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福州子宫肌瘤哪个医院治的好福州妇科医院网站福州哪家做人流更安全 If the human genome is the book of life, then Crispr technology is its Microsoft Word. The cut-and-paste technique, invented only three years ago, can be used on fledgling genomes to snip out bits of DNA and, if required, insert new stretches.如果说人类基因组是生命之书,那么Crispr技术就是用来编写这本书的Microsoft Word。这种基因“剪切和粘贴”技术3年前才问世,可用于从初露端倪的基因组中剪除DNA片段,如有需要,还可向基因组中插入新的片段。The amendments are permanent and can be passed down the generations. The technology works on mice and men; a team in China recently revealed they had partially succeeded in excising the gene for beta thalassaemia, an inherited blood disorder, from a human embryo. It is a wonder society is not yet spooked by what could be a defining technology for the future of humanity.这种修改是永久性的,可以代代相传。这种技术可以用于小鼠和人类;中国的一个科研小组最近透露,他们从一个人类胚胎上切除β-地中海贫血症(一种遗传性血液疾病)基因的操作取得了部分成功。奇怪的是,这种可能界定人类未来的技术还未震惊社会。Crispr — short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats — is the simplest of a suite of new gene-editing technologies, and is a trick borrowed from the bacterial immune system. Bacteria, when invaded by a virus, deploy “molecular scissors” — a DNA-cutting enzyme that chops up the invader. Pair the scissors with a guiding molecule capable of directing the blades to a specific point, and you are y to edit a genome. After the DNA is severed, cellular repair machinery kicks in to close the gap and the embryo continues to develop. This is how the Chinese scientists banished the mutant gene from their human embryo.Crispr是“规律成簇的间隔短回文重复”(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)的简称,是一套新的基因编辑技术中最简单的一种,借鉴了细菌的免疫系统。当细菌遭到病毒的入侵时,会使用“分子剪刀”——一种DNA内切酶来切掉入侵者。将分子剪刀与一个能将“刀锋”引导到特定点的分子进行配对,你就能够对基因组进行编辑了。DNA被切除后,细胞修复机制开始发挥作用,接合断裂的部分,胚胎继续发育。这就是中国科学家从人类胚胎中去除突变基因的方法。The deletion was not perfect. It was carried out in a non-viable embryo so we will never know if it would have developed into a thalassaemia-free baby. Nonetheless, the research was so controversial that both Nature and Science declined to publish it. But publication elsewhere in April ignited a debate that still burns. A group of mostly US biologists has called for a moratorium, noting that modifications to the human germ line (changes that would be passed down generations) constituted a Rubicon not to be crossed lightly. UK scientists, working in a tight regulatory regime, are loath to back this call given the risk to basic science.这一切除还不完美。由于实验是在一个不能存活的胚胎上进行的,我们永远无从得知这个胚胎能否发育成一个不会患地中海贫血症的婴儿。尽管如此,这项研究极富争议性,以至于《自然》(Nature)和《科学》(Science)都拒绝发表这项研究。但该研究今年4月发表在别处,引发了一场仍在激烈展开的辩论。以美国生物学家为主的一组科学家呼吁中止研究,指出对人类生殖细胞系的修改(这种修改会代代相传)是一条不可轻率跨过的界线。在严格的监管制度下工作的英国科学家考虑到对基础科学构成的风险,不愿呼应前者的呼吁。This reluctance to impede fundamental research is shared by Jennifer Doudna of University of California, Berkeley, who co-invented Crispr and won a m Breakthrough prize last year (she is also tipped for a Nobel). US politicians, however, are twitchy; a proposal being considered in Congress would ban the Food and Drug Administration from approving clinical applications in human embryos.美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的珍妮弗#8226;杜德纳(Jennifer Doudna)也不太情愿阻碍基础研究,她是Crispr技术的发明者之一,去年赢得了300万美元的“突破奖”(Breakthrough Prize)(很多人认为她还将获得诺贝尔奖)。然而,美国政界人士焦虑不安;国会正在考虑一项禁止美国食品药品监督(FDA)批准人类胚胎相关临床应用的法案。The cancellation of human disease at genome level, which affects an individual and all their descendants, requires contemplation beyond the laboratory — by philosophers, lawyers, clerics and the public. This has been absent. In the UK there has been febrile discussion over the prospect of creating “three-parent babies”using donated mitochondrial DNA; but genome editing could be capable of far greater things, and affects nuclear DNA — from which we derive our genetic identity.在基因组层面消除人类疾病,将影响个人及其所有后代,这需要实验室以外的社会各界进行考量——哲学家、律师、宗教人士和公众。而这些人现在缺席。在英国,人们正在热烈讨论使用捐献的线粒体DNA生育“三亲婴儿”的前景;但基因组编辑能够做到更加伟大的事情,它会影响我们获得遗传特征的来源——核DNA。Inserting new genes, which has yet to be carried out in human embryos, raises further questions. If, in one embryo, I paste in a royal flush of genes conferring resistance to Ebola, cancer and Alzheimer’s, have I created a superhuman? Will perfect health become the preserve of the super-rich? Start-ups such as Editas Medicine of the US are aly gambling on this. We may one day have unaltered people living alongside a younger, gene-edited generation.目前新基因插入还未在人类胚胎上进行过,这种技术提出了更多问题。如果我向一个胚胎插入一套基因,使其获得对埃拉、癌症和阿尔茨海默病的抗性,我是否创造了一个超人?完美的健康会不会成为超级富豪的专属?美国的Editas Medicine等初创公司已经启动这场豪赌。有一天,未曾进行基因修改的人或许会和更年轻、进行过基因编辑的一代人共同生活在一个世界上。That the discussion has not gone fully public might be because genome- editing technology is complex — and because, un#173;like with mitochondrial disease, there are no heart-wrenching personal tales on which to hang the debate. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, a UK-based charity, is considering genome-editing; its views cannot come too soon.这场讨论还未完全公开,或许是因为基因编辑技术比较复杂,也可能是因为不像线粒体疾病的相关技术,这场辩论无法用催人泪下的个人故事大做文章。英国慈善机构纳菲尔德生命伦理委员会(Nuffield Council on Bioethics)正在考虑基因组编辑;该委员会的意见让人期待。Imagining ourselves as glorified books, penned in the language of genes, is a fitting analogy as we muddle on. At some point, society must decide whether any person deserves to be a perfect piece of prose, or whether we should each remain an unedited thriller with an unpredictable ending.在我们继续摸索之际,一个合适的类比是把我们自己想象成一本用基因语言书写的精的书。在某个时间点,社会必须决定,是不是有任何人应该成为一篇完美的散文,还是该保持现状,继续做一篇未经编辑的、结尾不可预测的惊险小说? /201507/383905If you’re like a lot of Americans, one of your New Year’s resolutions is to work out more. If you’re like a lot of Americans, you’ll join a gym this January as part of that plan. And if you’re like a lot of Americans, you won’t go very much.你是不是和很多美国人一样,新年规划之一是要多锻炼,并在今年1月为此办了一张健身卡,但实际上却不会常去?Our overoptimism about how much we will work out has been the subject of academic research. Nearly a decade ago, the economists Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier published “Paying Not to Go to the Gym,” a paper in which they found that members at three Boston gyms went an average of 4.3 times a month. With monthly membership fees of just over , that meant an average of per visit — well above the charge to work out as a nonmember.关于我们对自己会进行多少锻炼过分乐观的问题,一直是学术研究的对象。近10年前,经济学者斯特凡诺·德拉维尼亚(Stefano DellaVigna)和乌尔丽克·马尔门迪尔(Ulrike Malmendier)发表了一篇名为《付了钱却不去健身》(Paying Not to Go to the Gym)的文章。他们在研究中发现,波士顿三家健身房的会员平均每月去4.3次。在月会员费略高于70美元(约合440元人民币)的情况下,这意味着每去一次平均花费17美元,远高于非会员锻炼一次10美元的收费。So why didn’t they just pay per visit? Because they overestimated how often they would go. The authors surveyed gym members who, on average, said they would work out about 9.5 times a month, more than twice the actual attendance observed in the study. People remained in denial about their gym attendance even after they’d stopped going entirely: On average, nonattending gym members did not cancel until 2.3 months after their last visit, paying for 7 worth of completely unused gym access.那么,他们为什么不每次单独交钱呢?因为他们高估了自己去健身的频率。文章作者对健身房会员做了一项调查。受访者希望平均每月锻炼9.5次,是研究中观察到的实际次数的两倍多。甚至在彻底不去了以后,人们也依然不愿承认自己去健身房的实际频率。不再去的人注销会员资格的时间,与他们最后一次去平均相隔2.3个月,也就是说他们花187美元买的务根本没用过。Lightly used gym memberships aren’t limited to Boston. The last annual shareholder filing from Town Sports International, the parent company of New York Sports Clubs, showed the company had 497,000 members making 29.1 million annual visits; that is, the average member visited five times a month.健身房会员资格利用不充分的情况并不仅限于波士顿。纽约运动俱乐部(New York Sports Clubs)的母公司城镇运动国际(Town Sports International)最新的一份年度股东备案文件显示,公司有49.7万名会员,全年的健身人次是2910万,即平均每名会员每月去五次。Since pay-now, work out-later isn’t working as a strategy, economists have been searching for other solutions to get people into the gym more often.由于“现在付钱、以后锻炼”的策略不起作用,经济学家们一直在寻找其他解决方案,以提高人们去健身房的频率。“We describe a field experiment measuring the impact of bundling instantly gratifying but guilt-inducing ‘want’ experiences (enjoying page-turner audiobooks) with valuable ‘should’ behaviors providing delayed rewards (exercising),” wrote the economists Katherine Milkman, Julia Minson and Kevin Volpp of Wharton in a 2013 research paper. They gave Penn undergraduates free iPods loaded with audiobooks of their choice, but told them they could listen to them only at the gym.“我们描述的是一项实地试验,衡量将‘想做’的事情和‘应该做’的事情结合在一起的效应。‘想做’的是当时令人高兴但却会引起内疚的事情(听引人入胜的有声读物),而‘应该做’的是有价值且会在日后带来回馈的事情(锻炼),”沃顿商学院的经济学者凯瑟琳·米尔克曼(Katherine Milkman)、朱莉娅·明森(Julia Minson)和凯文·沃尔普(Kevin Volpp)在2013年的一篇研究论文中写道。他们给宾夕法尼亚大学的本科生提供免费的iPod,里面有学生自己选择的有声读物,但又要求学生,只能在健身房里听。This worked for a while: The undergrads given the iPods went to the gym about 50 percent more often than others who were just given a Barnes amp; Noble gift card to spend as they pleased. (A third group, given a book iPod to take home but encouraged to listen only at the gym, placed in between the other two.) But that lasted for about seven weeks. Thanksgiving break came, and the students returned to school having fallen out of love with their audiobooks; they no longer worked out more than their peers in the control group.这个办法一度奏效:得到了iPod的本科生去健身房的频率,比只拿到了巴诺书店(Barnes amp; Noble)礼品卡且可以自行决定其用途的学生高出了大约50%。(还有一个小组的学生也得到了有声读物。研究人员让他们把有声读物存在自己家里的iPod上,但鼓励他们只在健身房听。这组学生去健身房的频率介于另外两组之间。)但这种情况只持续了大约七周。感恩节假期结束后,返校的学生已经不再受到有声读物的诱惑,锻炼的频率也不再高于控制组的成员。“It was a bummer from the perspective that we’d like to design interventions that work forever,” said Ms. Milkman. But she also noted that there are lots of opportunities to try again. Gym visits don’t just pick up at New Year’s but at the start of each week, each semester, after holidays, and even after birthdays (though not 21st birthdays). The key is getting one of the fresh starts to stick.“从我们希望设计永久有效的干预这个角度来说,这种结果令人失望,”米尔克曼说。不过她也指出,有很多重新尝试的机会。去健身房的人次增加不仅出现在新年伊始,也出现在每周和每学期开始的时候,以及节假日甚至生日(但并不包括达到合法饮酒年龄的那个生日)过后。关键是让其中一种坚持下去。Heather Royer, an economist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, thinks she has hit on a way. In partnership with a Fortune 500 company, she and her research partners ran an experiment that combined two interventions: One to get people to start going to the gym, and another to keep them there. For four weeks, the company paid its employees to work out, per visit up to three times a week. After those four weeks, there were no more payments, but some workers were offered a “commitment contract”: They could set aside their own money that would be released to them only if they worked out over the next two months; otherwise, it would be given away to charity.加州大学圣巴巴拉分校(University of California, Santa Barbara)的经济学者希瑟·罗耶(Heather Royer)认为自己发现了一种方法。她和研究伙伴与一家财富500强(Fortune 500)公司合作,进行了一项实验,将两种干预结合起来:一种是让人们开始去健身,另一种是让他们坚持下去。在四周的时间里,这家公司出钱让员工去锻炼,每次奖励10美元,一周最多三次。四周过后,公司不再发钱,但部分员工签署了一份“承诺合约”:他们自己留出一部分钱,接下来两个月如果坚持锻炼,就会还给他们;如果没能坚持锻炼,这些钱将被捐给慈善机构。Even though those commitment contracts ended three months after the start of the study, the effects on workout frequency persisted for years: Three years after the study, the workers who had been offered the contracts remained 20 percent more likely to work out than those who had not been offered any incentives. By inducing a habit with cash payments, and then reinforcing that habit with self-funded payments, the researchers were able to permanently change workout habits for at least some people.尽管这类承诺合约在研究开始三个月后就到期了,但它们对锻炼频率的影响却持续了多年:研究项目过去三年后,当初签署合约的员工健身的几率,依然比那些什么激励都没得到的人高20%。通过用现金奖励的方式培养一种习惯,然后再用自己出钱的方式来巩固习惯,研究人员永久性地改变了至少部分人的锻炼习惯。The researchers at Wharton also found demand for continuing self-control devices: After study completion, 61 percent of subjects said they’d be willing to pay for gym-only audio books as a measure to help themselves work out.沃顿商学院的研究人员还发现,需要有持续性的自我控制策略:研究结束后,61%的实验对象表示愿意出钱购买只能在健身房听的有声读物,以此作为促进他们锻炼的手段。So why don’t gyms offer these kinds of devices to drive members to work out more?那么,健身房为何不提供这类措施,促使会员多锻炼呢?“They have a little bit of a conflict of interest,” says Richard Thaler, a behavioral economist at the University of Chicago. The fact that lots of people join gyms and rarely go to them isn’t great for our national waistline, but it’s pretty good for people who own gyms. “If they succeeded in getting people to go to the gym three times a week instead of three times a month, they wouldn’t be able to have as many members.”“这里有一点利益冲突,”芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)行为经济学家理查德·塞勒(Richard Thaler)说。很多人办了健身卡却很少去这个事实,对国民腰围不利,但对健身房老板却很有利。“如果他们成功地让人们一周去三次健身房,而不是一个月三次,可能就没法接纳那么多会员了。”The more promising avenue may be employers. Ms. Royer hopes to later demonstrate not just that commitment contracts work to get employees to the gym, but also that they save employers enough through improved health to be worth paying for.更靠谱的途径可能在于雇主。罗耶随后希望明,承诺合约不仅可以颇有成效地促使雇员去健身房,还可以通过改善员工的健康,为雇主省下足够多的钱,从而让雇主的投入物有所值。For now, you can use a service like Stickk to set up your own commitment contract: Promise to go to the gym, and set aside money that will be given to charity if you don’t. For extra incentive, you can even use an anti-charity: If you don’t work out, your money will be given to a cause you hate. That’s more likely to keep you working out through beach season than simply paying up front for a gym membership.目前,你可以用Stickk等务制定自己的承诺合约:承诺去健身房,并留出一些钱,如果不去便捐给慈善机构。如果需要额外的激励,你甚至可以利用自己不喜欢的机构:如果不锻炼,你的钱就会捐给你讨厌的某项事业。和预先花钱办健身房会员卡相比,这种做法更有可能让你在整个去沙滩游玩的季节坚持锻炼。 /201502/357880晋安区治疗不孕不育多少钱

罗源县产前检查多少钱HUE, Vietnam — This is a city of edifices and their ghosts.越南顺化——这座城市关乎建筑,以及与这些建筑有关的魂灵。Straddling the Perfume River in central Vietnam, Hue was the seat of the last imperial dynasty, and it has long been known for what the Nguyen emperors left behind: the imposing walled Citadel with its former palaces and pleasure gardens; the ornate royal tombs scattered across the verdant hills; and the wooden villas of their mandarins.顺化是最后一个王朝的都城所在之地,位于越南中部的香江从这里横穿而过。长期以来,它一直因为阮氏王朝的遗迹而闻名:围墙环绕的皇城庄严肃穆,里面是旧时的宫殿和宜人的花园;装饰华丽的皇家陵墓散落在翠绿的山坡各处;还有不少阮朝官员的木质别墅。These buildings have endured the infamous Hue weather — dank and misty and gray much of the year — and the brutality of modern armies. Some of the bloodiest urban combat the ed States Marines have ever faced took place in the Citadel during the 1968 Tet offensive, a battle depicted in Stanley Kubrick’s “Full Metal Jacket.”这些建筑经受住了顺化臭名昭著的天气——在这里,一年中的大部分时间都潮湿、雾气萦绕、灰蒙蒙的。它们也经受了现代军队的暴行,美国海军陆战队所面临的一些最血腥的城市战斗,就在1968年的春节攻势期间发生在皇城。斯坦利·库布里克(Stanley Kubrick)在《全金属外壳》(Full Metal Jacket)中呈现了这场战斗。The monuments have also withstood decades of rule by the Communist Party, despite being symbols of the feudal traditions the party was trying to exorcise from Vietnam.这些具有历史意义的建筑物还经受住了共产党数十年的统治,尽管它们代表着共产党试图从越南消除的封建传统。But what weather, war and ideology had not yet undone, a newer threat may: the economic boom that has been transforming the character of this central Vietnamese city of 340,000 people in recent years. Preservationists are struggling to ensure that officials, businesspeople and residents here properly protect Hue’s heritage.但那些并未被天气、战争和意识形态破坏的东西,可能会被一种新的威胁破坏。在这个位于越南中部,拥有34万人口的城市,近些年来经济的繁荣一直在改变城市的面貌。保育人士正艰难地确保当地官员、商人,以及居民保护顺化的文化遗产。A freeway now runs through hills facing the baroque tomb of Khai Dinh, a Nguyen emperor, compromising the tomb’s feng shui, or geomantic qualities. A tourist resort has been built along the Perfume, a languid, tree-lined waterway, and there is talk of apartment towers being erected within sight of the Citadel’s ramparts.如今,一条高速公路贯穿阮朝皇帝启定(Khai Dinh)巴洛克式皇陵对面的山丘,破坏了这座皇陵的风水。水流缓慢的香江沿岸绿树成荫,这里出现了一座度假村,有人在谈论要在离皇城城墙不远的地方建造公寓大楼。All the while, the city’s climate remains as persistent a threat as time.这个城市的气候也像时间一样,一直是一个持久的威胁。“The humidity makes it hard to restore,” said Truong Dinh Luat, 47, a Hue native, as he guided visitors around the Citadel on a recent morning. Bullet holes from 1968 still scarred some walls, and the rubble of fallen stonework lay in small piles in a few areas. “The workers have a tough job,” he said.“潮湿的空气使修复工作变得很困难,”47岁的当地居民张营律(Truong Dinh Luat)最近一天上午带着游客在皇城周围参观时说。他说,“工人们的工作很艰难。”一些墙壁上仍然能看到1968年留下的弹孔,一些地方还有倒塌石雕留下的成堆碎石。William Logan, a scholar of heritage and conservation at Deakin University in Australia, sounded an alarm over the challenges to preservation last October at a conference on wooden architecture here. He said that Hue’s monuments were at risk of losing the World Heritage Site status bestowed by Unesco, the ed Nations cultural agency.澳大利亚迪肯大学(Deakin University)遗产及保护学者威廉·洛根(William Logan)去年10月在顺化参加一场有关木质建筑的会议时对保护工作面临的挑战提出了警告。他表示,顺化的历史遗迹可能会失去联合国教科文组织(Unesco)授予的世界文化遗产的称号。“If the province fails to monitor and better manage its preservation of the monuments, the entire complex’s overall value will certainly be hugely undermined,” Professor Logan said, according to a report by Tuoi Tre News, a Vietnamese state-run newspaper.越南官方报纸《青年报》(Tuoi Tre News)报道称,洛根表示,“如果该省没能监督或更好地开展历史遗迹保护,整个遗迹的总价值肯定会遭到极大程度的损害。”Professor Logan expanded on his remarks in a telephone interview. “If the problems aren’t addressed, the World Heritage Committee can consider putting the property on the World Heritage Endangered List,” he said. “No country likes that. It’s a loss of face. It can impact negatively on tourism.”洛根教授在一次电话采访中进一步阐述了他的观点,“如果问题得不到处理,世界遗产委员会将考虑把当地的古迹列进濒危世界遗产名录”,他说,“那是任何一个国家都不想看到的。因为这是丢面子的事情,会对旅游业产生负面影响。”“Heritage is fairly low down on the list for governments — they all want development,” he added. “It’s hard to convince governments they can have heritage and development at the same time.”“文化遗产的问题对政府而言不是特别重要——他们都希望经济得到发展,”他还说,“很难让政府相信文物保护与经济发展两者之间并不相互冲突。”Tourism in Hue got a boost in 1993 when the city’s major sites were given World Heritage status. No other city in Vietnam is as boastful of this honor as Hue is. Signs outside the Citadel and the Nguyen royal tombs declare that last December, officials recognized the 30 millionth person to visit the city since the designation.1993年,这个城市的主要景点被授予了世界遗产称号,当地的旅游业得到了飞速的发展。与越南其他城市相比,没有哪一个城市比顺化更加强调这一荣誉的。皇城和阮朝皇家陵墓外的告示牌上写着,官方在去年12月宣布,这座城市迎来了自获得世界遗产称号以来的第30亿位游客。The Nguyen Dynasty made Hue its capital from 1802 to 1945. The Citadel was begun by one emperor, Gia Long, and completed 29 years later by his successor, Minh Mang, who was known in part for having had 142 children with scores of women. (Numbers vary, but some accounts say he had a total of 500 wives and concubines, kept in the Purple Forbidden City deep inside the Citadel.)阮朝从1802年至1945年间将顺化设立为都城。皇城的建造始于嘉隆皇帝,在其继任者明命皇帝在位时完工,历时29年。明命帝的一个出名事迹是和数十个女人(具体数字各方说法不一,也有说他在皇城深处的紫禁城内养着500名妻妾)生了142个子女。In lanes near the Citadel are nha ruong — wooden garden homes that once housed mandarins and other personalities of note — and more modern villas built late in the imperial period. Though not recognized as World Heritage Sites, those houses have their proud residents.皇城附近的街巷里有nha ruong——一种木结构花园住宅,曾经是官吏和其他显耀人士的宅邸——以及建造于帝国时代晚期的现代别墅。这些建筑虽然没有被确认为世界遗产,但是住在里面的居民以此为傲。“I still believe in the heritage of Hue,” said Hoang Xuan Bat, 83, as he sat in the dark living room of a European-style manor dating to 1910. “I respect its history, and want to tell foreigners about it when they visit, but I can’t speak English.”“我对顺化的文化遗产仍然有信心”,83岁的晃轩巴特(Hoang Xuan Bat)坐在一座建造于1910年的欧式庄园建筑的黑暗客厅里说。“我尊重它的历史,并且把它介绍给来此参观的外国人,但我不会说英语。”When it rains in Hue, which is often, some of the challenges to conservation become obvious. One wet morning in a throne room of the Citadel, pools of water collected on the floor in front of the gold-painted throne. More pools could be seen along a wood-planked hallway.雨水经常光顾顺化,一些文物保护的难题开始凸显。在一个下雨的早晨,皇城的一座大殿里,刷着金漆的宝座前的地面上有几处积水。铺着木板的走廊上还有更多积水。“Every time it rains, water comes down from the roof,” said Mr. Truong, the tour guide, whose father was a soldier for South Vietnam and was on home leave in Hue when the Tet offensive began. Mr. Truong said his father threw his uniform into the Perfume River to avoid repercussions as the North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces advanced, and then attached himself to the ed States Marines as an interpreter when they arrived to retake the city.“每次下雨时,都会有雨水从屋顶漏下来,”导游张庭选说。他的父亲曾是一名南越士兵,春节攻势开始时正回到顺化的家中休假,眼看北越和越共部队节节推进,父亲为避免麻烦把军扔进香江,当美国海军陆战队到达并夺回这座城市时,他做了一名随军翻译。Much of the Citadel was destroyed in the fighting, he said, but the former imperial library was not, so it was possible to restore it. Its interior has been given new wooden beams and doors, and construction workers were there during a recent visit, wearing masks and walking on a layer of sawdust.他说皇城有相当一部分毁于战火,但是前帝国图书馆却得以幸免,因此这是有可能被恢复的。在他最近的一次游览中看到,建筑内部已经重新安装了新的木梁和门,一群戴着口罩建筑工人走在一层木头碎屑上。Professor Logan said he was concerned that property developers might gain permission to build high-rise towers around the Citadel and other sensitive sites. He said nothing should be built there that extends above the treetop canopy.洛根教授说,他担心的是房地产开发商有可能取得环绕皇宫和其他敏感位置建造高楼的许可。他说在那里的建筑不应该高于树冠。At the request of the World Heritage Committee, the Hue Monuments Conservation Center, a government organization, is drafting a plan to improve conservation of the sites. Phan Thanh Hai, director of the conservation center, said that “Hue history may be the most impressive” in all of Vietnam because Hue was once the home of “many skillful craftsmen, famous poets and intellectuals.”在世界遗产委员会的要求之下,一家名为顺化古迹保护中心(Hue Monuments Conservation Center)的政府机构正在起草一项计划,旨在更好地保护古迹。中心主任潘清海(Phan Thanh Hai)说,由于曾经生活着“许许多多的能工巧匠,著名诗人和知识分子”,顺化也许是越南“最有历史底蕴的城市”。But he acknowledged that Hue’s monuments had suffered from “inappropriate management” around the historic sites, as well as “impacts from natural disaster, and from harmful insects, microorganisms as well as fungi on wooden components.”但他也承认,顺化历史遗迹周边的古迹遭受了“不恰当的管理”,此外还有“来自自然灾害、有害昆虫、微生物以及木构件上的真菌的不利影响”。Professor Logan has suggested that Vietnam try to nominate Hue for Unesco designation as a Cultural Landscape that would make a whole stretch of the city a protected site. Ideally, he said, the area would include a green wedge of land running southwest from the Citadel as well as the Perfume and the mausoleums in the south.洛根教授曾建议越南向联合国教科文组织提名顺化为文化景观(Cultural Landscape),这将使受保护的范围延伸至整个城市。在理想的情况下,他说,受保护的地区将会包括一块西南走向的绿色楔形区域,从皇城开始,沿着香江达到位于南部的陵墓群。“It’s the river that binds all the serial sites together,” he said. “Bodies were taken up and down the river to be buried.”“河流将这一系列古迹联系在了一起,”他说,“皇帝的遗体葬在河的沿岸各处。”Traditionally, an emperor who died would lie in state at the Citadel, and then would be carried by boat to a tomb that he would have had built during his lifetime. Some emperors even spent leisure time at the tombs they built, drinking wine and composing poetry. That was the case with Tu Duc, the fourth Nguyen emperor, whose tomb has a small lake with a wooden pavilion.传统上,逝世的皇帝将会先安置在皇城中供人瞻仰,然后用船运送至花费其一生时间所建造的陵墓。有的皇帝甚至会在为自己建造的陵园里度过其闲暇时间,在那里饮酒作诗。阮朝第四位皇帝嗣德就是这样,他的陵园里有一个小湖和一座木亭。Officials allowed a two-lane highway to be built toward Tu Duc’s tomb years ago, but construction was halted before it reached the mausoleum. The tomb remains intact, with a symbol made of glazed blue tiles on one wall that means “long life.”几年前官方批准了一条通往嗣德陵的双车道高速公路,但是路还没修到陵墓就停工了。陵园保存完好,其中一面墙上有用蓝色瓷砖拼成的符号,寓意“长寿”。 /201505/373687福州市第二医院做产检价格 Among the books, periodicals and letters found in Osama bin Laden’s hide-out in Pakistan was a copy of the former C.I.A. officer Michael Scheuer’s 2004 book, “Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror,” which describes the founder of Al Qaeda as “the most respected, loved, romantic, charismatic and perhaps able figure in the last 150 years of Islamic history.”奥萨马·本·拉登(Osama bin Laden)在巴基斯坦藏匿期间的书籍、期刊和信件中,有一本前中情局官员迈克尔·朔伊尔(Michael Scheuer)2004年的著作《帝国的傲慢:西方为何在反恐战争中失败》(Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror),书中把这位基地组织(Al Qaeda)的创始人描述为“近150年来的伊斯兰历史上最受尊敬与热爱,最浪漫,最有人格魅力,或许也是最有能力的人物”。Also in his library was a copy of Michel Chossudovsky’s conspiracy-minded book “America’s ‘War on Terrorism,’ ” which argued that the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks were simply a pretext for American incursions into the Middle East, and that Bin Laden was nothing but a boogeyman created by the ed States.他的藏书中还有一本米歇尔·科塞多夫斯基(Michel Chossudovsky)的《美国的“反恐战争”》(America’s ‘War on Terrorism)。这本书持阴谋论观点,认为2001年9月11日的恐怖袭击只是美国入侵中东的借口,本·拉登只是被美国凭空创造出来的恶魔。These books and others, along with dozens of journal articles and magazine clippings, were found when a Navy SEAL team raided Bin Laden’s compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in 2011. Declassified on Wednesday, they highlight the Qaeda leader’s fascination with the West. They also illustrate the efforts he made to understand America (the better to fight it) and his need to confirm his own beliefs about its rapacity and corruption (perhaps to justify his terrorist attacks).2011年,海豹突击队袭击了本·拉登在巴基斯坦阿伯塔巴德藏匿的院落,除了这两本书,他们还发现了其他书籍以及数十份期刊文章和杂志剪贴。上周三,这些资料得到解密,它们表明了本·拉登对西方世界的兴趣,也明他试图理解美国(并且更好地与之战斗),并且需要借着美国的腐败与贪婪来确认自身的信仰(或许也需要它们来将自己的恐怖主义袭击正当化)。It should not come as a surprise that the terrorist leader was concerned with his legacy and world image — after all, he was famously recorded watching of himself on television. Holed up in Abbottabad for perhaps as long as five years without an Internet connection, Bin Laden had plenty of time to about himself, Al Qaeda and his enemy, the ed States.这位恐怖主义的领袖关心自己的思想遗产和在世界上的形象,这显然并不出人意料,毕竟,他喜欢看电视上自己的录像,这是出了名的。本·拉登在阿伯塔巴德隐居了差不多有五年,不能上互联网,所以有充分的时间阅读关于自己、基地组织和美国敌人的书籍。Bin Laden learned English at an elite Western-style high school in Jidda, Saudi Arabia, where he was by most accounts a serious student, and his library suggests that he spent his last years in hiding as a student again — but a student of terrorism, fixated on American imperialism.本·拉登早年在沙特阿拉伯吉达市的一所西方式精英中学学习英语,大多数人回忆当年的他是个严肃认真的学生。这份书单表明,在人生最后几年里,藏匿中的本·拉登又重新成了一个学生——不过学的是专门针对美帝国主义的恐怖主义。The declassified list released by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence includes art books (“Arabic Calligraphy Workshop”) and health books (“Grappler’s Guide to Sports Nutrition”) described as “documents probably used by other compound residents.” Bin Laden’s books, however, appear pretty much work-related — little or no recreational ing, it seems, for the Qaeda leader.这份解密资料由国家情报总监办公室公布,书单内还包括《阿拉伯语书法研究》(Arabic Calligraphy Workshop)等艺术书籍和《摔跤运动员营养指南》(Grappler’s Guide to Sports Nutrition)等健康书籍,官员们说,“这些东西可能是院落里其他居住者们使用的”。不过本·拉登自己读的书显然都是和工作相关的,几乎没有什么消遣性的阅读材料。Some of the books are mainstream history or journalism: “Obama’s Wars” by Bob Woodward, “The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers” by Paul Kennedy, “The ed States and Vietnam 1787-1941” by Robert Hopkins Miller. Others are conspiracy-mongering tomes like “Bloodlines of the Illuminati” by Fritz Springmeier, “The Taking of America, 1-2-3” by Richard Sprague, and “Secrets of the Federal Reserve” by Eustace Mullins, a Holocaust denier.有些书是主流历史或新闻著作,如鲍勃·奥德伍德(Bob Woodward)的《奥巴马的战争》(Obama’s Wars)、保罗·肯尼迪(Paul Kennedy)的《大国的兴衰》(The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers),以及罗伯特·霍普金斯·米勒(Robert Hopkins Miller)的《美国与越南,1787-1941》(The ed States and Vietnam 1787-1941)。还有一些兜售阴谋论的巨著,比如菲里兹·斯普林梅尔(Fritz Springmeier)的《光明会的血统》(Bloodlines of the Illuminati)、《统治美国,1-2-3》(The Taking of America, 1-2-3),以及否认犹太大屠杀的尤斯塔斯·马林斯(Eustace Mullins)所著的《美联署的秘密》(Secrets of the Federal Reserve)。There are two works by Bin Laden’s early mentor, Abdullah Azzam (“The Defense of Muslim Lands” and “Join the Caravan”), about jihad.有两本书来自本·拉登早期的导师阿卜杜拉·阿扎姆(Abdullah Azzam):《保卫穆斯林王国》(The Defense of Muslim Lands)和《加入队伍》(Join the Caravan),都是关于伊斯兰圣战的。There is also a sizable cache of documents relating to France, such as “Wage Inequality in France” and “France on Radioactive Waste Management, 2008.” And there are books by the left-wing writers Greg Palast (“The Best Democracy Money Can Buy”) and Noam Chomsky (“Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance”) that Bin Laden probably thought ratified some of his own views about American imperial ambitions and corporate corruption.此外还有大量关于法国的资料,诸如《法国的薪资不平等》(Wage Inequality in France)和《法国的放射性废料管理,2008》(France on Radioactive Waste Management, 2008)。还有些左翼作家的书籍,如格雷格·帕拉斯特(Greg Palast)的《金钱能买到的最好的民主》(The Best Democracy Money Can Buy)和诺姆·乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)的《霸权还是生存:美国对全球统治的追求》(Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance),本·拉登或许觉得它们能够印他对美帝国主义野心与大公司腐败的一些看法。While stuck in Abbottabad, Bin Laden seems to have been studying publicly available ed States government documents and articles and radical publications. He also Foreign Policy magazine articles and RAND Corporation studies on counterinsurgency, trying to keep a handle on the war on terrorism he had set off.被困在阿伯塔巴德期间,本·拉登似乎仍在研究任何可以到手的美国政府公开的文件、文章与基本出版物。他还读《对外政策》(Foreign Policy)杂志上的文章,以及兰德公司(RAND Corporation)对镇压叛乱的研究,努力跟上由他肇始的恐怖主义战争的形势。His bookshelf is a weird hodgepodge. It’s hard to know how complete a list it is, and whether he requested certain books from aides, or if aides sent him works they thought he might like or that might influence his thinking.他的书架堪称古怪的大杂烩。公布出来的书单有多完整,目前不得而知;人们也无从知道这些书是他特意要求助手去买的,又或者是助手为他挑选了这些书;更无法知道这些书他是否喜欢,抑或对他产生了多少影响。The declassified letters and correspondence reflect Bin Laden’s managerial concerns — Al Qaeda had become a kind of giant corporation. His self-prescribed syllabus included works on global issues, like climate change, and ran a spectrum from historical works to crackpot conspiracy tracts.解密的笔记与通信反映出本·拉登在管理方面的忧虑——基地组织已经成为某种巨大的公司组织。本·拉登亲自为他们制定的课程包括对气候变化等全球问题的研究,从历史研究到离奇的阴谋论文件无所不有。The eclectic nature of the list speaks to both Bin Laden’s reach as Al Qaeda’s leader and his limitations as an international fugitive; his ambitions to think globally and his na#239;ve susceptibility to theorists who talk conspiracy to explain the perfidies of the West; his fascination with America; and his determination to find new ways to attack it by trying to understand the dynamics of its political and economic systems.这份书单的折中主义本质反映出本·拉登作为基地组织领袖的关注范围,以及他作为国际逃亡者的局限性;他有着以全球化视野看待问题的野心,然而对那些以阴谋论来解释西方背信弃义的理论家们又有着天真的轻信;他迷恋美国;同时又努力去了解它政治与经济系统的运行,以图寻找新的方式去攻击它。As Steve Coll wrote in his compelling biography of the Bin Laden family, “The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century”: “Osama was not a stranger to the West,” having grown up in one of Saudi Arabia’s wealthiest families and traveled abroad, “but by age 15, he had aly erected a wall against their allures. He felt implicated by the West, and by its presence in his own family, and yet, as he would demonstrate in the years ahead, he lacked a sophisticated or subtle understanding of Western society and history. He used his passport, but he never really left home.”史蒂夫·科尔(Steve Coll)的《本·拉登:美国世纪中的阿拉伯家族》(The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century)是他为本·拉登家族撰写的一部引人入胜的传记,书中写道:“奥萨马对西方世界并不陌生”,他成长在沙特阿拉伯最富裕的家庭之一,曾经周游世界,“但是到了15岁那年,他已在心底筑起高墙,把西方世界的诱惑拒之门外。他觉得自己与西方世界,乃至它对自己家族的影响密切相关,但在未来的岁月里,他的行为明他对西方社会和历史的理解并不成熟深入。他使用护照到处旅行,但他其实从未真正离开家乡。” /201505/377680福州治疗宫颈炎

福州微管无痛人流手术 Images of the hole drilled by thieves into the vault at a Hatton Garden safe deposit company have been released by the Met Police.梅特警局公布了盗贼挖出一个拱形的洞从而闯入哈顿哈顿花园保险公司的图片。Seventy-two safe deposit boxes were opened in a raid at the Hatton Garden Safe Deposit Ltd in central London over the Easter Bank Holiday weekend.在复活节假日的周末,位于伦敦市中心的哈顿花园保险有限公司发生了一起迅雷不及掩耳之势的盗窃,72个保险箱被洗劫一空。In the vault, discarded safe deposit boxes, power tools including an angle grinder and concrete drills, and crowbars can be seen.透过这个拱形的洞,被丢弃的保险箱、包括角磨机、混凝土钻这样的电动工具,还有撬棍都一目了然。No arrests have been made.嫌疑犯还未被逮捕。The image shows the hole made using a heavy duty drill, a Hilti DD350.现场照片显示了这个大洞是用Hilti DD350重型钻孔机凿成。It measured 50cm (20in) deep, 25cm (10in) high, 45cm (18in) wide and sits 89cm (35in) above the floor.据测量,大洞有50厘米深,25厘米高,45厘米宽,距离地面89厘米高。These are the incredible first pictures from inside the Hatton Garden vault after the £60 million raid.这些是不可思议的第一波透过哈顿花园拱形洞窥探到的照片——价值6000万英镑的东西被盗。A police spokesman said: ;The methodical forensic examination of the scene has taken a significant amount of time, using both standard and specialist forensic tactics.一名警方发言人说道:“对于犯罪现场有系统的法医测试开展充分,并使用标准和法医专家的策略双管齐下。;The team have recorded, packaged and recovered approximately 400 exhibits, including items for DNA profiling, fingerprints and other evidence.“搜查队记录、打包以及重现了大约400件展品,包括了DNA纹印测试、指纹还有其他据。;Digital forensic specialists have recovered thousands of hours of CCTV footage and analysis of the material continues.”;数字取专家已经恢复了CCTV数以万计的影片镜头,据材料分析还在继续。” /201504/371795福州什么医院妇科好福州那家医院治疗尿道炎



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