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2017年12月18日 11:20:08 | 作者:久久大全 | 来源:新华社
A new class of experimental cholesterol drugs might sharply reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes, researchers reported on Sunday, citing what they described as preliminary evidence.周日,研究人员援引“初步据”称,一类新的实验性降胆固醇药物可能会大幅降低心肌梗死和中风风险。The drugs, one being developed by Amgen and the other by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, are aly known to sharply reduce so-called bad cholesterol, sometimes to levels lower than those achieved by statins like Lipitor, the mainstay lipid-lowering medicines.上述报告中的药物是指由美国安进公司(Amgen)以及赛诺菲(Sanofi)和瑞泽恩制药公司(Regeneron Pharmaceuticals)研发的。目前已经确知它们可以大幅减少所谓的“坏胆固醇”(即LDL胆固醇[低密度脂蛋白胆固醇]——译注),有时其效力甚至会超过主流降脂药物,如立普妥(Lipitor)等他汀类药物。What has not been known, however, is whether the drugs do what patients and doctors really care about: protect against heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular problems or “events.”然而,对于医生和患者真正关心的问题——预防心肌梗死、中风和其他心血管疾病或“事件”——这些药物的效果如何,目前尚不十分清楚。The early results suggest that there might be such a benefit, maybe even a big one. In small studies sponsored by the manufacturers, both drugs reduced the rate of such cardiovascular problems by about half.早期的研究结果表明,它们非但有益,甚至还可能是大有益处。在由药品制造商赞助的两项小型研究中,这两种药物分别将此类心血管问题的发生率减少了一半左右。“To see a reduction in cardiovascular events aly is very encouraging that we’re on the right track,” Dr. Jennifer G. Robinson, the lead investigator in the trial of the Sanofi drug, said in an interview.赛诺菲药物试验的研究负责人,珍妮弗·G·鲁宾逊(Jennifer G. Robinson)士在接受采访时说:“看到心血管事件的减少真是非常令人鼓舞,这说明我们是走在正确的道路上。”The studies were published in The New England Journal of Medicine and were being presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology taking place through Monday in San Diego.该研究发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上。从周一起在圣地亚哥举行的美国心脏病学会(American College of Cardiology)年会上,也对其进行了介绍。Researchers cautioned, however, that the studies were small and intended to assess whether the drugs lowered the bad cholesterol and were safe, not whether they staved off heart attacks. That could make the conclusions about heart attack and stroke risk less trustworthy. Judging those effects will require larger trials involving tens of thousands of people; such studies are underway and are expected to be completed by 2017.但是,研究人员警告说,上述研究规模较小,且研究目的是评估这些药物的安全性以及它们能否降低“坏胆固醇”,而不是它们能否避免心肌梗死。因此,据此得出心肌梗死和中风风险降低的结论,可能并不足信。要对上述效果做出可信的判断,需要进行涉及数万人的大规模试验。目前这些研究还在进行当中,预计将于2017年完成。“I do not think that either study answers the question definitively of cardiovascular benefit,” said Dr. Steven E. Nissen, chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, referring to the drug makers’ research. He was not involved in either study.未参与上述任何一项研究的科学家,克利夫兰诊所(Cleveland Clinic)心血管医学部主任史蒂文·E·尼森(Steven E. Nissen)表示:“我认为(药品制造商的)这两项研究都未能明确回答这些药物是否对心血管有益。”Researchers said long-term safety still must be assessed, especially since these drugs are reducing LDL cholesterol to levels never achieved by medicines before. While the drugs appeared generally safe, there was evidence that they could cause memory problems.研究人员表示仍须对这些药物的长期安全性进行评估,鉴于它们可将LDL胆固醇降低到此前通过药物从未达到的水平,尤其应当如此。虽然大体上应该是安全的,但也有据表明,它们可能会导致记忆问题。Still, the findings could help smooth the way for regulatory approval, wider use of the drugs by doctors and possibly reimbursement by insurers.尽管如此,上述研究结果很可能有助于为这些药物获得监管部门的批准,被医生广泛应用,并纳入保险公司的报销范围铺平道路。The drugs, evolocumab from Amgen and alirocumab from Sanofi and Regeneron, inhibit a protein in the body called PCSK9 that helps regulate cholesterol. In the studies detailed on Sunday, both drugs reduced the bad cholesterol by about 60 percent, to about 50 milligrams per deciliter from about 120 at the start of the studies. In many cases such big reductions were achieved even though the patients were aly taking statins.这两种新药分别是安进公司(Amgen)研发的evolocumab,以及赛诺菲和瑞泽恩(Sanofi and Regeneron)制药公司的alirocumab,它们的作用机理都是抑制PCSK9——体内的一种协助调节胆固醇的蛋白质。周日发表的文章对两项研究都进行了详细的介绍:这两种药物将“坏胆固醇”从研究开始时的每分升约120毫克降到了约50毫克,降幅达60%左右。在许多病例中,甚至在患者已在用他汀类药物的情况下,仍然实现了如此大的降幅。Both drugs could win approval from the Food and Drug Administration by this summer. Analysts say the drugs will have billions of dollars in annual sales and will be taken by millions of people who cannot lower their cholesterol enough using statins alone or cannot tolerate statins. (However, the PCSK9 drugs are taken by injection every two weeks or four weeks, which could deter some users.)这两种药物有望在今年夏天赢得美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration)的批准。分析人士预计其年销售额将达到数十亿美元,数以百万计单靠他汀类药物无法将胆固醇降低至满意水平或不能耐受他汀类药物的患者都可能选用这些药物(然而,每两周或四周一次注射给药的方式,却也会令某些用户对这些PCSK9药物望而却步)。Statins reduce cardiovascular risk and scientists believe it is because they decrease low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol. But merely looking at cholesterol levels can be misleading. The drug niacin did not protect against heart attacks and strokes even though it raised so-called good cholesterol and modestly lowered bad cholesterol.科学家们认为,他汀类药物之所以可以降低心血管问题的风险,是因为它们可降低“坏胆固醇”,既即LDL低密度脂蛋白胆固醇的水平。然而,单以胆固醇水平论事可能会造成误导。例如,烟酸这种药物可以提高“好胆固醇”的水平,并可适度降低“坏胆固醇”水平,但它对心肌梗死和中风就没有预防作用。Insurers in particular might demand proof that the PCSK9 drugs stave off heart attacks, strokes, deaths from coronary disease and procedures to open arteries before agreeing to pay for them for many patients. Executives at CVS Health, a leading pharmacy benefits manager, recently said that PCSK9 inhibitors might cost ,000 to ,000 a year and would strain health care budgets because so many people might use them.保险公司对此尤其关注。在同意替患者为这些药物埋单之前,他们将要求研究提供明确的据,实PCSK9药物确实可以预防心肌梗死、中风、因冠心病死亡以及动脉扩张手术等。CVS健康公司(CVS Health)是美国名列前茅的一家医药福利管理公司,其高管最近表示,在PCSK9抑制剂上的年花费预计达7000美元至12000美元,由于使用者人数众多,它将给医疗预算带来沉重的压力。“Managed care pharmacy, indeed the health care system, has never seen a challenge like this to our resilience in absorbing costs,” they wrote in the Health Affairs blog.他们在健康事务(Health Affairs)网站的客中写道:“保健药学管理,实际上,整个卫生系统都未曾面临过像这样的对吸纳成本适应能力的严峻挑战。”Whether the results from these two small studies will be persuasive enough remains to be seen.至于这两项小型研究的结果是否具有足够的说力,还有待观察。The study of Amgen’s evolocumab involved 4,465 patients with various degrees of risk, two-thirds of whom were randomly chosen to get the drug in addition to the medication they were aly taking. After one year, 0.95 percent of those in the group that received the drug had suffered a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular problem, compared with 2.18 percent in the group that did not take the drug. By a measure known as the hazard ratio, the risk of cardiovascular events was reduced by 53 percent.安进公司的evolocumab研究纳入了4465名风险程度不一的患者,从中随机选择了三分之二在已用药物的基础上使用新药。一年后,接受新药的那组患者中只有0.95%发生过心肌梗死、中风或其他心血管问题,相比之下,未用此药的那组患者中该比例为2.18%。以风险比(hazard ratio)这一指标衡量时,心血管事件的风险降低了53%。The alirocumab study involved 2,341 patients. After one and a half years, the rate of cardiovascular events was 1.7 percent in those who received the drug, versus 3.3 percent in those who received a placebo, a risk reduction of 48 percent.关于alirocumab的研究入组了2341名患者。一年半之后,在接受该药的患者中心血管事件的发生率为1.7%,而在接受安慰剂的患者中为3.3%,风险降低了48%。Dr. Sanjay Kaul, a cardiologist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, said analyses of one measure from trials meant to assess other things were “notorious for not being reliable.” He said the results would not be sufficient to support widesp use of and reimbursement for the drugs.希德斯-西奈医疗中心(Cedars-Sinai Medical Center,位于美国洛杉矶)的心脏病专家桑贾伊·考尔(Sanjay Kaul)士表示,拿一项对旨在评估其他问题的试验中的指标来说事儿“实在不靠谱”。他认为这些结果不足以持广泛使用这些药物并将其纳入报销范围。He noted, for instance, that the alirocumab trial used a narrower definition of cardiovascular events than the evolocumab trial used. Using a broader definition, alirocumab did not provide a statistically significant reduction in cardiovascular problems.例如,他指出,alirocumab试验中使用的心血管事件定义要比evolocumab试验中的窄。如果使用更宽泛的定义,那么alirocumab减少心血管问题的效果就失去了统计学显著意义。The evolocumab study, for its part, did not use a placebo, so patients and doctors knew who was getting the drug, which could have affected the outcome.至于evolocumab研究,由于它没有使用安慰剂,患者和医生们都知道哪些人接受了新药而哪些人没有,这也可能对患者的预后造成影响。But Dr. Marc S. Sabatine, a cardiologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the lead investigator of the evolocumab study, said the fact that both trials had similar results was reassuring, suggesting the effect was real. The results were also plausible, he said, because people who have genetic mutations that reduce their PCSK9 levels have very low rates of heart attacks.但evolocumab研究的负责人,布莱根妇女医院(Brigham and Women’s Hospital)的马克·S·萨巴蒂尼(Marc S. Sabatine)士称,这两项试验得到了类似的结果,这项事实本身就说明结果可靠,那些效果是真实存在的。他还说,会发生这些结果也尤其合理性,因为带有基因突变,致使PCSK9水平偏低的人心肌梗死的发生率就很低。Dr. Sabatine and Dr. Robinson have been paid consultants to the companies sponsoring the trials they led.萨巴蒂尼士和鲁宾逊士均在资助他们负责的研究的那些公司中担任有酬顾问。 /201504/370010We all know of course that results are the cause of action. But how do you develop the habit of taking action? In order for us to successfully implement the habit of taking action, we have to learn how to use our imagination and independent will to overcome our conditioning.我们都知道结果的起因是行动。但是我们该如何去养成“开始行动”的习惯呢?为了让我们成功地贯彻采取行动的习惯,我们要学会如何运用自己的想象力和自由意志去克我们心理作用。We have a unique endowment as humans, we are responsible. When we take a closer look at the word responsibility we find its roots come from the two words; response and ability. We have the ability to respond, or the ability to take action.作为人类,我们有一个得天独厚的优点,那就是责任心。假如我们仔细地考量下responsibility(责任心)这个词的话,我们会发现它的词根是由两个词组成:response(反应)和ability(能力)。我们有能力去做出回应,我们也有能力采取行动。When we make the decision of becoming response-able, we accept that our lives are the product of our choices. The choice to take action, or not will ultimately determine your results. If you want results in life, you must master the habit of taking consistent action.当我们决定要开始负起责任心时,就意味着我们已接受了“生活就是我们所做出的决定的结果”这个事实。是否采取行动最终会决定你的人生的方方面面。假如你想要生活得有意义,那么你必需得要掌握采取相一致性的行动的能力。The reason most people don’t take action is because they think they are a product of their environment. This is a classic case of determinism and a distorted view of reality.许多人没有采取行动的原因是因为他们认为他们的一切都是拜他们所处的环境所赐。这是一个典型的对现实的曲解。This thinking gets us nowhere as it leaves our fate beyond our control. If our circumstances are beyond our control, naturally, we’ll lack motivation to take action. What’s the point when we’re a product of our environment?这样的思维方式会让我们一事无成,因为它让人相信自己无法掌控自己的命运。假如我们的处境超出了我们的掌控范围,那么我们会自然而然地丧失采取行动做出改变的动机。当我们被环境所主宰时,问题的关键在哪呢?Here’s what this type of thinking look likes:下面就非常形象地描述了这种思维方式:As you can see, this is a linear thinking process.如你所见,这是一种线性的思维方式。Here’s what is actually happening in reality:而在现实生活中,实际情况如上图。You might ask “Jonathan, why did you make the arrows rainbow colored?” Good question. I think diagrams are boring in general, which is why I hesitated to use them. However I think for this purpose, it’s good to be able to see the difference. The rainbow colors are just for added effect. If you really need a meaning though, perhaps it’s because life is much more colorful when you see things clearly.你也许想问“Jonathan,为什么你要用色的箭头呢?”这个问题问得好。总的来说,我觉得图标有点无聊,这正是我不愿去使用它们的原因。然而,这样做的好处可以让你看到不同之处。虹色的箭头仅仅是为了增强效果而已。假如你真的想要问个究竟的话,我想它代表的可能就是当你看到事物的本质时,你就会发现生活原来是如此的丰富多。When we can see that this is a continuous cycle, we realize that our environment is a product of us. If our environment is a product of us, well jeez, that means we have to take responsibility for it, don’t we? If you want to give up that responsibility, fine, live a determined life. But at least make that decision consciously.当我们看到了这个持续循环的圆圈,我们就能够意识到环境其实是由我们一手创造的。假如外部环境是由我们所创造的,这就意味着我们要担起责任心来,不是吗?假如你想要放弃这个责任,好吧,那你一定要过一种决绝坚定的生活。至少,你应该是有意识地做出这样的决定的。This may seem like a no-brainer, but most people go for exactly the opposite. They go for security, safety and comfort. They spend more time acquiring outer resources, then developing inner ones.这听上去是个很简单的事,但是大部分人所做的却恰恰相反。他们所追随的是一种安全、稳妥和舒适的生活。他们花费更多的时间去获取外部的资源,然后再去提升内在的品质。If you’re going to develop the habit of taking action, you need to be motivated.假如你想要养成雷厉风行的习惯的话,你需要被激励去那样做。If you’re doing what you love to do every day, you’re likely to take consistent and massive action.假如你每天所做的是你所热爱的事的话,你就会持续不断地采取大量的行动。If you’re working in a job you hate, slaving yourself away in a cubicle, you’re less likely to take action. You’re just going to do the bare minimum to get by.假如你所做的是一件使你囚禁在小房间并且被你憎恨的工作的话,你采取行动的可能性就会小得多。你只是做了最少的事来敷衍了事。To develop the habit of action, we need to make goals that inspire us. When we’re inspired, we’ll be motivated and the natural result is that we’ll take lots and lots of action.想要养成雷厉风行的习惯,我们需要设定一些能够激励我们的目标。当我们被激励的时候,我们就会有动机,然后我们就会自然而然地采取一系列行动。Find a way to start doing what you love, even if you have to start small. You’re more likely to develop your talents in something you love, rather than something that gives you a false sense of security. If you feel like you don’t have enough time, consider making time for the important. If we don’t make time for the things that really matter to us, when will we? Who wants to go from the cubicle to the casket?开始去做你所热爱的事,即使那件事是不值得一提的你也要去尝试。与其去做给你安全感的事,你更应该去开发做你所热爱之事的潜能。假如你觉得你没有足够的时间去做你热爱的事,那就设法腾出时间来去做重要的事吧。假如我们不为对自己来说是重要的事腾出时间去行动的话,何时我们才会去那样做?有谁想要这辈子就这样从囚禁自己的小房间走向棺材呢? /201411/343947

Can you parlay a hotel room reservation into thousands of frequent-flier miles?你能利用酒店预订获得上万英里的常客飞行里程吗?In the last year, the leading websites that allow travelers to do just that, PointsHound and Rocketmiles, were acquired by Points International and Priceline, respectively. How are they measuring up? And if you haven’t tried such sites before, is it worth trying them now?过去一年里,给旅客提供这种回报的主要网站PointsHound和Rocketmiles分别被Points International和Priceline收购。这两家网站水平怎么样?如果你以前没试过这些网站,现在值不值得试试?PointsHound and Rocketmiles give you frequent-flier miles in exchange for staying in hotels booked through their websites. There are, of course, trade-offs. For instance, when you don’t book directly with a hotel, you often have to forgo points and elite qualifying stays in the hotel’s loyalty program; any changes to your reservation must be made through the third-party site instead of with the hotel; and you may not always receive the lowest rate.通过PointsHound和Rocketmiles网站预订酒店,可以获得常客飞行里程。当然,这是有代价的。比如,如果你不是直接从酒店预订房间,通常就得放弃酒店忠诚度奖励系统中的奖励积分和贵宾资格积分。另外,如果你想更改预订,必须通过第三方,而非酒店;而且不一定总能获得最低价。On the other hand, you can accumulate enough miles for free flights and upgrades on airlines such as American, Air France, British Airways and JetBlue.不过,这样做的好处是能在美国航空公司(American)、法国航空公司(Air France)、英国航空公司(British Airways)和捷蓝(JetBlue)等航空公司积累足够多的里程,获得免费飞行和升舱的机会。When you reserve a room through PointsHound, you can generally earn up to 6,000 points a night in the airline or rewards program of your choice (there are exceptions: A recent search turned up a one-night stay at the Peninsula New York that would earn 16,100 miles on American Airlines). Properties marked with a Big Earn banner rake in the most miles. The site also has its own rewards program where members at the top levels (based largely on the number of nights booked) earn points at higher rates. Users of Rocketmiles, the primary PointsHound competitor, can earn up to 5,000 miles a night on their airline of choice.通过PointsHound预订房间,每晚通常能获得6000点航空公司积分或自选奖励计划(也有些例外:前不久我搜索时发现,在纽约半岛酒店[Peninsula New York]住一晚能获得美国航空公司16100英里的免费飞行里程)。打有“回馈丰厚”(Big Earth)标语的酒店奖励的里程最多。该网站还有自己的奖励计划,最高级别的会员(主要是依据预订酒店的天数)能获得最高比例的积分。Rocketmiles是PointsHound的主要竞争对手。它的用户订一晚酒店能积累自选航空公司的5000英里免费里程。Both PointsHound and Rocketmiles allow members to earn miles on carriers including Air France, Alaska Airlines, Alitalia, American, Etihad, Finnair, Frontier, Hawaiian, Icelandair, JetBlue, Saudi Airlines and Turkish Airlines, as well as Asia Miles, a travel and lifestyle rewards program.PointsHound和Rocketmiles的会员都能获得以下航空公司的里程:法国航空公司、阿拉斯加航空公司(Alaska Airlines)、意大利航空公司(Alitalia)、美国航空公司、阿提哈德航空公司(Etihad)、芬兰航空公司(Finnair)、边疆航空公司(Frontier)、夏威夷航空公司(Hawaiian)、冰岛航空公司(Icelandair)、捷蓝、沙特航空(Saudi Airlines)和土耳其航空(Turkish Airlines)。同时能获得亚洲里程(Asia Miles)的奖励,它是一个旅行和生活方式奖励计划。In addition to the airlines mentioned above, users of PointsHound can also earn miles on AeroMéxico, AirBaltic, LAN Airlines, TAM Airlines and US Airways. (They can use their hotel bookings to accrue the virtual currency, Bitcoin, as well.)除了上述航空公司,PointsHound的用户还能获得墨西哥航空(AeroMéxico)、波罗的海航空公司(AirBaltic)、智利航空公司(LAN Airlines)、巴西天马航空公司(TAM Airlines)以及全美航空公司(US Airways)的里程(还能用酒店预订获取虚拟货币——比特币)。Users of Rocketmiles have more options in addition to the carriers above: They can earn miles on British Airways, Ethiopian Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Norwegian, Oman Air, Qatar Airways, Royal Jordanian, Singapore Airlines, Southwest, ed, Virgin America and Virgin Atlantic, as well as points for Amtrak, Aeroplan and the Avios travel rewards program.而Rocketmiles的用户亦能获得以下航空公司的里程:英国航空公司、埃塞俄比亚航空公司(Ethiopian Airlines)、马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines)、挪威航空公司(Norwegian)、阿曼航空公司(Oman Air)、卡塔尔航空公司(Qatar Airways) 、约旦王家航空公司(Royal Jordanian)、新加坡航空公司(Singapore Airlines)、美国西南航空公司(Southwest)、美国联合航空公司(ed)、维珍美国航空公司(Virgin America)和维珍大西洋航空公司(Virgin Atlantic)。他们还能获得美国铁路公司(Amtrak)、Aeroplan以及Avios的积分。To see what kind of mileage could be accrued during even a brief getaway, I performed several searches, always comparing both sites on the same day around the same time. Let’s use as an example a hotel search I ran for two guests staying in Orlando, Fla., from July 24 through July 26, with AAdvantage from American Airlines as the loyalty program of choice.为了弄清一次短暂出行能积累多少里程,我进行了几次搜索,总是在同一天的几乎同一时间比较这两家网站。举个例子,假设两位宾客计划从7月24日至26日在佛罗里达州奥兰多市住宿,选择的是美国航空公司的AAdvantage忠诚度奖励系统。PointsHound turned up more than 200 hotels, including the Waldorf Astoria Orlando, Four Seasons Orlando at Walt Disney World Resort and Disney’s Contemporary Resort. Available miles on American Airlines ranged from 3,300 miles (for a two-night stay in an eight-bedroom house with a private pool at Champions Gate Vacations Villas near Walt Disney World at 0 a night), to 5,800 miles (for a two-night stay in a deluxe queen room at the Wyndham Grand Orlando Resort Bonnet Creek near Downtown Disney at 3 a night).我在PointsHound网站搜出了200多家酒店,包括奥兰多华尔道夫-阿斯多利亚饭店(Waldorf Astoria Orlando)、奥兰多沃特迪士尼世界度假村(Walt Disney World Resort)和迪士尼当代度假村(Disney’s Contemporary Resort)的四季酒店(Four Seasons Orlando)。美国航空公司提供的奖励里程从3300英里(在迪士尼世界附近的冠军门度假别墅[Champions Gate Vacations Villas]住两晚。这里的别墅有八个卧室和私人泳池,房价每晚500美元)至5800英里(在迪士尼中心特区[Downtown Disney]附近的奥兰多内溪温德姆至尊度假村[Wyndham Grand Orlando Resort]住两晚奢华大床房,房价每晚203美元)不等。For the same search, Rocketmiles turned up some of the same hotels, but far fewer: 35. They included the Radisson Hotel Orlando in Lake Buena Vista, DoubleTree by Hilton at the entrance to Universal Orlando and Hilton Garden Inn Orlando at SeaWorld. Additionally, Rocketmiles didn’t offer the major Disney-branded hotels found on PointsHound, including the Contemporary.我在Rocketmiles网站进行同样的搜索,显示出部分相同的酒店,但是数量要少得多:35家。包括奥兰多比娜·维斯塔湖的拉迪森酒店(Radisson Hotel Orlando)、环球影视主题公园(Universal Orlando)入口处的希尔顿逸林酒店(DoubleTree by Hilton),以及海洋世界(SeaWorld)附近的希尔顿花园酒店(Hilton Garden Inn Orlando)。除此之外,Rocketmiles没有提供在PointsHound上能找到的主要迪士尼品牌酒店,包括迪士尼当代酒店(Contemporary)。The site is designed to show users the best miles or points deals at any given time, however, so only the hotels that deliver on that promise appear. Indeed, one Rocketmiles hotel deal, at the Hilton Orlando, promised 10,000 miles (for a two-night stay in a deluxe queen room at 9 a night) — that’s 4,200 miles more than the best deal at PointsHound. Lock in that kind of offer for several trips and it won’t be long before you rack up 60,000 miles — enough for a round-trip flight to Mexico on American Airlines.Rocketmiles网站的设计是为了随时向用户展示最佳里程或积分交易,所以只有满足条件的酒店得以显示。的确,Rocketmiles提供的一项交易是,在奥兰多希尔顿酒店(Hilton Orlando)下榻(在豪华大床房住两晚,每晚房价239美元),可以获得一万英里的里程,这比PointsHound提供的最佳交易还多出4200英里。在几次旅行中采用这项交易,用不了多久你就能攒够六万英里,足够搭乘美国航空公司的航班免费往返墨西哥。As you can see, several factors should be taken into consideration when deciding whether or not to book through such sites:如你所见,在决定是否通过这些网站预订酒店时,要考虑以下几个因素:Q. How much can you spend on a hotel (and might it be worth it to pay a little more to earn a lot of miles)?问:你在住宿上能花多少钱(多花点钱以获得很多里程的做法值得吗)?A. The nightly rates at the top miles-earning hotels on both PointsHound and Rocketmiles were the same as those on the hotel’s own websites. So if I were to book through either of the sites, I would not be paying more just to earn miles. Excellent news. PointsHound promises that its rates tagged “price match guarantee” are the lowest online: If you find a lower rate for the same dates and the same hotel, you will be refunded the difference. The details are at Pointshound.com/low-price-guarantee. Rocketmiles does not have a best-rate guarantee. The website notes that the rates offered are in line with those of other online competitors, though, which is easy enough to spot check.答:PointsHound和Rocketmiles网站上奖励里程最多的酒店的房价与那些酒店自己网站上的价格是一样的。所以如果我通过这两家网站预订,我不必为获得里程而多花钱。这真是好消息。PointsHound承诺,贴着“最低价保”(price match guarantee)标签的价格是全网最低的:如果你在同一天、同一家酒店找到更低的价格,能获得差价补偿。详情请见Pointshound.com/low-price-guarantee。Rocketmiles没有最低价保。它声称自己的价格与其他网络竞争对手的价格是一样的。不过,这个太容易抽查了。What’s the cancellation policy?问:取消政策是怎样的?Booking directly with a hotel typically gives you the most flexibility when it comes to room preferences, making changes to your reservation, or canceling it outright (unless you booked a nonrefundable rate). On both PointsHound and Rocketmiles, most of the rates are refundable up to a few days before arrival at the hotel, though the specific cancellation policy varies from reservation to reservation so be sure to the fine print. Changes must be made through the sites though, not through your hotel. That can be inefficient, but it need not be a deal breaker, especially if you’re poised to earn a lot of miles.答:直接向酒店预订的话,在挑选房间、更改预订或彻底取消方面通常是最灵活的(除非你订的房间是一定比例内不退款那种)。在PointsHound和Rocketmiles上,提前几天取消大多是可以退款的,具体取消政策各不相同,所以务必阅读附属细则。不过,更改预订必须通过网站进行,而不能通过酒店。这样效率可能比较低,但不必因此放弃,特别是如果你打算获得很多里程的话。Will you miss out on earning points, status or reaping the benefits from a hotel chain’s own loyalty program, and if so, is it worth it to earn miles?问:你愿意放弃连锁酒店忠诚度奖励计划的奖励积分、贵宾资格积分或优惠吗?如果愿意,为了获得免费里程,这样做值得吗?Here’s where you have to make the hard choices. If you book through Rocketmiles, hotel rewards points will generally not be earned in addition to miles. That means you’re forgoing the hotel loyalty program in favor of an airline loyalty program. On PointsHound, for a time rates with a Double Up icon would earn you both hotel rewards points and stay credit toward elite status even as you earned miles. None turned up during my various searches; here’s hoping they make a comeback.答:你必须做出这个艰难的决定。如果你通过Rocketmiles预订,通常无法在兑换里程的同时还能获得酒店的奖励积分。也就是说,你放弃酒店的忠诚度计划,选择航空公司的忠诚度计划。有一段时间,PointsHound网站上有“双重积分”(Double Up)标志的酒店预订能让你既获得里程,又获得酒店奖励积分和贵宾资格积分。在我进行的几次搜索中,没有看到这种情况。希望它能再次出现。Is the hotel with the best miles offer a place you actually want to stay?问:奖励里程最多的酒店所提供的房间真的是你想住的吗?Don’t choose a hotel just to bank a few thousand miles; stay where you’ll be happy.答:不要仅仅为了获得几千英里免费飞行里程而选择某家酒店;选择你喜欢的酒店。Bottom line: These sites are a great way to score frequent-flier miles. The fundamental issue is that using them means you’re generally choosing to earn miles instead of hotel points. Would you rather work toward a free night at a Marriott in Rome, or a free flight to Rome? For some travelers, the boarding pass trumps the room key.最重要的是,这些网站是获得常客飞行里程的好方法。根本问题是,使用这些网站意味着,你选择获得里程,而不是酒店积分。你更愿意免费在罗马万豪酒店(Marriott)住一晚,还是更愿意免费飞到罗马?对有些旅行者来说,登机牌比房间钥匙更重要。 /201506/378934

An Ebola aid worker from the ed States and another from Britain have been infected with the deadly virus in Sierra Leone, health officials said Thursday, a reminder that the epidemic that has ravaged West Africa for the past year is far from over.卫生官员周四表示,美国和英国各有一名埃拉援助工作者,在塞拉利昂感染了这种致命性病毒。这提醒人们,过去一年肆虐西非的疫情远未结束。The National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md., said the American, who was not identified, became infected while working at a treatment center and had been ordered flown back to the ed States in isolation in a chartered plane.位于马里兰州贝塞斯达的美国国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health,简称NIH)表示,那名美国人是在一家治疗中心工作期间被感染的,而且已有一架包机奉命将该人接回美国进行隔离。NIH并未透露这名感染者的身份。The worker will be admitted Friday to the hospital at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, the institute said in a statement.国家卫生研究院在一份声明中表示,这名工作人员将于周五入住该院位于贝塞斯达的医院。The N.I.H. hospital has treated one other Ebola patient: Nina Pham, a nurse infected while caring for a Liberian patient in Dallas. She recovered. Two other health workers with possible exposure to the virus were also treated at N.I.H., but turned out not to be infected.NIH的医院治疗过另一名埃拉患者,在护理达拉斯的一名利比里亚患者期间,受到感染的护士妮娜·范(Nina Pham)。她康复了。另外两名可能接触过该病毒的医护人员也在NIH接受过治疗,但后来明均未被感染。Emory University Hospital in Atlanta and Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha have also successfully treated American health workers who were infected in Africa and flown back to the ed States.亚特兰大埃默里大学医院(Emory University Hospital)和奥马哈的内布拉斯加大学医学中心(University of Nebraska Medical Center)也成功治愈了几名在非洲感染后回国的美国医务人员。Earlier Thursday, British officials said a Royal Air Force plane left Sierra Leone carrying three British military health workers, of whom one has tested positive for Ebola. The other two were under observation for signs of infection, officials said.周四早些时候,英国官员称,英国皇家空军(Royal Air Force)的一架飞机已经带着英国军方的三名医护人员离开塞拉利昂。他们中有一人在埃拉病毒检测中呈阳性。官员们称,另外两人正在被观察是否有受感染的迹象。All three will be taken to the Royal Free Hospital in northwest London, which has a specialized isolation unit to treat Ebola patients. Two nurses, the only other Britons who have contracted the virus, survived infection last year after being treated at the hospital.三人都将被送到伦敦西北部的皇家自由医院(Royal Free Hospital),该院拥有救治埃拉病人的专用隔离单元。去年,另外两名感染过埃拉病毒的英国人——两名护士——曾在这家医院接受治疗并康复。Up to 700 British military personnel have been deployed in Sierra Leone to help combat Ebola.多达700名英国军方人员部署在塞拉利昂,帮助抗击埃拉疫情。The World Health Organization said Thursday that the number of deaths in the Ebola epidemic that has afflicted Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone had surpassed 10,000.世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)周四称,在肆虐几内亚、利比里亚和塞拉利昂的埃拉疫情中,已有超过1万人死亡。While the number of new cases has fallen drastically in all three countries in recent months — and reached zero in Liberia last week — the transmission of the disease has been a resilient problem in the other two.最近几个月,这三个国家的新增病例数量出现了大幅下降,上周,利比里亚的新增病例数量为零。但是埃拉的传播在另外两个国家仍然是一个挥之不去的问题。 /201503/364605

Dutch designer Jeffrey Heiligers#39; latest clothing line – #39;Posture#39; – targets people who spend most of their time hunched over a computer. By preventing the wearer from slouching, the clothes help people improve their posture in the long run. The concept is simple – every time you slouch, the shirt will tighten uncomfortably around the back, forcing you to sit upright again!荷兰设计师杰弗里·海里格斯最近推出的装系列——“姿势”——针对那些整天在电脑前弯腰驼背的人群。这种衬衫通过阻止人们驼背来帮助改善长期坐姿。它的原理很简单——每次你驼背的时候,衬衫背部就会很紧,让你很不舒,不得不直起腰来。“I engineered a tailor-made remedy that corrects poor posture, nowadays very common amongst the digital generation, not by constraining the muscles, but by training them,” Heiligers told Dezeen magazine. “Posture offers a solution integrated in the clothes you wear. By repositioning the seams in such a way that they start to feel uncomfortable when hunching, it stimulates you to sit up straight.”“现在的数字一代,很多人都习惯弯腰驼背,我设计了一个量身定做的治疗方式,来纠正错误的坐姿,不是通过约束肌肉,而是训练肌肉。”海里格斯告诉《设计》(Dezeen)杂志,“姿势系列装将解决驼背的办法融入到你的衣中。通过重新定位衣接缝,在你驼背的时候,这些衣就会让你感到不适,刺激你端正坐姿。”Heiligers revealed that a physiotherapist was involved in the designing process. They began by identifying the various sitting and standing positions that cause neck, shoulder, and back pain. Heiligers then cut the fabric across the back, in order to make the clothes tighten slightly when the wearer slumps forward. The discomfort will remind the wearer to adjust their posture, and their muscles will eventually get trained to sit and stand the right way.海里格斯透露,这款衬衣的设计过程还有理疗师的参与。他们确定了对颈,肩,背造成伤痛的一些站姿和坐姿。然后海里格斯把背部的衣料剪开重新缝接,穿衣的人驼背时衬衫就会稍微收紧。背部的不适感会提醒人调整姿势,最后他们的肌肉会得到训练,矫正姿势。The Posture range includes cotton shirts, felted cardigans, and knitted wool jumpers that are all constructed differently to normal garments. Heiligers pointed out that the clothes are special because the more they are used, the less they are needed. He chose to use only a minimum palette of colors – white, grey, navy – because he wanted to create an everyday collection.姿势系列装包括纯棉衬衫,毡制开衫和针织羊毛套衫,它们的结构都和普通款不同。海里格斯指出,这些装的特别之处在于,穿着次数越多,就越不需要穿。他只使用白,灰,深蓝等少数几种颜色,因为他想让该系列适合日常百搭。“I would like the fashion industry to be inspired by the blueprint I created and them to buy/adopt it to prevent upper back problems in the future,” Heiligers said.海里格斯说,“我希望我设计的这些衣,能够给时装行业一些启示,未来更多地将这个设计用在时装中来防止背部问题。” /201505/376749

Parents Worried Children Old Enough To Remember Family Vacation当孩子们足够大去记住旅行中的点点滴滴时,父母开始担忧YOUNGSTOWN, OH-Fearing that their kids#39; impressions of the experience could quite possibly remain with them for the rest of their lives, parents Joel and Bethany Weyandt told reporters Tuesday they are worried their children are old enough to remember the details of their recent family vacation.俄亥俄州扬斯敦---为人父母的Joel和Bethany Weyandt害怕孩子们的经历留下的印象很有可能跟随他们一生,周二他们告诉记者很担心自己的孩子已经足够大去记住他们最近的一次家庭旅行了。The husband and wife said their son, Michael, 6, and daughter, Nora, 5, have both reached an age at which they are capable of forming and retaining distinct memories, stoking the couple#39;s concerns that the kids will be able to recall numerous details of their trip to Hershey, PA, from the oppressive heat, to the numerous barbs the parents uttered at one another, to the hours spent waiting in various lines.这对夫妻表示他们6岁的儿子Micheal以及5岁的女儿Nora已达到足够大的年龄,能够形成并保留那些深刻的记忆。令这对父母感到担忧的是孩子们可能回想起无数不愉快的细节,包括一家人去宾夕法尼亚的旅行,那些闷热的天气,夫妻间无尽的争吵,各种排队等候等等。;It#39;s sad to think that the kids are probably going to remember everything we went through on this trip-the tiny little hotel room, Michael#39;s ear infection, all of it,; said Bethany, noting in particular a heated exchange between her and her husband that occurred after he missed an exit on Interstate 80, as well as the 30 minutes of tense silence in the car that followed the argument, both of which she believed might now be part of her children#39;s lifelong store of memories. ;If Nora and Michael were still toddlers, we probably would have been in the clear. But they#39;re too old now, so there#39;s really no hope that the closed pool and the broken A/C at the hotel aren#39;t going to leave a lasting impression on them.;Bethany表示更令他们难过的是孩子们可能会记住这次旅行的所有事情,包括那间极小的旅馆,Micheal的耳部感染等等。没什么特别的事情,无非就是丈夫在80号州际公路驾驶时错过了出口,由此引发了双发;战火;,双方争吵过后就是30分钟的车内冷战,妻子觉得这些都会成为孩子成长过程中记忆储藏的一部分。如果Micheal和Nora还不懂事,我们可能就不会有什么阻碍。但现在他们已经懂事了,所以那些关闭的泳池和旅馆里坏掉的空调等不好的印象可定会在他们的记忆里长久存在。译文属 /201506/378646

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