2018年02月18日 11:00:45|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新优惠
If you are looking for a loan, serving your bank manager breakfast might just do the trick.如果你想要贷款,请经理吃个早餐说不定能帮你忙。A compound found in eggs makes people much more generous, new research suggests.最新研究表明,鸡蛋里含有的某种复合物会使人们变得更加慷慨大方。Scientists say that tryptophan, an amino acid found in some foods, can change our behaviour.科学家称,一些食物中所含的一种叫做色氨酸的氨基酸能够改变人们的行为。In experiments they found that consuming a small portion of tryptophan - the equivalent of that found in three eggs -doubled the sum volunteers gave to charity.研究者们通过实验发现,摄入少量色氨酸(大概是三个鸡蛋中所含该物质的含量)能够使被试捐款人的捐款数目增加一倍。Eggs and other foods such as fish and milk are rich in tryptophan, an amino acid that is converted in the body into the feel-good chemical serotonin.鸡蛋、鱼、牛奶等都富含色氨酸,色氨酸能在人体内转化为让人感到愉快的化学物质5-羟色胺。Psychologists from Leiden University in the Netherlands, writing in the Frontiers in Psychology journal, said:‘For the first time, we investigated whether the administration of a compound contained in food such as fish, eggs, soy, and milk can promote charitable donating.荷兰莱顿大学的心理学家在发表于《心理学前沿》期刊里的文章中写道:“这是我们第一次研究如鱼、鸡蛋、豆和牛奶等食物中含有的化合物是否会对慷慨捐赠行为产生促进作用。”‘Our study is the first demonstration that charitable donating can be enhanced by serotonin-related food supplements.’“我们的研究首次明了,通过增加包含色氨酸的食物摄入量能够促进人们的慈善捐赠行为。”The authors carried out an experiment on 32 men and women, in which half were given a powder containing 0.8 grams of TRP,and the others were given a harmless placebo powder.该实验包括男性、女性被试共32名,其中一半被试食用的是含有0.8克的色氨酸粉末,另外一半则食用一种无害的安慰剂粉末。Each participant was given #163;7.50 (.25)for taking part in the research and asked whether they were willing to donate part of their financial reward to charity.每个参与实验的被试都被给予7.5英镑,并被询问是否愿意把这些钱捐给慈善机构。Four boxes for Unicef, Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and World Wildlife Fund were left on a table.桌子上摆放着四个慈善机构的盒子,这四个慈善机构分别是联合国儿童基金会,大赦国际,绿色和平组织和世界野生动物基金会。When the psychologists counted the takings,they found that those given the TRP powder donated an average of 75p (.15),while those who received the placebo donated half as much.心理学家计算捐款数额后发现,摄入色氨酸粉末的被试平均捐出了75便士,而食用安慰剂的被试则只捐出了一半的数额Just how a food supplement could have such an effect is not clear, but the scientists suggest the involvement of oxytocin,the so-called ‘cuddle’ hormone produced by women during breastfeeding and lovemaking.为什么一种食品添加剂可以产生这样效果目前还不清楚,但科学家们认为这可能与后叶催产素有关,后叶催产素是女性在哺乳和性交期间会产生的一种所谓的“拥抱”荷尔蒙。They wrote: ‘It may be likely that the willingness to donate money to a charity is modulated by the effect that serotonin exerts on oxytocin levels.他们写道:“捐款的意愿可能受5-羟色胺对后叶催产素水平影响的调控。”‘Our results support the materialist approach that “you are what you eat”.“我们的研究结果持了唯物主义者的说法即‘吃什么东西就会产生什么行为’。”‘The idea [is]that the food one eats has a bearing on one’s state of mind. The food we eat may thus act as a cognitive enhancer that modulates the way we deal with the“social” world.#39;“人们所吃的食物会影响到大脑的状态。就这样食物扮演了认知促进者的角色,调控着人们应对‘社交’世界的方式。”Commenting on the research, Dr AdamPerkins, neurobiologist at King’s College London, said the study could be useful in prisons to encourage harmony among inmates.伦敦国王学院的神经生物学家亚当·帕金斯认为这项研究结果可以运用于监狱,对促进犯人间的和谐会非常有效。He said: ‘These results are interesting because they raise the possibility that dietary supplements containing TRP could be used to assist with boosting charitable attitudes and behaviour in the population.’他说:“这个研究的结果非常有趣,只要增加含有色氨酸的食物摄入量,就能很好地促进全民行善的意愿和行为。” /201504/369053A nutrition advisory panel that helps shape the country’s official dietary guidelines eased some of its previous restrictions on fat and cholesterol on Thursday and recommended sharp new limits on the amount of added sugar that Americans should consume.协助制定美国官方膳食指南的营养顾问小组周四发表声明,表示应适当放宽此前提出的对脂肪和胆固醇的限制,并就美国人摄入的添加糖量的上限提出了严苛的新建议。The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, which convenes every five years, followed the lead of other major health groups like the American Heart Association that in recent years have backed away from dietary cholesterol restrictions and urged people to cut back on added sugars.近年来,美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)等主要卫生组织逐渐放开了对膳食胆固醇的限制,并敦促美国人民减少添加糖的摄入量。如今,美国膳食指南咨询委员会(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee,每五年召开一次会议)也加入了他们的行列。The panel said that Americans were eating too much salt, sugar and saturated fat, and not enough foods that fit a “healthy dietary pattern,” like fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish and moderate levels of alcohol. Members of the panel said they wanted Americans to focus less on individual nutrients and more on overall patterns of eating, such as a Mediterranean-style diet, which is associated with lower rates of heart disease and stroke.该顾问小组指出,美国人饮食中的盐、糖和饱和脂肪过多,但符合“健康饮食模式”的食物,如水果、蔬菜、坚果、全谷物制品、鱼却不足,另外饮酒也不够节制。该小组成员表示,他们希望美国人不要过于关注单一的营养成分,应该更注意饮食的整体模式,如地中海式饮食(该饮食模式与较低的心脏病和中风率相关)。The panel singled out added sugars as one of its major concerns. Previous dietary guidelines have included warnings about eating too much added sugar, but for the first time the panel recommended that Americans limit it to no more than 10 percent of daily calories — roughly 12 teaspoons a day for many adults — because of its link to obesity and chronic disease.该小组将添加糖单独挑出来作为其重点关注对象。以往的膳食指南都警告人们不宜食用过多的添加糖,但现在,该小组首次建议,鉴于其与肥胖和慢性疾病有关,美国人应将添加糖摄入量控制在每天热量总摄入量的10%或以下——对于大多数成年人而言,相当于每天约12茶匙。Americans consume 22 to 30 teaspoons of added sugar daily, half of which come from soda, juices and other sugary drinks. The panel said sugary drinks should be removed from schools, and it endorsed a rule proposed by the Food and Drug Administration that would require a distinct line for added sugars on food nutrition labels, a change the food and sugar industries have aggressively fought.美国人平均每天的添加糖摄入量约为22至30茶匙,其中一半来自汽水、果汁和其他含糖饮料。该小组表示应将含糖饮料驱逐出校园,并持美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, FDA)提出的“在食品营养标签上将添加糖单列一行明确标识”的规定,而食品和食糖行业则激烈地反对这一改变。Many experts, including some who disagreed with the panel’s cautions on salt and saturated fat, applauded its stronger stance on added sugars.这种对添加糖的更强硬的态度,赢得了许多专家,包括一些不同意该小组关于盐和饱和脂肪的警示意见的专家们的赞同。“That was one of the high points of these guidelines, and something that was sorely needed,” said Dr. Ronald M. Krauss, the director of atherosclerosis research at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. “There is a striking excess of added sugar intake in all age groups across the population.”“这是该指南的一大亮点,而且,目前也正迫切需要如此,”儿童医院奥克兰研究所(Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute)动脉粥样硬化研究的负责人罗纳尔·M·克劳斯士(Ronald M. Krauss)说。“鉴于美国人各年龄组中添加糖的摄入量都明显过剩,这些措施很有必要。”Dr. Krauss, the former chairman of the American Heart Association’s dietary guidelines committee, said that the advisory panel’s emphasis on overall dietary patterns was “a tremendous move in the right direction.” As part of that move, the panel dropped a suggestion from the previous guidelines that Americans restrict their total fat intake to 35 percent of their daily calories.克劳斯士是美国心脏协会膳食指南委员会的前任主席,他称赞该顾问小组开始强调整体饮食模式是“朝正确方向的一大进步”。另一个进步是,该小组废止了既往指南中“美国人应将脂肪总摄入量限制在每日热量总摄入量的35%”的建议。Since they were first issued in 1980, the guidelines have largely encouraged people to follow a low-fat diet, which prompted an explosion of processed foods stripped of fat and loaded with sugar. Studies show that replacing fat with refined carbohydrates like b, rice and sugar can actually worsen cardiovascular health, so the guidelines encourage Americans to focus not on the amount of fat they are eating but on the type.最早的一份膳食指南诞生于1980年,其主要目的在于鼓励人们遵循低脂肪饮食,但它们却促成了脱脂加糖的加工食品的迅猛发展。研究显示,以面包、大米和糖等精制碳水化合物来替代脂肪实际上反而会令心血管健康恶化,所以新指南鼓励美国人不要只盯着脂肪总量,更重要的是要看他们食用的是何种类型的脂肪。The guidelines advise people to eat unsaturated fat — the kind found in fish, nuts, and olive and vegetable oils — in place of saturated fat, which occurs primarily in animal foods.指南建议人们以不饱和脂肪——也就是鱼、坚果、橄榄油和植物油中所含那种——来代替主要存在于动物性食物中的饱和脂肪。The panel also dropped a longstanding recommendation that Americans restrict their intake of dietary cholesterol from foods like eggs and shrimp — a belated acknowledgment of decades of research showing that dietary cholesterol has little or no effect on the blood cholesterol levels of most people.此外,该小组还撤销了一条久已有之的建议:“美国人应限制膳食胆固醇的摄入量(主要来源于蛋类、虾等食物)”。几十年来,多项研究显示,膳食胆固醇对大多数人的血液胆固醇水平很少或完全没有影响,现在这些研究结果终于获得了迟来的认可。“For many years, the cholesterol recommendation has been carried forward, but the data just doesn’t support it,” said Alice H. Lichtenstein, the vice chairwoman of the advisory panel and a professor of nutrition science and policy at Tufts University.该顾问小组的副主席、塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)的营养科学和政策学教授艾丽斯·H·利希滕斯坦(Alice H. Lichtenstein)说:“多年来,人们一直秉承着限制膳食胆固醇的建议,但是研究数据却并不持它。”Dr. Krauss said that some people experience a rise in blood cholesterol after eating yolks and other cholesterol-rich foods. But these “hyper-responders” are such a minority — roughly a few percent of the population — that they do not justify broad restrictions on cholesterol intake.克劳斯士承认,有些人在食用蛋黄等富含胆固醇的食物后血液胆固醇水平会升高。但这些“超应答者(hyper-responders)”在总人口中的比例极小——大约百分之几,因此不能以他们为由来普遍地限制胆固醇摄入。The advisory panel does not issue the official guidelines. Its report is sent to the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture, which publish Dietary Guidelines for Americans every five years. The agencies usually adhere very closely to the panel’s recommendations.该顾问小组并未发布官方指南。但其报告已发送至美国卫生和公众务部(Department of Health and Human Service)和农业部(Department of Agriculture),也就是每五年一次发布《美国膳食指南》(Dietary Guidelines for Americans)的部门。这些机构通常都会严格遵循该小组的建议。Although consumers rarely pay direct attention to the guidelines, they nonetheless influence the diets of tens of millions of people. The guidelines shape the s of the school lunch program, which feeds more than 30 million children each school day, and they are incorporated into national food assistance programs like WIC and SNAP.虽然消费者很少会直接关注这些指南,但它们仍然影响着上千万人的饮食。膳食指南指导着校园午餐工程食谱的设计,也就是说,它们与每个教学日里超过3000万儿童的饮食息息相关;此外,它们还被纳入了WIC(Women, Infants and Children,即妇女、婴儿及儿童营养计划)和SNAP(补充营养援助计划)等全国性的食品援助计划。The advisory panel included the vegetarian diet as an example of what it called a healthy eating pattern, noting that a plant-based diet is also more sustainable, with less of an impact on the environment. But critics questioned whether the guidelines might overstep the mandate to focus on health and nutrition.顾问小组还将素食纳入了健康饮食模式的范例,并指出以植物为主的饮食习惯更具有可持续性,对环境的不良影响较小。但也有批评者怀疑这些指南是否逾越了其注重健康和营养的基本职责。“It appears the advisory committee was more interested in addressing what’s trendy among foodies than providing science-based advice for the average American’s diet,” said Howard Hill, a veterinarian and president of the National Pork Producers Council.美国猪肉生产者协会(National Pork Producers Council)主席,兽医霍华德·希尔(Howard Hil)说:“看样子,与为普通美国人提供基于科学的膳食建议相比,顾问委员会对研究美食家中的流行趋势倒是更有兴趣。”The advisory panel was also criticized for its advice against saturated fat, which has been challenged by several recent studies. Dr. James DiNicolantonio, a cardiovascular scientist at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute, said that replacing saturated fat with the polyunsaturated fats in vegetable oils could worsen blood cholesterol levels and raise cancer and heart disease risk.根据最近的几项研究结果,也有人对该顾问小组反对饱和脂肪的意见提出了批评。圣路加中美心脏学院(Saint Luke#39;s Mid America Heart Institute)的心血管研究专家詹姆斯·迪尼古拉安东尼奥(James DiNicolantonio)表示,以植物油中的多不饱和脂肪替代饱和脂肪可能对血液胆固醇水平造成更糟糕的影响,并增加患癌症和心脏病的风险。“The recommendations on saturated fat are a farce,” he said.“有关饱和脂肪的建议简直是一场笑话,”他说。Adele Hite, a registered dietitian and spokeswoman for the nonprofit Healthy Nation Coalition, said that in the decades since their inception, the guidelines had played a direct role in the explosion of obesity and chronic disease by steering people away from nutritious whole foods like meat, eggs and butter.非营利性组织健康国家联盟(Healthy Nation Coalition)的注册营养师兼发言人阿黛尔·海特(Adele Hite)表示,自其诞生起,几十年来这些指南对肥胖症和慢性疾病的爆发负有直接责任,因为它们一直在驱使人们远离营养丰富的天然食品(whole foods),如肉类、蛋类和黄油等。Since the 1980s, Americans over all have been eating more grains, produce, cereals and vegetable oils, while generally lowering their intake of red meat, whole milk and eggs, Ms. Hite said, and yet the population is fatter and sicker than ever.海特女士指出,20世纪80年代以来,美国人的粗粮、农产品、谷物和植物油摄入量普遍增加,而红肉、全脂牛奶和鸡蛋的摄入量则有所降低,但总体而言,美国人健康情况却比以往更糟了,肥胖问题也比之前任何时候都更加严重。“Despite the unavoidable conclusion that the guidelines have failed in some fundamental way,” she said, “the response from the advisory committee seems to be that an even more restricted list of acceptable foods will, this time around, do the trick.”“由此必然得出这样一个结论:这些指南在某些最根本的方面非常失败,”她说。“但看顾问委员会的反应,他们似乎以为这次制定出更加严格的‘建议食物清单’就可以解决问题。” /201503/366716Lisa Borgnes Giramonti had families from books in mind when researching “Novel Interiors: Living in Enchanted Rooms Inspired by Literature” (due next month, ). Scouting homes in Southern California, Manhattan and New Jersey, she found details evoking British moors and New England cottages.丽莎·伯格涅斯·吉拉蒙迪(Lisa Borgnes Giramonti)在为撰写《小说中的室内装潢:生活在文学世界的美屋里》(Novel Interiors: Living in Enchanted Rooms Inspired by Literature)(下月发售,定价35美元[约合人民币214元])做调研的时候,脑海中浮现出了很多书中的家庭。她在加州南部、曼哈顿和新泽西州寻访住宅的过程中,从一些细节联想到了英伦沼地和新英格兰别墅的风情。Rough wood furniture on pale stone floors reminded her of chairs at Wuthering Heights that Emily Bront#235; called “high-backed, primitive structures.” Gently worn sofas raised the specter of drawing-room upholstery described by Jane Austen as “under the influence of four summers and two children.” Overflowing library shelves looked as enticing as Louisa May Alcott’s “wilderness of books,” where Jo March liked to retreat. And rooms piled with unfinished projects called up Virginia Woolf’s taste for some creative chaos of one’s own. Referring to these messy spaces, Ms. Borgnes Giramonti said in an interview, “It means that there’s life and soul and action and ideas.” Information: randomhouse.com.浅色石头地板上的粗木家具,让她想起了艾米莉·勃朗特(Emily Bront#235;)在《呼啸山庄》中描绘的那种“结构粗糙的高背椅”。一些略旧的沙发,令人联想到简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen)笔下,“经过四个春秋和两个孩子的折腾”(摘自《劝导》[Persuation]译林1996年版——译注)的客厅家具。塞得满满当当的书架,就和路易莎·梅·奥尔科特(Louisa May Alcott)笔下的“书海”一样令人憧憬,那是乔·马奇(Jo March,《小妇人》[Little Women]的主人公——译注)的心灵港湾。而堆满未完成作品的房间,不由让人联想起弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)对一些属于自己的独具创意的混乱的喜好。当谈到这些凌乱的空间时,伯格涅斯·吉拉蒙迪在采访中表示,“这就意味着,那里是有生命、有灵魂、有行动、有创意的。”详见:randomhouse.com。 /201412/347012

Premature delivery is tied to increased heart risks in the mother, a review of studies has found.一项研究综述称,母亲心脏病风险增加与早产有关。Pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the mother. But this analysis, published in The European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, found that preterm delivery itself also increases the risk.妊娠并发症,如先兆子痫、妊娠高血压综合征(妊高征)和妊娠期糖尿病是公认的母亲心血管疾病风险因素。但《欧洲预防心脏病学杂志》(The European Journal of Preventive Cardiology)上发表的一项分析表明,早产本身也会增加母亲心血管疾病发作的风险。Researchers reviewed 10 large pregnancy studies, with sample sizes ranging from 3,706 to 923,686 women and follow-up periods ranging from 12 to 35 years. All compared women who had premature babies spontaneously — that is, a birth before 37 weeks’ gestation that was not induced for medical reasons — to women who gave birth to full-term babies. All studies either excluded cases of pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, or adjusted for hypertension and pre-eclampsia.研究人员检视了10项大规模的妊娠期研究,样本量在3706至923686人之间,随访期从12至35年不等。这些研究比较了有自发性早产史(定义为并非因医学原因引产而在妊娠37周前分娩)的妇女与足月生产的妇女,而且,均排除了先兆子痫和宫内发育迟缓病例,或针对妊高征和先兆子痫进行了校正。Women with a history of preterm delivery had double the risk for ischemic heart disease, stroke or other cardiovascular disease compared with those without such a history, and the association was independent of other risks. The reasons remain unclear.具有早产史的妇女发生缺血性心脏病、中风和其他心血管疾病的风险是无早产史的妇女的两倍,且该相关性与其他风险因素无关。个中原因尚不清楚。“I don’t want to scare women who have a premature baby,” said the lead author, Dr. Karst Y. Heida, a gynecology resident at the University Medical Center Utrecht. “But it’s important that we are aware of women who are at increased risk. We’re not saying that if you have a premature baby it means you’re going to have a cardiac event.”“我无意吓唬那些有早产史的妇女,”该研究的主要作者,荷兰乌特勒大学医学中心(University Medical Center Utrecht)的妇产科住院医师士卡斯特·Y·海达(Karst Y. Heida)说。“但了解哪些妇女风险较高非常重要。我们的研究结果并不代表只要你有早产史就一定会发生心脏问题。” /201503/366463

Behind all those canned compliments for older adults — spry! wily! wise! — is an appreciation for something that scientists have had a hard time characterizing: mental faculties that improve with age.年长者通常会受到这样的褒扬:思维敏捷!老谋深算!睿智!在这些称赞的背后,是对某种东西的欣赏,科学家们一直很难描述的东西:随着年龄增长而增强的心智能力。Knowledge is a large part of the equation, of course. People who are middle-aged and older tend to know more than young adults, by virtue of having been around longer, and score higher on vocabulary tests, crossword puzzles and other measures of so-called crystallized intelligence.当然,在这个等式中,知识占了很大一部分。与年轻人相比,中老年人知道的东西往往更多,因为他们活过的年头更长,而且在词汇测试、填字游戏和其他“晶态智力”测试中,中老年人的得分也比较高。Still, young adults who consult their elders (mostly when desperate) don’t do so just to gather facts, solve crosswords or borrow a credit card. Nor, generally, are they looking for help with short-term memory or puzzle solving. Those abilities, called fluid intelligence, peak in the 20s.不过,年轻人(主要是在绝望的时候)请教年长者,不只是为了搜集事实、做填字游戏,或者借用信用卡。通常也不是为了解决短期记忆或解谜方面的问题。这些能力称为“液态智力”,在20多岁时达到峰值。No, the older brain offers something more, according to a new paper in the journal Psychological Science. Elements of social judgment and short-term memory, important pieces of the cognitive puzzle, may peak later in life than previously thought.不,《心理科学》(Psychological Science)杂志上的新论文表示,年长者的大脑可以提供更多的好处。社会判断和短期记忆的一些元素是认知能力的重要组成部分,它们达到峰值的时间可能比人们之前认为的更晚一些。The postdoctoral fellows Joshua Hartshorne of M.I.T. and Laura Germine of Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital analyzed a huge trove of scores on cognitive tests taken by people of all ages. The researchers found that the broad split in age-related cognition — fluid in the young, crystallized in the old — masked several important nuances.麻省理工(MIT)士后约书亚·哈茨霍恩(Joshua Hartshorne)以及哈佛(Harvard)和马萨诸塞州总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)士后劳拉·杰米恩(Laura Germine)分析了大量由所有年龄段参加的认知测试数据,发现在涉及年龄的认知上,笼统的两分法——年轻人液态智力高,年长者晶态智力高——掩盖了一些重要的细微差别。“This dichotomy between early peaks and later peaks is way too coarse,” Dr. Hartshorne said. “There are a lot more patterns going on, and we need to take those into account to fully understand the effects of age on cognition.”“早期达到高峰和较晚时候达到高峰,这种两分法太粗略了,”哈茨霍恩士说。“此外还存在很多的模式,我们需要考虑这些因素,来充分了解年龄对认知的影响。”The new paper is hardly the first challenge to the scientific literature on age-related decline, and it won’t be the last. A year ago, German scientists argued that cognitive “deficits” in aging were caused largely by the accumulation of knowledge — that is, the brain slows down because it has to search a larger mental library of facts. That idea has stirred some debate among scientists.诸多科学文献谈到了和年龄有关的认知能力下降,这篇新论文既不是对相关结论的第一个挑战,也不会是最后一个。一年前,德国科学家声称,年龄增长的认知“缺陷”在很大程度上是由知识的积累造成的——也就是说,大脑速度减慢,是因为它需要在一个更大的脑部信息库里搜索东西。这个说法已经在科学界引起了一些争论。Experts said the new analysis raised a different question: Are there distinct, independent elements of memory and cognition that peak at varying times of life?一些专家称,这份新的分析结果提出了一个不同的问题:在和认知能力中,有没有一些与众不同的独立的元素,是在生命中的不同时刻达到峰值的?“I think they have more work to do to demonstrate that that’s the case,” said Denise Park, a professor of behavior and brain science at the University of Texas at Dallas. “But this is a provocative paper, and it’s going to have an impact on the field.”“我认为要明这一点,他们还需要做更多工作,”德克萨斯州大学达拉斯分校(University of Texas at Dallas)行为与脑科学教授丹尼斯·帕克(Denise Park)说。“但这篇论文已经引发了讨论,它将对这一领域产生影响。”The strength of the new analysis is partly in its data. The study evaluated historic scores from the popular Wechsler intelligence test, and compared them with more recent results from tens of thousands of people who took short cognitive tests on the authors’ websites, testmybrain.org and gameswithwords.org. The one drawback of this approach is that, because it didn’t follow the same people over a lifetime, it might have missed the effect of different cultural experiences, said K. Warner Schaie, a researcher at Penn State University.这个最新分析结果的强大之处,一定程度上在于它所采用的数据。这份研究评估了著名的韦氏智力测验(Wechsler intelligence test)的历史得分数据,将它们与数万人更近期的测试结果进行了比较。这些参与者在作者的网站上进行了简短的认知测试,网址分别是testmybrain.org和gameswithwords.org。宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State)的研究人员K·瓦尔纳·沙依(K. Warner Schaie)说,这种方法的缺陷在于,由于它不是追踪同一批人在人生各个阶段的情况,因此可能忽视了不同文化经历产生的影响。But most previous studies have not been nearly as large, or had such a range of ages. Participants on the websites were 10 to 89 years old, and they took a large battery of tests, measuring skills like memory for abstract symbols and strings of digits, problem solving, and facility ing emotions from strangers’ eyes.然而,以往的多数研究都没有达到如此大的规模,也没有覆盖这么广的年龄段。网站上的参与者年龄在10岁到89岁之间,他们参与了大量的测试,评估了对抽象符号和数字串的、解决问题的能力,以及根据眼神解读陌生人情绪的能力。At least as important, the researchers looked at the effect of age on each type of test. Previous research had often grouped related tests together, on the assumption that they captured a single underlying attribute in the same way a coach might rate, say, athleticism based on a person’s speed, strength and vertical leaping ability.同样重要的是,研究人员观察了年龄对每一项测试的影响。以往的研究经常把相关的测试分为一组,想当然地认为它们捕捉到了一项基本属性,就像教练可以根据一个人的速度、力量和弹跳能力评估他的运动能力一样。The result of the new approach? “We found different abilities really maturing or ripening at different ages,” Dr. Germine said. “It’s a much richer picture of the life span than just calling it aging.”这种新方法的结果如何?“我们发现不同的能力的确会在不同的年龄臻于成熟,”杰米恩说。“它反映了人生中丰富得多的变化,而不只是衰老。”Processing speed — the quickness with which someone can manipulate digits, words or images, as if on a mental sketch board — generally peaks in the late teens, Dr. Germine and Dr. Hartshorne confirmed, and memory for some things, like names, does so in the early 20s. But the capacity of that sketch board, called working memory, peaks at least a decade later and is slow to decline. In particular, the ability to recall faces and do some mental manipulation of numbers peaked about age 30, the study found, “a fact difficult to assimilate into the fluid/crystalized intelligence dichotomy.”杰米恩士和哈茨霍恩士实,信息处理速度——如同头脑中有一块素描板,一个人在上面处理数字、单词或图像的速度——基本上在十八九岁的时候达到峰值;对一些事情的,比如对一些名字的记忆,会在20岁出头的时候达到顶峰。但这个素描板的容量,即工作记忆,至少还要10年之后才能达到峰值,而且下降的速度很慢。特别值得一提的是,研究发现,记忆一些人的长相以及心算的能力,会在30岁左右达到峰值,“这个事实很难用液态/晶态的智力二分法来解释。”The researchers also analyzed results from the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test. The test involves looking at snapshots of strangers’ eyes on a computer screen and determining their moods from a of options like “tentative,” “uncertain” and “skeptical.”研究人员还分析了“眼神读心能力测试”的结果。在这项测试中,测试者需要看着计算机屏幕上陌生人眼睛的照片,从一些选项中选出他们的心情,比如“犹豫”、“不确定”和“怀疑”。“It’s not an easy test, and you’re not sure afterward how well you did,” Dr. Germine said. “I thought I’d done poorly but in fact did pretty well.” Yet people in their 40s or 50s consistently did the best, the study found, and the skill declined very slowly later in life.“这个测试并不容易,你做完之后心里没底,”杰米恩说。“我以为我做的很糟糕,但实际上成绩相当不错。”然而研究发现,四五十岁的人成绩最好,而且随着年龄的进一步增长,这种能力下降得十分缓慢。The picture that emerges from these findings is of an older brain that moves more slowly than its younger self, but is just as accurate in many areas and more adept at ing others’ moods — on top of being more knowledgeable. That’s a handy combination, given that so many important decisions people make intimately affects others.这些发现所反映的情况是,年长者的大脑的运转速度比年轻时慢,但在许多领域同样敏锐,而且更擅长察觉他人的情绪——不光是知识更渊了。考虑到人们做出的许多重要决定都会密切地影响他人,这是一个不错的状态。No one needs a cognitive scientist to explain that it’s better to approach a boss about a raise when he or she is in a good mood. But the older mind may be better able to head off interpersonal misjudgments and to navigate tricky situations.没人需要一名认知科学家来告诉自己,为什么在老板心情好的时候,更适合找他谈涨薪。但年长一些的人可能更加擅长避免人际关系上的误判,以及应付棘手的局面。“As in, ‘that person’s not happy with all your quick thinking and young person’s processing speed — he’s about to punch you,’” said Zach Hambrick, a psychology professor at Michigan State University.“比如,‘那个人看不惯你思维太快,那种年轻人的信息处理速度——他就要给你一拳了,’”密歇根大学的心理学教授扎克·汉布里克(Zach Hambrick)说。The details of this more textured picture of the aging brain are still far from clear, and social measures like the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test have not been used much in this kind of research, Dr. Hambrick and other experts said. And it is not apparent from the new analysis whether changes in cognition with age result from a single cause — like a decline in the speed of neural transmission — or to multiple ones.汉布里克和其他专家说,大脑衰老过程中更复杂情况的细节还很不清楚,眼神读心能力等社会化衡量标准也没有被大量用于此类研究。此外,最新的分析结果也没有告诉我们,认知能力随年龄增长而发生的改变是单一因素——比如神经传输速度的下降——还是多种原因造成的。But for now, the new research at least gives some meaning to the empty adjective “wily.”但就目前而言,这项新研究至少给“老谋深算”这个空洞的形容词赋予了一些意义。 /201503/365705

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