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南京中大医院做去疤手术多少钱度分类

2018年01月20日 10:42:24    日报  参与评论()人

南京大学医院激光祛太田痣价格南京做隆胸多少钱江苏南京韩式埋线双眼皮价格 WASHINGTON — The federal government opened the door to a new era of genetic medicine on Thursday by introducing a standard way to ensure the accuracy of DNA tests used to tailor treatments for individual patients.华盛顿——星期四,美国联邦政府提出了一种标准方法,用于确保患者定制个体化治疗时的DNA检测的准确性,可以说,此举打开了通往基因药物新时代的大门。Scientists have identified hundreds of genetic mutations that appear to increase the risk of diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer’s and cystic fibrosis. But laboratories often report different results when they analyze genes obtained from samples of the same blood or tissue, because of variations in their testing equipment and methods.科学家们现已识别出数百个可能增加特定疾病(包括癌症、阿尔茨海默氏症、囊性纤维化等)风险的遗传突变。但是,由于不同的实验室在检测设备和方法上的差异,他们在分析从同一血液或组织样本中提取的基因时,常常会报告不同的结果。The National Institute of Standards and Technology said Thursday that it had developed “reference materials” that could be used by laboratories to determine whether their machines and software were properly analyzing a person’s genetic blueprint, or genome.美国国家标准技术研究所(National Institute of Standards and Technology)在周四宣称,自己开发出了“基准材料”,各实验室可使用它来确定自己的仪器和软件能否正确地分析一个人的遗传蓝图,也就是基因组。The institute disseminates such reference materials for thousands of products including steel, concrete and peanut butter. These materials are used for myriad purposes — to calibrate instruments, to make sure buildings are safe, to ensure that nutritional labels are accurate.该研究所将基准材料推广到了钢铁、水泥和花生酱等数千种产品,使用它们来实现各式各样的目的,如校准仪器、确保建筑物的安全性、确保营养标签的准确性等等。Laboratories can use the new DNA standard to make sure their genetic testing is accurate. If labs get the right answers for the reference material — by finding the same mutations in the same places, for example — they can be confident that their testing of patient samples is similarly accurate.实验室可利用这种新的DNA标准物来确保他们基因检测的准确性。如果实验室在检测基准材料时得出了“正确”——例如,在同样的位点发现了同样的突变,则可以认为他们测试患者样本时也具有类似的准确性。The devices used by the laboratories, known as DNA sequencers, have greatly accelerated biomedical research and discovery, allowing scientists to pinpoint mutations and devise treatments tailored to the genetic characteristics of individual patients. Such tests and treatments, developed in research laboratories, are quickly moving into the practice of medicine.在实验室中,承担这类工作的设备称为DNA测序仪,有了它,科学家们就可以精确地定位突变,并针对患者个体的遗传特征量身打造个性化治疗,极大地促进了生物医学研究和发现。这类测试和治疗方法虽诞生于研究性实验室,但很快就进入了医疗实践领域。In his State of the Union address this year, President Obama announced a “precision medicine initiative” to foster the development and adoption of such customized treatments.在今年的国情咨文中,奥巴马总统宣布了“精准医疗计划(precision medicine initiative)”,旨在促进此类定制治疗方法的开发和应用。For 0, scientists and laboratories can now buy a vial of the reference material from the national standards institute, a unit of the Commerce Department. The material, for sale on the agency’s website, includes 10 micrograms of DNA from a Utah woman of European ancestry. That is enough for numerous tests.这种基准材料在美国商务部的下属单位美国国家标准学会(national standards institute)的网站上销售,现在,科学家们和实验室花450美元就可以买到一小瓶,其中含有来自犹他州的一名欧洲血统女子的10微克DNA,足够完成多次检测。“If you send a sample of blood or a tumor biopsy to different genetic testing laboratories, you can get different results,” said Marc L. Salit, the leader of a genome measurement group at the institute. “While largely in agreement, they may have significant differences. Now, for the first time, we have a standard to check the reliability and quality of gene sequencing.”“如果你把一份血液或肿瘤活检样本送到不同的基因检测实验室,你可能会得到不同的结果,”该研究所基因组测定小组的负责人马克·L·萨利特(Marc L. Salit)说。“虽然它们在大体上是一致的,但仍可能存在显著差异。现在,我们第一次有了一个可以检查基因测序质量和可靠性的(统一)标准。”A laboratory can use the samples to demonstrate the quality of its work, and health insurance companies can have confidence in the results, increasing the likelihood that they will pay for genome-sequencing tests, Dr. Salit said. Costs have come down in recent years, he added, but it still costs about ,000 to analyze and interpret a whole genome.萨利特士说,实验室可以使用该样本明自己工作的质量,医疗保险公司也会对检测结果更有信心,为基因组测序检测付费的可能性也就更大。他还补充道,虽然近年来测序成本有所下降,但全基因组的分析和解读仍需要5000美元上下。Elizabeth A. Mansfield, a geneticist at the Food and Drug Administration who supervises its work on personalized medicine, said the reference material could lead to “better instruments and better tests.” As a result, she said, “health plans may be more willing to pay for such tests.”美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)的遗传学家伊丽莎白·A·曼斯菲尔德(Elizabeth A. Mansfield)负责监管个体化医疗方面的工作,她表示基准材料将会“改善仪器和检测”。这样一来,“医保计划将更愿意为此类检测付费。”The F.D.A. worked with the standards institute to develop the DNA reference material, which gives regulators a new tool to assess the accuracy of tests.该DNA基准材料由F.D.A.和标准学会联合开发,它也给了监管部门一个评估检测准确性的新工具。“An inaccurate genome-sequencing test can lead to patients receiving the wrong diagnosis, the wrong treatment or no treatment at all, even when effective therapy is available,” said Dr. Jeffrey E. Shuren, director of the F.D.A. Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Accurate tests have become more important, he said, as treatments are increasingly based on the type of mutations detected in genetic testing.F.D.A.医疗器械和辐射健康中心(Center for Devices and Radiological Health)主任杰弗里·E·苏瑞(Jeffrey E. Shuren)说:“不准确的基因组测序检测可导致患者受到错误的诊断、接受错误的治疗或是在明明存在有效治疗手段之时未能得到治疗。”他还说,由于治疗方法正越来越多地以基因检测发现的突变类型为依据,基因检测的准确度正变得日益重要。Dr. Francis S. Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, said that information from the tests could benefit patients in many ways. “For example,” he said, “an oncologist might use the results of a sequencing scan to choose the chemotherapy drug that is most likely to work.”美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)院长法兰西斯·S·柯林斯(Francis S. Collins)士表示,在基因检测中获得的信息可以从诸多方面为患者提供助益。“例如,肿瘤科医生可以使用测序结果来选择效果可能会最好的化疗药物。”The regulation of DNA tests and technology is complicated and in flux.DNA检测及其技术的监管非常复杂,而且变来变去。One agency, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, regulates and certifies clinical laboratories under a 1988 law. The F.D.A., a sister agency in the same department, regulates manufacturers and has authority over the actual tests. The food and drug agency has historically refrained from enforcing some of its requirements for “laboratory-developed tests,” including many genetic tests, but it proposed to overhaul and tighten regulation of these products last year.根据1988年的法律,医疗照护和医疗救助务中心(Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services)负责临床实验室的管理和认。而与该机构隶属同一部门的机构F.D.A.则负责监管制造商和已经实用的检测。F.D.A.历来未曾强制执行其对“实验室开发的检测”(包括许多基因检测)的一些要求,但该机构在去年提出,应整顿和加强对上述产品的监管。The new reference material is for tests that use advanced technology — “next-generation sequencing” — to analyze a person’s DNA. Such tests are generally interpreted by doctors or genetic counselors and not sold directly to consumers.新推出的基准材料适用于采用了先进的“下一代测序”技术来分析个人DNA的检测。此类检测的结果通常不会直接出售给消费者,而是需要经过医生或遗传咨询师的解读。In 2013, the food and drug agency told a Silicon Valley company, 23andMe, to stop selling health information reports that interpreted a person’s DNA. In February, it allowed the company to offer a direct-to-consumer test to help identify carriers of a gene linked to a specific rare disorder, Bloom syndrome.2013年,F.D.A.通知硅谷的23andMe公司暂停销售含有经解读的个人DNA信息的健康报告。今年2月,该机构却又批准这家公司提供一种直接面向消费者的检测,以帮助识别与一特殊的罕见疾病——布卢姆综合征(Bloom syndrome)相连锁的基因的携带者。The food and drug agency, expecting a wave of new technology to analyze the human genome, helped finance the work of scientists and engineers at the standards institute in Gaithersburg, Md.F.D.A.预计,新一波的人类基因组分析浪潮即将涌现,并为马里兰州盖瑟斯堡市标准学会的科学家和工程师们的工作提供了部分资助。 /201509/400018南京市江宁区治疗蒙古斑价格

江苏南京激光洗眉毛价格Technology fanatics descend every January on Las Vegas for the International CES, a colossal gathering of gadgetry and geekery where some of the world’s largest companies show off their best ideas for the future.每年1月,科技迷们来到参加国际消费者电子产品展(International CES)。世界上最大的一些公司会在这个电子设备狂和极客的大集会上展示他们对未来的最佳畅想。This year, as in every recent year, the show has been burdened by existential angst, with many tech writers saying they planned to skip an event no longer seen as vital. It has been ages since anything momentous was unveiled at CES.今年,和过去几年的每一次那样,这个展览因为是否有存在的必要而受到焦虑感的困扰。许多科技业写手表示,他们打算跳过这个已经不被重视的事件。好多年过去了,CES再也没有推出任何具有里程碑意义的产品。But the travails of CES are a symptom of a larger transformation in tech. The era dominated by consumer electronics — what most of us call gadgets — is in turmoil.但是,CES的挣扎在更宏观的层面上体现了科技领域的变迁。消费电子产品——大多数人称之为电子设备——所主导的时代,正在发生剧变。One reason is that many devices have been superseded by a single, all-powerful tool: the smartphone. Today, just about everything that once required a small, dedicated electronic device — from cameras to portable game consoles to GPS navigators to music players to too many others to name — works better as an app on a phone.其中一个原因是,许多设备已被一种单一的全能工具所取代,那就是智能手机。如今,几乎所有曾经需要一台小型专用设备的东西——相机、便携式游戏机、GPS导航仪、音乐播放器等许许多多东西——作为手机的一个应用程序,能有更好的表现。At the same time, smartphones have created new categories of capabilities that have eclipsed gadgets as the tech industry’s center of energy and innovation.与此同时,智能手机还创造了新的功能类别,成了科技产业活力与创新的中心,令过去的设备黯然失色。I’m talking about photo apps like Instagram, messaging companies like WhatsApp and Snapchat, transportation systems like Uber and Lyft, and Apple Pay, the wireless payment system created by a company best known for its hardware.这里说的是Instagram等图片应用、WhatsApp和Snapchat等即时通讯务、Uber和Lyft等交通应用,以及以硬件出名的苹果公司所推出的移动付系统Apple Pay。These services, powered by smart software, use our phones’ constant connection to the cloud, and their powers to connect us with one another, to create tech experiences that wouldn’t have been possible with the gadgets of yesteryear. None of them would ever have graced a stage at CES, because none of these things are really gadgets; they’re way more exciting than that.这些以智能软件为载体的务,利用手机与云的持续连接,以及让我们与彼此产生联系的力量,创造了昔日的设备所无法带来的科技体验。它们当中没有哪个会在CES的展台上荣耀登场,因为它们都不是真正的设备;但它们要激动人心得多。Here’s the important lesson for consumer electronics companies: The future of tech may not be in flashier, more powerful hardware, but instead in services enabled by clever software. The gadgets matter, but only if they allow for software that can create useful, perhaps groundbreaking services that work across all our gadgets.对于消费性电子产品公司而言,这里有个重要的教训:科技的未来或许不在于更炫酷、更强大的硬件,而在于通过智能软件来实现的务。只有能使用软件——能带来有用的、或许具有开创性的务的软件(而且这些务能适用于所有设备)——这些设备才有意义。“Today, what every customer expects is for their device to be a platform,” said John MacFarlane, the chief executive of the connected-speaker company Sonos, referring to a design practice in which the machine’s intelligence and user interface are built out of flexible software rather than baked into the hardware — thus enabling future improvements through updates.“现在,每位顾客都希望自己的设备能变成一个平台,”智能扬声器公司Sonos的首席执行官约翰·麦克法兰(John MacFarlane)说。他这里提到了一种设计原则,即机器的智能和用户界面都来自灵活的软件,而非焊入硬件——从而能通过更新来实现未来的改进。Sonos, which was founded in 2002, was one of the first hardware start-ups to design its products this way.成立于2002年的Sonos,是最早以这种方式设计产品的硬件初创公司之一。Sonos’s speakers offer the best example of why a design that is intended to be flexible can be so useful.Sonos的扬声器极好地说明了为何灵活的设计会如此有用。In 2005, when Sonos sold its first multiroom music system, the units played music stored on a computer, and they had to be controlled by the company’s own touch-screen remote control. But the company believed that anyone who bought its speakers would keep them for a long time, probably a decade or more, so the device would have to be able to live through unpredictable tech changes.2005年,当Sonos售出第一个多房间音乐系统时,该系统播放的是储存在一台电脑上的音乐,而且必须用公司自己的触屏遥控器来进行控制。但公司认为,购买其扬声器的人会把它们保留很长一段时间,或许10年,或许10年以上,所以这个设备必须能够经受住不可预知的科技变革。So early in its design process, Sonos decided to make sure the software brains of its devices could be regularly updated. Every few months, the device would check in with the home base and acquire new capabilities.所以,在设计之初,Sonos就决定要确保其设备的软件核心能够定期更新。每隔几个月,该设备就与总部取得联系,并获得新的功能。“Did we know there would be an iPhone?” Mr. MacFarlane said. “No, we didn’t know Apple was working on one. And we certainly didn’t foresee tablets. But we made a decision to put the user experience on any device that was close to you, like your phone or P.D.A.”“我们知道会出现iPhone吗?”麦克法兰说。“不,我们并不知道苹果公司当时在研究iPhone。当然,我们更没有预见到平板电脑的产生。但是,我们决定把用户体验放在与人们关系密切的所有设备之上,比如手机或掌上电脑。”As a result, in the years since, Sonos’s speakers have gained a range of new powers. They can be controlled by a smartphone app, play music from dozens of streaming music services and connect to a home-automation system, allowing the system to you the weather report when you step into your kitchen for breakfast. If you bought those 2005-era Sonos speakers, you would have noticed something almost unheard-of in consumer tech, not to mention in life: The older the speakers got, the more they seemed capable of doing.结果,这些年来,Sonos的扬声器获得了一系列新功能。它们既可以通过智能手机应用程序来控制,可以播放数十个流音乐务上的曲子,还能够与家庭自动化系统相连接——这样一来,当你走进厨房吃早餐时,这个系统就能为你朗读天气预报。如果你买的是2005年那个年代的Sonos扬声器,你就会发现消费科技领域——更不用说日常生活中——前所未闻的东西:扬声器的使用年代越久,它们似乎就拥有越来越多的功能。Sonos was a pioneer, but a range of hardware start-ups have embraced a philosophy that prizes flexible software as the heart of gadgetry.Sonos是一个先锋,但是一系列硬件领域的创业公司也在其研发的设备当中,融入了重视软件灵活性的理念。Nest transformed the previously staid market for home thermostats by creating a model that leverages software connected to the Internet. In the same vein, firms like Dropcam made software-powered cameras, and companies like Fitbit and Jawbone made connected fitness gadgets.Nest创造的一款设备利用了接入互联网的软件,进而转变了过去古板的家用恒温器市场。Dropcam这样的企业也以同样的思路,制造了用软件来增强功能的摄像头,Fitbit和Jawbone这样的企业则推出了联网的健康设备。Benedict Evans, an analyst at the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, noted that a lot of these novel devices might not have been possible without the rise of smartphones. Not only do apps function as the user interface for many of these devices, but the phone industry has also created a supply chain of cheap computing components like processors and motion sensors that are used in many new connected devices.风险投资公司安德森·霍洛维茨(Andreessen Horowitz)的分析师贝内迪克特·埃文斯(Benedict Evans)提到,如果不是智能手机的兴起,很多这样的新设备或许根本不可能出现。这些设备中,不仅有许多以app作为用户界面,而且手机产业也催生了廉价计算元件,如微处理器、动作感应器的供应链,许多新出现的联网设备都用到了这些元件。“If you sit and count how many devices have been destroyed by the smartphone, you may end up with a dozen categories — but you may also end up with two or three dozen new things that become possible thanks to the smartphone,” said Mr. Evans, the author of “Mobile Is Eating the World,” an examination of how smartphones have roiled the traditional tech business.埃文斯说,“如果你坐下来算一算有多少种设备被智能手机毁掉了,可能会数出十几个类别,但可能也会发现二十几种、三十几种因为智能手机才可能问世的新设备。”埃文斯撰写的《手机正在吞噬世界》(Mobile Is Eating the World)详细讲述了智能手机是怎样搅乱传统科技产业的。Still, these forward-thinking manufacturers must take pains to keep their devices one step ahead of the advance of smartphones, which are always gaining new, gadget-destroying capabilities. Consider the market for basic fitness trackers — for instance, devices like the Fitbit Zip, a thumb-size, device that hooks to your belt and counts your steps as you move.不过,这些具有前瞻性的制造商必须要竭尽全力,才能让自己的设备领先于智能手机的发展,因为后者一直在添加足以摧毁某种设备的新功能。考虑一下基本款健康追踪设备的市场,比如像Fitbit Zip这样的小东西。这款拇指大小、价值60美元的设备扣在腰带上,能在你运动时帮你计步。Such a tracker, which connects to a phone to sync its data, might have made sense a few years ago, when people weren’t as hooked to their phones. But as people carry their phones around with them more often — and as our phones become capable of better measurement, including elevation — will people still need a basic activity tracker? After all, today’s top phones, including the iPhone and Samsung’s new devices, have built-in apps that track your motion.几年前,买这样一款需要连接到手机来同步数据的设备或许还说得通,那时候人们还不像现在这样如此离不开手机。然而随着人们越来越频繁地带着手机到处走,而且手机也具有了更好的测量功能(还能测出海拔),人们还需要基本款的运动追踪设备吗?毕竟,今天的高端手机,包括iPhone和三星(Samsung)的新型号,都有内置的app可以记录用户的运动。It’s precisely because of this risk of being displaced by phones that gadget makers ought to think of their hardware as a platform for software.正是因为有这种被手机替代的风险,电子设备的制造商才需要将自己的硬件理解为软件的载体平台。In that world, a basic activity tracker that was rendered superfluous by a phone might acquire new capabilities for some other use. Maybe it could be converted, via software, into an activity tracker for pets? Or perhaps it could become part of a home automation system.在那样的情况下,新手机问世后就显得很多余的基本款运动追踪设备,或许还能获得新的功能,用于别的什么用途。比如可以通过软件,转变为宠物活动的追踪器,再比如成为家用自动化系统的一部分。As my colleague Molly Wood reported, many companies at CES this week are focusing on plans for integrating their devices into connected systems, rather than simply bringing out flashier hardware.就像我的同事莫利·伍德(Molly Wood)报道的,本周CES的许多参展公司都在关注的是,如何将自身的设备整合进联网系统,而不仅仅是推出更酷炫的硬件。Don’t expect this integration to happen overnight; it could take years before we get to a point where it’s a given that any device you buy will connect to any other. Gadget makers would do well to hasten this era: Their salvation lies in software.不过,不要以为这种整合一夜之间就会发生,可能要过很多年,我们才能确信自己买到的任何设备,都能连接到另一台设备。加快这个时代的到来也有利于设备制造商:软件才是它们的救星。 /201501/353880江苏南京冰点脱毛的具体价格 南京军区总医院美容中心

句容市除皱的费用I’m sitting in Sumon Pal’s office in Boston’s Back Bay, and while fixing two small electrodes to my head with a light adhesive—one to my temple, another to the back of my neck—he’s explaining what the next 16 minutes should feel like. Most users feel reduced tension in their bodies, he says. Their thoughts ping-pong less frequently, breathing slows noticeably, and thoughts that typically cue anxiety—of work, of relationships, of family—become less consequential.我正坐在萨门o帕尔位于波士顿后湾区的办公室里,他一边用轻型粘合剂在我的头上安装小型电极——一个粘在太阳穴上,另外一个在脖子后面,一边解释接下来16分钟的感受。他表示,大多数使用者会感觉身体里的紧张感减轻。他们的思维跳跃频率降低,呼吸明显放缓,与工作、人际关系或家庭有关的那些通常引发焦虑感的想法,也随之减少。Pal, executive director of Los Gatos, Calif., -based neuroscience startup Thync, designed the calming “vibe” that’s being imparted to my brain through a prototype of the app-controlled wearable device that the company will release later this year. Thync’s technology utilizes tDCS, or transcranial direct current stimulation, to trigger specific responses in the brain, dialing up feelings of calm and serenity or conjuring energy and focus on demand.帕尔是加州洛斯盖多斯神经科学初创公司Thync的首席执行官,他设计出这种令人平静的“氛围”,并且通过一款由应用控制的可穿戴设备原型将这种氛围传递到我的大脑当中。该公司预计将在今年晚些时候发布这款设备。Thync的技术利用经颅直流电刺激(tDCS)来触发大脑的某些反应,产生平静的感觉,或根据需要激发出能量和专注。Thync isn’t out to alter the brain’s biology, but to allow better control of the energy, focus, and calm that are aly naturally available to us, co-founder and chief science officer Jamie Tyler says. “Coffee, alcohol, drugs; these are all neuro-enhancers,” Tyler says. “You’re aly modifying your brain activity.” Thync wants to better harness that command—and perhaps grab a piece of the alcohol, coffee, pharmaceutical, and energy drink markets collectively worth billions.公司联合创始人兼首席科学官贾米o泰勒表示,Thync的目的并非改变大脑的生物活动,而是让我们更好地控制我们生来便可以使用的能量、专注和平静。泰勒说道:“咖啡、酒精、药物,这些都属于神经增强剂。你已经在改变大脑的活动。”Thync希望更好地利用这种能力,这样或许就可以从价值数十亿美元的酒精、咖啡、药物和能量饮品市场中分得一杯羹。The pulses—each “100 times lower than what’s considered dangerous,” Tyler insists—feel comfortably warm but not painful. Just as Pal described, the familiar tension in my shoulders eases, my breathing slows, my mind noticeably stops racing. My body takes on the feeling of lax warmth usually associated with a finger or two of scotch—my usual means of unwinding.泰勒坚持认为,设备产生的脉冲让人感觉温暖舒适,不会有疼痛感,其强度仅有危险脉冲的百分之一。正如帕尔所描述的那样,我肩部那种熟悉的紧张感消失了,呼吸放缓,大脑开始陷入平静。我的身体感觉到令人放松的温暖,我通常在吸一两口苏格兰鼻烟之后才会有这种感觉——这也是我常用的放松方式。“People have been doing this forever, this is nothing new,” Tyler says. “I think this is the kind of product people have been waiting for.”泰勒说道:“人类一直都在这么做,这没什么新鲜。我认为这是那种人们一直在期待的产品。”(财富中文网) /201502/359898 泰兴市人民医院开双眼皮多少钱句容市去老年斑多少钱

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