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2018年01月17日 01:05:32来源:好医时讯

The first cooked meal was likely an accident – researchers believe roasted meat only came on the when ancient humans encountered forest-fire toasted animals.第一次把肉煮着吃,也许只是个偶然——研究者们认为我们的祖先恰巧品尝到了因森林大火而烤熟的动物之后才开始学会烤肉吃。Once the home cooking skills were acquired, people were keen to replicate good results – which led to some of the world#39;s oldest – and sometimes strangest – recipes. Here are ten surprisingly old recipes from history.当人类熟练地掌握了这种烹饪技术后,就开始热衷于研究如何把这些食物做得更加美味,这样就诞生了一些古老的食谱。而这些堪称世上最古老的食谱在我们今天看来,有些也可能是世上最奇怪的了。下面就给大家例举史上10个古老得惊人的食谱。10.Linzer torte10.林茨蛋糕The Linzer Torte is extolled as the world#39;s oldest recipe for a cake, but no one seems to know when exactly it was invented – or where – though it#39;s believed to be named for the Austrian city of Linz.林茨蛋糕被吹捧为世界上最古老的蛋糕,但是没有人知道它出现的确切时间。尽管很多人认为这个蛋糕是根据奥地利的城市林茨命名的,但是也没有人知道这个蛋糕的发源地到底在哪里。The oldest existing version of the recipe was written down by a countess of Verona in 1653 in a cookbook succinctly titled Book of All Kinds of Home-Made Things, Such as Sweet Dishes, Spices, Cakes and also Every Kind of Fruit and Other Good and Useful Things, etc.关于林茨蛋糕的做法,现存最古老的版本在1653年由维罗纳的一个女伯爵写在一本关于烹饪的书中。这本食谱的名字简陋到就叫《家庭DIY之书:包括甜品、香料、蛋糕以及各种水果和其他美观又有用的东西等等》。The Linzer Torte was first commercially produced in the early 19th century, and was introduced to America around 1856.19世纪初期,林茨蛋糕实现首次批量生产销售,并在1856年被引入美国市场。According to the Linz Tourism Board, the traditional recipe features a crumbly pastry base with almonds and lemon zest, a jam filling (traditionally currant – raspberry is not authentic!), topped with a ;well seasoned grid of dough.;根据林茨旅游局的介绍,传统的林茨蛋糕外皮是一层酥脆酥脆的黄金面皮,点缀着杏仁并以柠檬调味,中间有些果酱(传统的醋栗树莓果酱不是真的!),上面放一些调味得当、相互交叠的面团条。It was also referred to as a ;bowl cake,; meaning it was baked in a dish like a pie. A recipe for Linzer Torte can be found on the Official Travel Guide to Austria website.林茨蛋糕也被称为;碗糕;,就跟放在盘子里烘焙的果馅派差不多。关于林茨蛋糕的具体做法可以在奥地利旅游指南官方网站查询。9.El Draque9.猛龙鸡尾酒A ;cocktail; is defined by Merriam-Webster#39;s dictionary as ;an iced drink of wine or distilled liquor mixed with flavoring ingredients.;关于;鸡尾酒;,韦氏词典里面的定义是;一种混合着各种好闻调味料的冰镇葡萄酒或者是蒸馏酒;。According to some, the first cocktail was invented while Sir Francis Drake was stranded near Havana, Cuba in 1586.据一些人说,1586年,德雷克爵士搁浅于古巴哈维那附近时,做出了首杯鸡尾酒。It#39;s said that Drake (or in some versions, his cousin Richard Drake), invented the drink as a medicine to treat ill sailors.据说德雷克爵士(另称是他的表兄弟理查德·德雷克)发明这种酒是为了给一些生病的水手治病。Dubbed ;El Draque,; or ;the dragon,; the beverage combined an early precursor to rum with mint, ginger, limes and cane sugar – similar to the modern mojito.这款被称为;猛龙;的鸡尾酒是由粗制朗姆酒和薄荷、生姜、酸橙以及蔗糖混合而成,味道和现在的莫吉托鸡尾酒很像。Some claim the sailors drank the concoction with a long ;cock tailed; handled spoon, giving rise to the word ;cocktail; (though there are plenty of other theories out there for how the modern word came into existence).有些人称那些水手使用一长长的像是鸡尾巴一样的长柄勺饮用此调配品,称这便是;鸡尾;二字的由来(不过现代对于;鸡尾;这个词到底怎么来的,还有很多不同的观点)。The first recorded use of the term ;cocktail; – referring to a beverage, rather than a rooster or horse – is from an 1803 American publication called the Farmer#39;s Cabinet – and likely referred to a non-alcoholic beverage.第一个记录并使用;鸡尾;一词指代酒饮料,而非鸡或者马的是1803年美国的一名为《农场主内阁》的刊物,在里面;鸡尾酒;指代的是不含酒精的饮料。8.Ashure (Noah#39;s Pudding)8.诺亚布丁If you believe the Turkish legend, the middle-eastern dessert known as ;ashure; (pronounced ;ash-oo-ray;) dates back to the last days of the flood, when Noah and his family were starting to run low on supplies.如果你听过土耳其传说,就可能知道被称为;ashure;(发音为;ash-oo-ray;)的中东甜点要追溯到大洪水发生的最后几天。当时诺亚和他的家人开始出现食物供不应足的情况。According to the legend, Noah gathered up the little bits of grain that were left over, cooked them all in the one pot, and hoped for the best.传说中,诺亚把剩下的一些谷物全放在一个锅里煮,希望能得到更多食物。The result was a delicious sweet dish that fed everyone on board until the waters receded. Hence the other name for ashure – Noah#39;s pudding.结果就是在洪水消退之前,船上的每个人都尝到了了可口的点心。因此也有人称;ashure;为诺亚布丁。There is no formal recipe for ashure, but the standard recipe includes wheat, beans or lentils, dried fruit, nuts, sugar or honey, as well as aromatics such as orange peel or rose petals.对于诺亚布丁,其实没有一份正式的食谱,但是标准的配料有小麦、豆子或小扁豆,果脯、坚果、糖或蜂蜜,也有香料,如橘皮、玫瑰花瓣。In Turkey, the pudding is traditionally made to celebrate the holy day of Ashure – which (among other things) is venerated as the day of Noah#39;s departure from the ark. You can find a modern version of the recipe here.在土耳其,这一布丁传统上是用来庆祝宗教节日;阿述拉日斋戒;的,这一节日(除了别的之外)被尊为诺亚离舟日。你可以在这里找到现代版的诺亚布丁食谱。 /201609/468606。

  • As Harry Potter fans around the world celebrate what many see as the eighth installment of the classic series, multitudes of Chinese ers have faced a big decision: wait for the book#39;s scheduled China release on Oct. 29 or buy a pirated version on Taobao.当世界各地的《哈利波特》迷,为很多人视为经典的该系列第八部图书而欢呼雀跃的时候,很多中国读者却面临着一个重大的决定:是等待在10月29日发布的中文预售版,还是在淘宝上购买盗版。Indeed, ;Harry Potter and the Cursed Child; is aly available on e-commerce giant Taobao.com, with a cover design resembling the English edition, which was released on July 31.在电子商务巨头淘宝网站上,现在确实已经可以买到《哈利波特与被诅咒的孩子》了,其封面设计与于7月31日发售的英文版很相似。The pirated Chinese edition lists the book#39;s official Chinese publisher, People#39;s Literature Publishing House, and credits the series#39; official Chinese translators, Ma Ainong and Ma Aixin.这些盗版的中文图书中标注了该书的中国官方出版社--人民文学出版社,并以该系列的中国官方译者马爱农与马爱新署名。While the publisher reportedly ordered Taobao to remove the pirated books being sold by 54 stores, many more could still be found as of press time.据报道,虽然出版社责令淘宝网删除54家商店出售的盗版图书,但是截至记者发稿时,仍然可以在该网站上看到很多盗版图书。A number of the stores offered exclusive early sales incentives with delicate packaging and limited editions. Some even came with gifts like Hogwarts bookmarks and stationary.很多商家提供了包装精美、限量版、国内独家首发的宣传语。有些甚至还附赠像霍格沃茨书签和文具之类的礼物。The books are mostly priced between 28 and 78 RMB. The sellers are largely based in Shanghai and Guangdong. Some top sellers claim to have sold more than 1,000 pirated books.这些盗版书大多售价在28到78元之间。卖家主要是来自在上海和广东。一些畅销卖家声称已售出1000多册盗版图书。People#39;s Literature Publishing House guessed that the books had been translated by various underground translators after the English version was released, and then hurriedly printed so as to be made available before the official Chinese release.人民文学出版社猜测,这些盗版书是在英文版发布之后,经由各种地下译者翻译,再匆匆印制,赶在官方中国版发布之前出售的。 /201610/471445。
  • Some relationships are unforgettable - and unfortunately the same goes for some break-ups.有些爱情让人难以忘怀--但是不幸的是,有些分手也是如此。A question posted on Reddit asked users to share the cruellest words they#39;ve ever heard upon being dumped.一个发布在Reddit上的问题,让人们大谈自己在被甩时听到的最残忍的话。More than 2,000 responses flooded in from broken-hearted Reddit users who recalled admissions of cheating, or being told their now ex wanted freedom - only to find out soon after they#39;d aly moved onto someone new.有超过2000名心碎的Reddit用户回忆了自己的经历,他们有的人经历了另一半出轨,有的人经历了另一半说“现在不想谈恋爱,但是不久之后却发现对方已和新欢如胶似漆”的惨痛经历。Other Redditors revealed how they#39;d been the ones to unleash harsh words on a former love.而其他Reddit用户则表透露,自己才是那个分手时放狠话的人。One said they told the person they were breaking up with they#39;d been unfaithful no less than 13 times.有人表示,他们在分手时对另一半说了自己已经出轨了13次。Another admitted to telling someone they were merely a #39;distraction from my future#39;.而另一类人则坦承,自己曾向对方说:“你只是在阻碍我的人生。”Another man who#39;d experienced a painful break-up recalled how a former girlfriend blamed his hair loss, and someone else said he was told #39;your brother is better in bed#39;.另一名经历一次痛心分手的男性用户则回忆了前女友是如何嫌弃自己秃顶的,而其他人甚至还被告知“你兄弟在床上比你厉害多了”。 /201705/506901。
  • People tend to engage in unpleasant but necessary activities, such as paying bills or doing housework, when they are in a good mood and choose pleasurable activities as a way to feel better when they are in a bad mood, according to new research by a psychologist at Stanford University.根据斯坦福大学一位心理学家的一项新研究显示,人们在愉悦状态下倾向于处理一些必要却痛苦的事项,比如买单或者做家务。而情绪消极时,又会选择做一些愉快的事情。;These findings clarify how emotions shape behavior and may explain how humans trade off short-term happiness for long-term welfare,; said James Gross, a professor of psychology who studies emotions and how people control or regulate their emotions.研究情绪以及人们如何控制情绪的心理学教授詹姆斯·格罗斯表示:“这些研究剖析了人类的情感如何塑造其行为,并揭示了人类如何在短期快感与长期幸福间寻求平衡。”;Overcoming such trade-offs might be critical for our personal well-being and our survival as a species.;“正确处理这种平衡关系对于个体的健康乃至人类种族的生存都是至关重要的。”In their study, Gross and his fellow researchers used a smartphone app to randomly survey the activities and moods of more than 60,000 people over an average of 27 days, and found that mood plays a strong role in how people decide to spend their time each day.在研究中,格罗斯和和他的团队利用一款手机应用,来随机调查记录了6万名接受测试者在27天内的行为和情绪。结果显示,心情对于人们决定如何度过每一天起着非常重要的作用。Gross and his co-authors of a paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences call this dynamic ;hedonic flexibility,; namely people tend to use their good mood as a resource, allowing them to work on challenges, thus delaying short-term gratification for long-term benefits, such as regular sleep, stable employment and a clean, well-organized personal environment, all of which are linked to good mental and physical health.格罗斯和合著作者发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇文章将这个动态过程称为“快乐的灵活性”,即人们将积极情绪视为资源,用以消耗在挑战性工作中,推迟短期满足感从而获取长期幸福感。比如规律的睡眠、稳定的雇佣关系、清洁有序的个人环境等,这些均有助于提高我们的心理和生理健康水平。The study showed that ;hedonic flexibility; was consistently practiced in a range of daily choices made by respondents, such as when an upbeat mood helps one endure a long line at, say, the post office or grocery.研究显示,“快乐的灵活性”始终如一的体现在受试者的一系列日常选择中,比如积极的情绪能帮助人们忍受在邮局或者杂货店排起的长队。Suggesting that the ability of people to leverage a ;good; mood to complete important but unpleasant tasks and use a ;bad; mood to experience pleasurable activities may hold the key to happiness and well-being.格罗斯认为,利用积极情绪来完成重要却不那么愉快的事,利用消极情绪来感受愉悦,这可能是幸福快乐的真谛。Gross said the research confirms how human emotions shape behavior and may help persons become less focused on short-term pleasure and more centered on long-term stability.他表示,该研究确认了人们的情感如何塑造其行为,并帮助人们少追求短期快感,更专注于培养获取长期幸福的能力。 /201609/466157。
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