesia.华盛顿——几十年来,广岛和平资料纪念馆如同70多年前原子弹爆炸后的唯一幸存者一样矗立着,来到这座的冷森森的穹顶下,参观者仿佛走进了一个混合着无法言说的悲剧和历史失忆的世界。The site, which President Obama will visit this month, reflected an almost universal Japanese view that the city was a victim of unnecessary brutality — parents and children incinerated, thousands killed and a generation poisoned by radiation.奥巴马总统本月即将访问的这座纪念馆代表着一种几乎是所有日本人的共识,认为广岛是一场没有必要的暴行的受害者——父母和孩子烧成灰烬、千万人断送生命、一代人遭受辐射毒害。Yet museum exhibits nearby were largely silent on what led to that horror, a Japanese war machine that tore through Asia for a decade before the morning that changed the history of the 20th century.然而,是什么最终导致了这个恐怖事件,附近的物馆陈列却基本上保持沉默。当时,日本战争机器肆虐亚洲已经10年,直至那个改变了20世纪历史的早晨。For Americans of the World War II generation, and many of their children, Hiroshima is at the center of a very different narrative. They believe President Harry S. Truman’s decision to drop the bomb saved tens of thousands of American lives that would have been lost in an invasion of Honshu, Japan’s main island. Ask the few surviving veterans of that generation — those who fought their way from Iwo Jima to Okinawa and knew what was coming next — and there is no looking back at Truman’s decision, no moral equivalence between a Japanese campaign that killed more than 20 million in Asia and the horror of the bomb that ended it all.对于二战时期的美国人和很多他们的子女来说,广岛却是另外一个截然不同的故事中的主角。他们认为,哈里·S·杜鲁门总统投下原子弹的决定挽救了数万美国战士的生命。如果进攻日本主岛本州岛,那些美国人很可能就要命丧沙场。要是去问那个时代幸存下来的老兵——他们从硫磺岛一路浴血奋战到冲绳县,而且知道接下来等待他们的会是什么——他们毫不认为有必要反思杜鲁门总统的决定,在造成2000万亚洲人丧生的日本战争行为和终结了这场灾难的原子弹的恐怖后果之间,也没有什么道德上的可比性。With his decision to speak beneath that famous dome, Mr. Obama is taking a step 11 of his predecessors avoided. Merely by showing up in Hiroshima, he will have no choice but to navigate a minefield of conflicting memory, in Japan and in the ed States.奥巴马总统决定在这座著名的穹顶下发表讲话,迈出了他之前11位美国总统都回避了的一步。仅仅是踏上广岛,就意味着他别无选择,只能在日本和美国两国民众强烈冲突的历史记忆的雷区中谨慎地穿过。The two drastically different interpretations of what happened have always pulled, sometimes in unspoken ways, at the strong alliance between the ed States and Japan that emerged from the ashes. Yet today, with some notable dissents in both countries, those interpretations remain as frozen in history as the shadow etched on the stone steps of a bank building near ground zero — created by the body of a poor soul who was sitting there at detonation.战争的劫灰之后,两个国家缔结了坚实的同盟;而关于历史的两种截然相反的解读,却总是带来干扰,有时尽在不言中。而今天,尽管两国都存在一些引人瞩目的不同意见,这些解读却仍然冰封于历史之中,就像刻在核爆点旁堤岸石阶上的那道阴影一般——留下那道阴影的,是爆炸发生时一个坐在石阶上的可怜人。Mr. Obama will make no apology in Hiroshima, the White House insisted on Tuesday. He will not second-guess Truman for the decision to drop the bomb in Hiroshima, or for the far more questionable call to drop a second three days later, on Nagasaki, because the emperor had not yet surrendered.周二,美国政府坚定表示,奥巴马总统不会在广岛道歉。他不会去事后质疑杜鲁门总统在广岛投放原子弹的决定,也不会质疑三天后因为天皇拒不投降而在长崎投下第二颗原子弹的更具争议的决定。“This visit will offer an opportunity to honor the memory of all innocents who were lost during the war,” Mr. Obama’s deputy national security adviser, Benjamin J. Rhodes, wrote on Tuesday. For a president who came to office talking of a world without nuclear weapons — a vision he has had more trouble realizing than he could have imagined — it is also a chance to say, in the last months of his presidency, that the risk of new Hiroshimas is hardly gone.美国副国家安全顾问本杰明·J·罗兹(Benjamin J. Rhodes)周二写道,“这次访问会是一个契机,缅怀所有在战争中丧生的无辜的人。”奥巴马在上任之初曾说要建立无核世界——一个他后来发现比想象中更难实现的愿景。对他来说,此行也让他有机会在任期的最后几个月告诉世界:广岛悲剧重演的风险并未远去。It may also be the right moment to leap into that historical breach. Hiroshima has unleashed great literature — starting with John Hersey’s unparalleled account in The New Yorker, published in 1946 while the city still lay in ruins — and some of the most profound moral debates of the 20th century. Today, survivors of that morning when the Enola Gay swept high over the city and delivered its payload are even harder to find than American veterans, now in their 90s, whose believe their lives were spared by the same act.这也可能是跳入那个历史大断裂的好时机。广岛事件催生了一批伟大的作品——最早在1946年,广岛还是一片废墟之时,约翰·赫西(John Hersey)就在《纽约客》上发表了一篇无与伦比的报道——也激发了20世纪最深刻的道德辩论。今天,“埃诺拉·盖伊”号轰炸机飞越城市的高空并投下炸弹的那个早上幸存下来的人,比仍然健在的美国老兵更加凤毛麟角。老兵们都已年过九旬,他们相信,同样是那颗原子弹,他们的生命因而得救。Newer exhibits in Hiroshima have reminded visitors that the city was no random target, but a buzzing manufacturing hub of the Japanese war machine. “Some of us believe that when we think about the bomb, we should think about the war, too,” Hiroshima’s mayor told me in 1994 as we walked through the new exhibit, which Japanese rightists had opposed opening.新近的展览提醒着游客们,广岛当年被锁定为攻击目标,绝非偶然,而是因为它曾是日本战争机器的繁忙的制造中心。“有人认为,每当我们想起那次轰炸的时候,也理应想到那场战争,”广岛市市长在1994年参观新展览的时候对我说道。那时,日本右翼人士还竭力反对新展览开幕。Yet even today, 22 years later, the sanitized accounts of the war taught to a new generation of Japanese schoolchildren largely avoid delving into the decision-making that led to the Pacific War, the Rape of Nanjing or questions of whether the “comfort women” were organized by the Japanese military. The vividness of Hiroshima has been melded with anodyne accounts of what preceded it, reinforcing the sense among Americans that, unlike Germany, Japan has never fully grappled with its past.但即便是在22年后的今天,日本对战争的洗白式解读还在教育着他们新一代的学生,避免对引发太平洋战争和南京大屠杀的决策追根究底,也不过多探讨“慰安妇”是否是由日本军方所组织的这一问题。广岛的鲜明形象,已经和日本对轰炸之前的历史的委婉叙述紧紧地联系在一起,让美国人更加强烈地感到,日本从未像德国那样直面他们的过去。Many Japanese say the same of the ed States. They remember that when the Smithsonian organized the first exhibition of the Enola Gay in 1995, for the 50th anniversary, veterans objected so loudly to the effort to conduct a dispassionate examination of the decision to drop the bomb — and its aftermath — that Congress held hearings and the museum’s director was forced to resign. The exhibition was watered down, and even today — when the famed B-29 can be seen at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center outside Dulles International Airport — any discussion of the short- and long-term horrors of dropping the bomb are cursory, and the history behind it controversial.很多日本人说,美国也是一样。他们犹记,1995年,史密森尼物馆(Smithsonian)举办“埃诺拉·盖伊”号轰炸机的首次展览,纪念二战胜利50周年。那时,美国老兵强烈反对冷静检讨投掷原子弹的决定及其后果,以至于国会举行了听会,物馆的主管被迫辞职。展览内容被严重删减。直到今天,赫赫有名的B-29被安放在杜勒斯国际机场(Dulles International Airport)外的史蒂文·乌得沃尔哈齐中心(Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center),任何关于原子弹投掷所带来的短期和长期的恐惧的讨论都还是草草而过,其背后的历史也仍然充满争议。“The top American military leaders who fought World War II, much to the surprise of many who are not aware of the record, were quite clear that the atomic bomb was unnecessary, that Japan was on the verge of surrender, and — for many — that the destruction of large numbers of civilians was immoral,” Gar Alperovitz, a leader of the movement to revise the ed States’ own historical accounting, wrote last year in The Nation.“参加过二战的美国高级军方领导都十分清楚,当时日本已经濒临投降,因此投掷原子弹是没有必要的。此外,他们当中很多人都认为,伤及如此多的无辜平民有违道德。那些对这一记录毫不知情的人对此一定会非常吃惊”,加尔·阿尔佩罗维茨(Gar Alperovitz)去年在《民族报》(The Nation)中如是写道。加尔正在领导一场运动,试图修正美国自身的历史解读。Between now and May 27 — when Mr. Obama is to visit the site — the big question will be how views have evolved in both countries since 1995.从现在到5月27日奥巴马总统正式访问广岛期间,一个重要的问题将是,美日两国自1995年以来对待这一历史事件的态度有何转变。“In Japan, I don’t think there has been much real evolution, at least among the right wing and the amnesiacs who deny Japan’s destructive war in Asia and insist they were the victims,” said Richard Samuels, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has written some of the most insightful works on Japan’s military, and the pre- and postwar cultures that surrounded it. “For them, Obama’s visit will be a chance to reiterate that they were right.”“我认为日本对历史的态度并没有真正的改观,至少,右翼分子和那些坚决否认日本曾在亚洲发起破坏性战争并坚称日本自身才是受害者的人的态度没有改变”,麻省理工大学的理查德·塞缪尔斯教授(Richard Samuels)说道。他著有一些关于日本军方的书,观点鞭辟入里,并围绕日本军队探讨了日本战前与战后的文化。“对这些人来说,奥巴马总统此次的访问不过是他们重申观点的一个契机罢了。”Mr. Samuels said it would be harder to predict the reaction in the ed States. In the midst of a presidential campaign, he said, “this will be a rich target for those who say this is the next stop on the Obama apology tour.”塞缪尔斯先生认为,要预测美国民众的反应会更加困难。值此总统大选之际,“这无疑是给那些认为广岛是奥巴马道歉之旅下一站的人提供了充足据。”But, if anything, the questions surrounding those last months of the Pacific War in 1945 have only grown stronger. The firebombing of Tokyo in March of that year resulted in nearly 100,000 deaths by some accounts. And many who questioned the decision to drop the atomic bomb have asked why it was not first exploded in an uninhabited place to demonstrate the dimensions of this new weapon’s power.但是,要说有什么不同的话,那就是对1945年太平洋战争最后几个月历史的质疑越来越强烈。根据一些统计,当年3月的东京大轰炸夺去了近10万条生命。另外,很多对投掷原子弹的决定持质疑态度的人都曾问过这样的问题:要测试新武器的威力,为什么不挑选无人居住的区域?But the biggest change, Mr. Samuels said, may come from the absence of witnesses. Twenty years ago, “the Greatest Generation, people with a living memory of World War II, were still around.”但塞缪尔斯先生认为,最大的改变也许是由于没有人。20年前,“最伟大的一代,同时也是对二战有着最生动记忆的一批人,都还活着。”Today they are down to a precious few, and soon the only ones who will be debating the legacy of Hiroshima will not have felt the urgency to drop the bomb, or lived the horror of the result.而如今,这批人已所剩无几了。再过不久,为广岛遗留问题而争辩的少数群体也将是从未感受过炸弹投掷之时的紧迫感、或从未生活在爆炸之后的恐惧中的一些人了。 /201605/443193

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