楼主:康口碑 时间:2017年12月18日 03:38:26 点击:0 回复:0
A busy brain can mean a hungry body. 大脑忙碌可能会导致身体饥饿。We often seek food after focused mental activity, like preparing for an exam or poring over spsheets. 我们经常在集中进行脑力活动后寻找食物,比如备考或阅读报表。Researchers speculate that heavy bouts of thinking drain energy from the brain, whose capacity to store fuel is very limited. 研究者猜测,高强度思考会耗尽脑部能量,而脑部存储养分的能力十分有限。So the brain, sensing that it may soon require more calories to keep going, apparently stimulates bodily hunger, and even though there has been little in the way of physical movement or caloric expenditure, we eat. 所以,大脑感觉自己可能很快就需要更多热量来维持运转,显然会因此刺激身体产生饥饿感。尽管几乎没有进行体力运动或出现热量消耗,我们还是会吃东西。This process may partly account for the weight gain so commonly seen in college students.这个过程可以部分解释大学生中常见的体重增加现象。Scientists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and another institution recently experimented with exercise to counter such post--study food binges. 前不久,亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校(University of Alabama at Birmingham)的科学家们和另一个研究机构试验通过运动对抗学习后的暴饮暴食。Gary Hunter, an exercise physiologist at U.A.B., oversaw the study, which was published this month in the journal Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise. 这项研究由亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校的运动生理学家加里#8226;亨特(Gary Hunter)主持,本月发表在《体育医学与科学》(Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise)上。Hunter notes that strenuous activity both increases the amount of blood sugar and lactate — a byproduct of intense muscle contractions — circulating in the blood and augments blood flow to the head. 亨特指出,剧烈活动会增加在血液中循环的血糖和乳酸盐含量——这是肌肉剧烈收缩的副作用——增加脑部的血流量。Because the brain uses sugar and lactate as fuel, researchers wondered if the increased flow of fuel-rich blood during exercise could feed an exhausted brain and reduce the urge to overeat.大脑以糖和乳酸盐为养料,所以研究者们想知道,锻炼中增加的养料丰富的血流量是否能给疲惫的大脑提供养分,从而减轻过度进食的冲动。Thirty--eight healthy college students were invited to U.A.B.’s exercise lab to determine their fitness and metabolic rates — and to report what their favorite pizza was. 38名健康的大学生被邀请到亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校的运动实验室,接受健康水平和代谢率检测,并报告自己最喜欢吃哪种披萨。Afterward, they sat quietly for 35 minutes before being given as much of their favorite pizza as they wanted, which established a baseline measure of self--indulgence. 之后,他们静坐35分钟,然后他们想吃多少披萨就供应多少,以确定自我放纵的基线。At a later date, the volunteers returned and spent 20 minutes tackling selections from college and graduate--school entrance exams. 在后来的一个日子里,志愿者们返回这里,花费20分钟时间做从大学和研究生入学考试中挑选的题目。Hunter says this work has been used in other studies to induce mental fatigue and hunger. 亨特说,这种方法已经在其他研究中被用于引发精神疲劳和饥饿感。Next, half the students sat quietly for 15 minutes, before being given pizza. 接下来,其中一半学生静坐15分钟,然后进食披萨。The rest of the volunteers spent those 15 minutes doing intervals on a tmill: two minutes of hard running followed by about one minute of walking, repeated five times. 剩下的志愿者用那15分钟时间在跑步机上做运动:快跑2分钟,然后走大约1分钟,重复5次。This is the sort of brief but intensive routine, Hunter says, that should prompt the release of sugar and lactate into the bloodstream. 亨特说,这种短暂而高强度的运动应该能促进糖和乳酸盐释放到血流中。These students were then allowed to gorge on pizza, too. 这些学生之后也被允许尽情食用披萨。But by and large, they did not overeat. 总体来说,他们没有过量进食。In fact, the researchers calculated that the exercisers consumed about 25 fewer calories than they did during their baseline session. 实际上,研究者们计算出,这些锻炼者摄入的热量比在基线测试阶段大约少25卡路里。The nonexercisers, however, consumed about 100 calories more. 但是,那些没有锻炼的人大约多摄入了100卡路里。When the researchers factored in the calories expended on running, they determined that those students actually consumed 200 fewer total calories after their brain workouts than the resting students.研究者们把跑步中耗费的热量计算在内后发现,那些学生实际上在脑力活动后比其他学生一共少摄入200卡路里。The study has limitations, of course. 这项研究当然具有局限性。We only looked at lunch, Hunter says; the researchers do not know if the runners consumed extra calories at dinner. 我们只研究了午餐,亨特说。研究者不知道跑步者在晚餐时是否摄入了更多热量。They also cannot tell whether other types of exercise would have the same effect as running, although Hunter says they suspect that if an activity causes someone to break into a sweat, it should also increase blood sugar and lactate, feeding the brain and weakening hunger’s call.他们也不知道其他哪些运动会收到和跑步一样的效果,不过亨特说,他们猜测,如果一项运动能让人出汗,那么它应该也能增加血糖和乳酸盐释放,给大脑提供养分,从而缓解饥饿感。 /201609/465857The advancement of mobile phone to smartphone is a notable development in the field of technology. Nevertheless, no one can forget the role played by Nokia that reigned the mobile phone market all over the world until the evolution of smartphones.从手机到智能手机的进步是科技领域的一个显著的发展。尽管如此,在智能手机进化之前,没有人能忘记诺基亚在全球移动手机市场的绝对地位。The Nokia Android phone is eagerly awaited by many Nokia fans and the manufacturer is rumored to launch them by the end of this year. In the meantime, a weird concept phone has popped up online.诺基亚的粉丝们一直在期待诺基亚安卓机,而制造商传言将在今年年末推出这一新款手机。在此期间,网上倒是出现了一台奇怪的概念手机。As per this concept, the Nokia Prism seems to be the weirdest concept phone that we would have seen so far. It is created a Russian designer, Vasili Sychev. Check out the weird concept from here.按照“概念”而言,诺基亚的这款“棱镜”手机似乎是我们见过最怪异的概念手机。设计师是俄罗斯的瓦西里·瑟乔夫。下面让我们一览这只概念手机究竟有多奇怪。Nokia Prism seems to be too big诺基亚棱镜看起来太大了The Nokia Prism appears to be way too big to fit in your pocket. Take a look at the smartphone#39;s bizarre design. You might even think if there could be a phone like this.诺基亚的棱镜手机看起来太大了,很难塞进口袋。看一下这款手机的怪异设计,你可能会想是否真有这样的手机呢?Doesn#39;t look like a phone看起来不像手机The prism-shaped Nokia phone concept doesn#39;t look like its meant to be a phone. It appears to be like a piece of art.棱镜状的诺基亚概念手机看起来不像个手机,应该是件艺术品。Sharp edges all over边缘锋利The Nokia Prism seems to have sharp and angular edges all over it. It might be quite uncomfortable for you to hold the phone.诺基亚棱镜手机边缘有很多尖锐分明的棱角,握持手感可能会很不舒。Its flawless完美无瑕Of course, the Nokia Prism is flawless, but one thing to be noted is how many users will like a prism-shaped phone.当然,诺基亚棱镜手机看起来完美无瑕,但是需要注意的一点是,有多少人会喜欢这样棱镜状的手机。Its trapeze in shape几何形状The Nokia Prism is more trapeze and not rectangle like any other smartphone available in the market.诺基亚棱镜手机不像市场上其它智能手机一样是矩形的,而是五边形的。 /201610/471025Russia has accused American technology giant Apple Inc. of allegedly fixing retail prices of its iPhones in the country.俄罗斯日前指控美国科技巨头苹果公司在该国市场销售iPhone产品期间串谋定价。Russia#39;s Federal Anti-monopoly Service (FAS) said last Monday an investigation found that retailers ;set identical prices; for iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus and other iPhone models and kept the prices at that level for a certain period of time.俄罗斯联邦反垄断署上周一宣布,调查发现,销售商给苹果iPhone 6s手机,iPhone 6s plus手机和其它型号的手机“固定统一零售价”,并在很长一段时间内保持同样的价格。Targets of the investigation are Apple#39;s Russian operation, known as Apple Rus, Apple Inc., three other Apple business entities and 16 of the company#39;s primary resellers in Russia.这一调查的目标是苹果公司的俄罗斯分部,也就是人们熟知的“Apple Rus”公司,还有苹果公司、另外三家苹果商企和16家苹果在俄罗斯的主要代理商。MTS, one of the resellers targeted by FAS, declined a request for comment. Another firm, Euroset, denied allegations of price fixing.俄联邦反垄断局针对的代理商之一MTS拒绝就此发表。另一家公司Euroset否认了限价的指控。Apple, which was not immediately available for comment, has previously been the target of a Russian price-fixing investigation. As a result of the probe, two Russian mobile businesses were fined for fixing prices for iPhone 4.苹果公司没有立即对此事作出回应,该公司之前一直是俄罗斯反垄断机构调查的对象。调查的结果是,两家俄罗斯公司因为垄断iPhone 4的价格而被罚款。FAS said it launched the investigation in response to a complaint from a consumer who noticed the prices remain unchanged since the 2015 introduction of the two new models in Russia.联邦反垄断署声称,这次开展调查是因为一名消费者抱怨称,这两款手机自2015年引进俄罗斯之后,价格就没有变过。 /201608/461185

B News –Scientists think they have found a smart way to constrain carbon dioxide emissions - just turn them to stone. The researchers report an experiment in Iceland where they have pumped CO2 and water underground into volcanic rock. Reactions with the minerals in the deep basalts convert the carbon dioxide to a stable, immobile chalky solid.B新闻 – 科学家认为,他们发现了一种遏制二氧化碳排放的聪明方法 – 把它们变成石头。研究人员报告了在冰岛做的一次实验,他们把二氧化碳和地下水泵入火山岩。与地下深处玄武岩中的矿物质发生的反应,把二氧化碳转化成了稳定不动的白垩状固体。Even more encouraging, the team writes in Science magazine, is the speed at which this process occurs: on the order of months. ;Of our 220 tonnes of injected CO2, 95% was converted to limestone in less than two years,; said lead author Juerg Matter from Southampton University, UK.该团队在《科学》杂志发表报告说,更鼓舞人心的是这个过程发生的速度:大约几个月。“我们注入的220吨二氧化碳中,95%不到两年就转化成了石灰岩。”报告的主要作者,来自英国南安普顿大学的马特说。With carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere marching ever upwards and warming the planet, researchers are keen to investigate so called ;carbon capture and storage; (CCS) solutions.随着大气中的二氧化碳浓度持续上升,令地球升温,研究人员热衷于探讨所谓的“碳捕捉与封存”(CCS)解决方案。Previous experiments have seen pure CO2 injected into sandstone, or deep, salty aquifers. Chosen sites - which have included disused oil and gas wells - have relied on layers of impermeable capping rocks to hold down the carbon dioxide. But the fear is always that the CO2 could find a way to leak back out into the atmosphere.此前的实验是把纯二氧化碳注入砂岩,或深部咸水层。废弃的油井和气井等中选场地依靠不透水的盖层岩石地层压缩二氧化碳。但一直令人担心的是,二氧化碳可能夺路而出,回漏到大气中。Working with a geothermal power plant, the Carbfix project on Iceland combined the waste CO2 with water to make a slightly acidic liquid that was then sent hundreds of metres down into the volcanic basalts that make up so much of the North Atlantic island.在冰岛进行的这个固碳项目与一座地热电站合作,把二氧化碳废气与水结合,制成弱酸性液体,然后输送到地下几百米的火山玄武岩 - 这些岩石在这座北大西洋岛国是如此丰富。The low pH water (3.2) worked to dissolve the calcium and magnesium ions in the basalts, which then reacted with the carbon dioxide to make calcium and magnesium carbonates. Cores drilled into the experimental site pulled up rock with the tell-tale white carbonates occupying the pore spaces.PH值3.2的酸性水分解玄武岩中的钙镁离子,然后与二氧化碳发生反应,产生碳酸钙和碳酸镁。从实验地点钻探岩心取出岩石,明显可见白色的碳酸盐占据了孔隙空间。The researchers also tagged the CO2 with carbon-14, a radioactive form of the element. In this way, they were able to tell if any of the injected CO2 was leaking back to the surface or finding its way out through a distant watercourse. No such escape was detected.研究人员还用碳元素的放射性形式碳14标记二氧化碳。用这种方法,他们能够断定注入的二氧化碳是否回漏到表层,或通过长距离水道找到了出路。但并未探测到这种逃逸。;This means that we can pump down large amounts of CO2 and store it in a very safe way over a very short period of time,; said study co-author Martin Stute from Columbia University#39;s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, US.“这意味着我们可在非常短的时间内把大量二氧化碳泵入地下,用非常安全的方式封存它。”研究报告的共同作者,来自美国哥伦比亚大学拉蒙.多哈提地球观测站的司徒特说。 /201606/449459

One of my earliest memories is sitting on my grandfather#39;s shoulders, waving a flag as our astronauts returned to Hawaii. 我最早的回忆之一,就是我坐在祖父的肩头上,挥舞着小旗子,迎接宇航员们返回夏威夷。This was years before we#39;d set foot on the moon. Decades before we#39;d land a rover on Mars. A generation before photos from the International Space Station would show up in our social media feeds.在那之后,又过了几年,我们才成功登月;又过了几十年,我们才向火星上发射了一台登陆器;又过了一代人的时间,国际空间站拍摄的照片才得以出现在社交媒体上。I still have the same sense of wonder about our space program that I did as a child. 而时至今日,我对太空项目的惊奇之心仍与童年时无异。It represents an essential part of our character -- curiosity and exploration, innovation and ingenuity, pushing the boundaries of what#39;s possible and doing it before anybody else. 它代表了人类性格中至关重要的一部分——好奇心和探索精神,创新精神和巧妙的技艺,不断挑战可能性的极限,并争先恐后地去实现它。The space race we won not only contributed immeasurably important technological and medical advances, but it also inspired a new generation of scientists and engineers with the right stuff to keep America on the cutting edge.我们赢得了这场太空竞赛,不仅对科技和医学的进步做出了巨大贡献,还激励了新一代的科学家和工程师,让美国始终走在时代前列。That#39;s one of the reasons why, in my first address as President to the American people, I vowed to return science to its rightful place. 因此,在我首次以总统身份向美国人民发表致辞时,我曾发誓说,要让科学发挥其应有的作用。In our first few months, my administration made the largest single investment in basic research in our history, and I went to the Kennedy Space Center to call for reimagining and reinvigorating our space program to explore more of our solar system and look deeper into the universe than ever.在我任期的头几个月中,我们做出了迄今为止在基础研究上给出的最大一笔单项投资,我还来到了肯尼迪航天中心,呼吁大家一起使太空项目重新焕发生机,进一步探索我们的太阳系,并更加深入地研究宇宙。In the years since, we#39;ve revitalized technology innovation at NASA, extended the life of the International Space Station, and helped American companies create private-sector jobs by capitalizing on the untapped potential of the space industry.在那之后的几年间,我们重振了NASA的科技创新精神,延长了国际空间站的工作寿命,并向未开发领域的太空企业投资,帮助美国私营企业创造出了更多的工作机会。Last year alone, NASA discovered flowing water on Mars and evidence of ice on one of Jupiter#39;s moons, and we mapped Pluto -- more than 3 billion miles away -- in high-resolution. 仅仅在去年一年当中,NASA就实现了几大壮举:在火星上发现了液态水、在木星其中一颗卫星上发现了冰的迹象、还给距地球30亿英里(约合48亿公里)之遥的冥王星拍摄了高分辨率照片。Our space telescopes revealed additional Earth-like planets orbiting distant stars, and we#39;re pursuing new missions to interact with asteroids, which will help us learn how to protect the Earth from the threat of colliding with one while also teaching us about the origins of life on Earth. 我们的太空望远镜成功找到了一些围绕着遥远的星球运转的类地行星,我们还开展了一些与小行星有关的新任务,这将帮助我们更好地了解该如何保护地球、免遭小行星碰撞的威胁,其中一项研究还让我们对地球上的生命起源有了更好的了解。We#39;ve flown by every planet in the solar system -- something no other nation can say. 我们已经飞掠了太阳系中的每一颗行星,别的国家都不曾做到过这一点。And we continue to drive down the cost of space exploration for taxpayers.此外,我们还在不断降低太空探索的成本,减轻纳税人的负担。This week, we#39;ll convene some of America#39;s leading scientists, engineers, innovators and students in Pittsburgh to dream up ways to build on our progress and find the next frontiers. 本周,我们将在匹兹堡召集一些美国顶尖的科学家、工程师、创新人士和学生,一起设想我们该如何继续进步下去,并找到下一个挑战的目标。Just five years ago, US companies were shut out of the global commercial launch market. 仅仅五年以前,在全球商业火箭发射市场上,美国企业还被人拒之门外。Today, thanks to groundwork laid by the men and women of NASA, they own more than a third of it. 而如今,多谢NASA工作人员的兢兢业业,我们已经占领了全球市场的三分之一。More than 1,000 companies across nearly all 50 states are working on private space initiatives.在全美将近50个州里,已经有超过1000家企业正在开展私人太空探索工作。We have set a clear goal vital to the next chapter of America#39;s story in space: sending humans to Mars by the 2030s and returning them safely to Earth, with the ultimate ambition to one day remain there for an extended time. 为了翻开美国太空探索的新篇章,我们已经设立了一个清晰的目标:在本世纪30年代之前,把人类送上火星,然后再让他们安然无恙地返回地球;同时还要抱有更大的雄心壮志,有朝一日让宇航员在火星上停留更长时间。Getting to Mars will require continued cooperation between government and private innovators, and we#39;re aly well on our way. 要想实现火星之旅,政府和私营创新企业之间需要展开进一步合作,而我们已经在这方面着手努力了。Within the next two years, private companies will for the first time send astronauts to the International Space Station.在接下来两年内,私营企业将首次把宇航员送上国际空间站。The next step is to reach beyond the bounds of Earth#39;s orbit. 而下一步便是飞出地球的轨道。I#39;m excited to announce that we are working with our commercial partners to build new habitats that can sustain and transport astronauts on long-duration missions in deep space. 我在此怀着激动的心情宣布,我们正在与商业领域的合作伙伴联手,共同打造新的太空居所,供宇航员在深空中执行长期任务时维持生活和进行运输。These missions will teach us how humans can live far from Earth -- something we#39;ll need for the long journey to Mars.这些任务可以帮助我们了解,人类能在距离地球多远的地方生活——如果我们要开展前往火星的长途旅行,这些信息都是我们需要去了解的。The reporter who covered the moon landing for The New York Times, John Noble Wilford, later wrote that Mars tugs at our imagination ;with a force mightier than gravity.; Getting there will take a giant leap. 为《纽约时报》撰写了登月报告的记者约翰#8226;诺伯#8226;威尔福德后来写道,火星对我们的吸引力比地心引力还大。如果能到达火星,那将是一次巨大的飞跃。But the first, small steps happen when our students -- the Mars generation -- walk into their classrooms each day. 但在此之前,我们需要一步步地来。我们的学生每次迈进教室、学习知识,都是一次微小的进步,他们是火星一代。Scientific discovery doesn#39;t happen with the flip of a switch; it takes years of testing, patience and a national commitment to education.科学发现得来不易,它需要经历长年累月的测试和耐心、还需要整个国家对教育的重视。President Eisenhower knew this: In 1958, he devoted great resources to science and math education around the same time he created NASA. 艾森豪威尔总统就清楚地认识到了这一点。1958年,差不多就在他创立NASA的那段时间,他还向科学和数学教育领域投入了大量资源。And it#39;s why I#39;m proud that we#39;ve passed important milestones in STEM education. 正因为如此,我才因为我们在STEM教育(即科学、技术、工程、数学)中取得的成就而自豪。For the first time, more than 100,000 engineers are graduating from American schools every year, and we#39;re on track to accomplish my goal of training 100,000 excellent new STEM teachers in a decade.有史以来第一次,每年都有10万名工程师从美国的学校中毕业,而我们也正在实现我设定的、在十年内训练出10万名卓越的STEM教师这一目标。When our Apollo astronauts looked back from space, they realized that while their mission was to explore the moon, they had ;in fact discovered the Earth.; If we make our leadership in space even stronger in this century than it was in the last, we won#39;t just benefit from related advances in energy, medicine, agriculture and artificial intelligence, we#39;ll benefit from a better understanding of our environment and ourselves.当阿波罗号上的宇航员在太空中回望地球时,他们意识到,虽然他们的任务是探索月球,但他们实际上也发现了地球。如果我们本世纪能进一步确立太空探索在这个国家的领先地位,我们不仅能从相关领域、如能源、医学、农业和人工智能中大大受益,还能更好地理解我们的环境、以及我们自身,并从中受益无穷。Someday, I hope to hoist my own grandchildren onto my shoulders. 有朝一日,我希望也能让自己的孙辈坐在我的肩头上。We#39;ll still look to the stars in wonder, as humans have since the beginning of time. 我们仍会满怀好奇地凝视夜空中的繁星,就像人类自古以来做的那样。But instead of eagerly awaiting the return of our intrepid explorers, we#39;ll know that because of the choices we make now, they#39;ve gone to space not just to visit, but to stay -- and in doing so, to make our lives better here on Earth.但到那时,我们将不是等待勇敢的探险者从太空中归来,因为我们知道,由于我们现在所做的决定,他们前往太空并不是进行短期拜访,而是长期地停留——并通过这种做法,让地球上的生活更加美好。 /201610/472143

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