原标题: 福州市治疗宫颈炎哪家医院最好的
What is metabolism really? Statements like “he can eat a lot because he has a fast metabolism” are somewhat misleading.新陈代谢是什么?“他很能吃是因为他新陈代谢很快”像这样的说法有点误导我们。Metabolism isn’t about the digestion of food in your stomach; it’s the name given to all of the chemical changes that occur in an organism’s tissue cells. There are basically two kinds of chemical changes that can occur; tissue matter can be built, or it can be broken down.新陈代谢不是指食物的消化能力,而是指一种在组织细胞内发生的化学变化。基本上可分为两类化学反应:合成或分解组织细胞。These processes are called anabolism and catabolism. More specifically, anabolism is responsible for an organism’s growth, its maintenance, and the repair of its tissues. So when you cut yourself and your skin scabs over and heals, you’re seeing anabolism at work. Or if you grow taller or wider, that’s also evidence of anabolism.这些过程叫作合成代谢和分解代谢。具体地说,合成代谢负责有机组织的数量增长,维护和修复。所以,当皮肤割伤后会自动结疤愈合,这就是合成代谢在起作用。或者长高长胖,那也是合成代谢。In order to build tissue and repair it, however, anabolism requires energy, as well as material with which to build. This energy and building material comes from the breaking down of larger, more complex material, a process called catabolism. As well as producing energy and building material, catabolism also breaks down material for excretion from the body.要建造和修复组织细胞,合成代谢需要能量和原料。而能量和原料就来自于分解更大,更复杂的细胞,这个过程就叫分解代谢。与合成反应一样,分解代谢需要的能量和原料来自于身体的分泌物。Both anabolism and catabolism are necessary for survival and good health. Understanding these processes can help one make good decisions about exercise and diet. For example, when an athlete trains, her muscle fibers break down. However, the daily recommended amount of protein is all that is needed to meet the anabolic and catabolic needs of the body and thus repair muscles fibers.合成和分解代谢在对于身体健康很重要。而了解这些过程可以帮助我们对运动和饮食做出更好的决定。例如,运动员训练时他的肌纤维会受损。所以每日推荐的蛋白质就是身体合成和分解代谢所需的量,这样才能修复肌纤维。 /201303/232025Mike: I just finished taking my last test! Now I dont have to use my brain at all for the next two weeks. Im going to play games and watch TV all vacation.迈克:我刚考完最后一场考试!接下来两周我不必再用脑子了。我要利用整个寒假来打游戏和看电视。Amanda: I was just going to ask if you wanted to go hiking with me. This could be our one chance to see snow this year! And hiking doesnt involve that much thinking either, even though it is much healthier than staring at a screen all day.阿曼达:我刚想问你是否愿意跟我一起去远足。这可是今年唯一一次看雪的机会!远足不会涉及多少脑力劳动,况且这比整天待在屏幕面前健康得多。Mike: It involves exercise, though, and Im lazy. . .Wait, my family is going to be cleaning house this weekend because relatives are coming. Going hiking would be a good way to get out of that. Okay, Ill go.迈克:不过要涉及到运动,我很懒...等等,这周末我们家要进行大扫除,因为亲戚们要来。去远足是一个躲避干活的好办法。好吧,我会去的。Amanda: You are too much! Oh, well, anything that gets you to come with me, I guess. We ought to get an early start to beat the crowds.阿曼达:你太过份了!啊,好吧,只要你能跟我一起去。我们应该早出发,免得碰到人群高峰期。Mike: Therell be a bunch of people whenever we go. Cant we sleep in a while?迈克:不论在哪都会有一大群人。我们就不能多睡一会儿吗?Amanda: No, we also have to go early because we have a long way to go if we want even a chance of getting a glimpse of some snow.阿曼达:不行,我们必须早出发,因为在我们还有机会瞥一眼雪景之前还有很长的路要走。Mike: All right, Ill go early if it means we can make it to the snow and I can throw snowballs at you.迈克:好吧,为了看到雪,为了能朝你扔雪球,我会早起的。原文译文属!201303/227868

Science and technology.科技。Malaria,Not swatted yet.消灭疟疾任重道远。A new vaccine is one step towards a distant goal.一种新疫苗让人类离消灭疟疾更近了一步。MAN has vanquished only one disease, smallpox. In 2007 Bill Gates set out to eradicate another, malaria. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was soon rallying its troops to the cause and a flood of money followed. 2m went to research in alone. This week the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation trumpeted another announcement: results from a phase III trial (the more extensive process of testing drugs in people) of a malaria vaccine called RTS,S. This is the worlds most advanced vaccine for malaria and the results, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, were encouraging.到目前为止人类只消灭了天花这一种疾病。2007年,比尔?盖茨宣布开始着手消灭另一种疾病即疟疾。世界卫生组织迅速召集队伍致力于这项事业,并在随后投入大量资金,年仅在研究上就投入了6.12亿美元。本周,;比尔和梅琳达?盖茨基金会;发表了另一个声明,内容是世界上对抗疟疾最先进的疫苗RTS,S的第三试验阶段(在人群中广泛使用药物并测量反应)的结果,发表于《新英格兰医学杂志》上的结果振奋人心。It is an important step in combating a disease that still kills more than 700,000 people a year and debilitates millions more. But it is also a reminder of how much work remains to be done.每年因疟疾致死的人有700000人,致残的有 数百万人,这个试验结果是战胜这一疾病的重大进步。但是它也提醒人们还有多少任务尚未完成。Mr Gates is only malarias latest adversary. The parasite has plagued man for millennia. Chinese texts from 2700 describe plants to treat its fevers. More recently, in 1955, the WHO embarked on its first malaria-eradication effort. But transmission rates in Africa seemed intractable. After 14 years the WHO gave up. The last time the world tried to eliminate malaria, some scientists lament, the world eliminated malariologists.疟疾祸害人类千年,盖茨先生最近一个反抗它的对手。公元前2700年中国的文字资料就记载着一些植物能治疗由疟疾引起的发烧的。再往离现在近的时间看,世界卫生组织在1955年展开首次消灭疟疾的行动。但是在非洲,遏制疟疾的传播率似乎非常棘手。14年之后,世卫放弃了。有些科学家慨叹,上一次世界本来试图消灭疟疾,结果被消灭的是疟疾学家。The new wave of enthusiasm came with the founding of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership in 1998 (to co-ordinate planning), the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative in 1999 (with money from the Gates Foundation) and the ed Nations Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in 2002. This culminated in Mr Gatess call to arms four years ago and has helped to lower the number of malaria deaths by 20% over the past decade.随着1998年;遏制疟疾伙伴关系;(共同测绘)、1999年;疟疾疫苗开发计划;(资金来自盖茨基金会)和2002年联合国全球治疗艾滋病肺结核和疟疾基金的建立,对抗疟疾的新一轮热潮出现了。四年后盖茨振臂一呼,在十年里疟疾死亡率降低了20%,推动抗疟疾的热潮达到顶峰。More progress will be difficult. The existing tools of insecticide-treated bed nets and treatment drugs require careful co-ordination and good health systems. Eliminating malaria in a stable country is dramatically easier than doing so in a turbulent one. Worryingly, these tools may become less effective. Parasites in South-East Asia, for example, seem to be developing resistance to artemisinin-based treatments. To achieve eradication-or anything close to it-new weapons are needed.要想获得更多进展非常困难。现有的带有杀虫剂蚊帐和药物治疗要求配合细致和良好的医疗系统。在一个政局稳定的国家消灭疟疾比在政局动荡的国家更容易。比如,东南亚的寄生虫似乎对基于青蒿素的治疗起了抗药性。要想消灭疟疾——或是向这个目标再迈进一大步—就得发展新武器。RTS,S, developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), a British pharmaceutical company, will help. The vaccine tries to stop one type of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, before it has a chance to wreak havoc. A mosquitos bite delivers malaria to the body. Travelling swiftly to the liver, the parasites hide, mature and multiply before staging a grand second act in the bloodstream, where they invade red blood cells, multiply again, and invade more cells. RTS,S combines a circumsporozoite protein, which exists on the parasites surface, with a protein from a hepatitis B vaccine. Together, these trigger an immune response which can fight off invading parasites before the second act.这个新武器就是由英国制药公司葛兰素史克公司(GlaxoSmithKline研制的RTS,S。该疫苗能停止疟疾寄生虫恶性疟原虫的活性,使它不能为非作歹。蚊子叮一口就会把疟疾传到人身上。它传播敏捷,在寄主身上隐藏起来、成熟、繁殖,然后在血液里进行第二个大的行动,入侵红细胞后再次繁殖,接着侵占更多细胞。RTS,S把存在于寄生虫表面的环子孢子蛋白和肝炎B型疫苗里的一种蛋白结合在一起。它们共同作用引发一种免疫反应,在第二次活动前就击退入侵的寄生虫。GSK tested the vaccine in 6,000 infants across sub-Saharan Africa. It reduced the risk of clinical malaria by 56% and severe malaria by 47%. This efficacy was ;on the positive side of what we were expecting,; says Christian Loucq of the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, GSKs partner on RTS,S.葛兰素史克公司在撒哈拉以南非洲的6000名婴儿身上测试了这种疫苗。患临床疟疾的风险减少了56%,患严重疟疾的风险减少了47%。葛兰素史克公司在研制RTS.S的搭档;疟疾疫苗开发计划;的Christian Loucq说这种效力;是我们曾期待的积极一面;。However, more is to come. The trial examined children aged 5-17 months. Results for younger babies will follow. Still uncertain is how long the vaccines protection lasts. The first year that the vaccine might be used would be 2015, and that is if everything goes as planned. Even then, it is unclear how RTS,S might be deployed. Its price is uncertain and its power limited. ;We realise that RTS,S is not the ultimate malaria vaccine,; says David Brandling-Bennett of the Gates Foundation. ;But it will have some role. The challenge is figuring out what that role is.;然而,更多的试验紧随其后。上面提到的试验测试对象是5-17个月大的婴儿。随后会出炉年龄更小婴儿的结果。这种疫苗的保护能持续多久还不清楚。疫苗投入使用可能会从2015年开始,前提是如果一切按计划进行的话。即使到那时候,还不清楚RTS.S会怎样投放。价格不定,效力也是有限的。;我们认识到RTS.S并非是最好的疟疾疫苗,;盖茨基金会的大卫?布兰丁-内特这样说,;但是它会起到一些作用。我们的挑战是研究出这种作用是什么。;Researchers are aly working on the next generation of vaccines. GSK hopes to induce a stronger immune response by combining RTS,S with a vaccine from Crucell, another drug firm. Scientists are also keen to develop vaccines that target different kinds of malaria parasites and in different ways-for example, in mosquitoes guts. All of this work requires further investment at a time when global health programmes must compete fiercely for cash. Mr Gates has helped to spur progress. Sustaining it is the next challenge.研究者已经开始从事下一代疫苗的开发。葛兰素史克公司希望使用RTS,S和另一家制药公司Crucell的一种疫苗的结合体来引起更强烈的免疫反应。科学家也努力研制针对不同种类疟疾寄生虫和不同感染途径——比如,在蚊子的内脏里——的疫苗。这些工作都需要继续投入资金,而现在正是全球医疗项目必须为资金激烈竞争的时候。盖茨先生已经为推动研究进步做出贡献。如何保持这种势头是下一个挑战。 /201208/196129

I am Bear Grylls. Ive served with the British Special Forces. Ive climbed to the summit of Everest and crossed the frozen oceans of the Arctic. Now, Im in the Australias outback, a vast wilderness. Five million visitors come here every year to see these rugged lands. Hundreds need rescuing. Im gonna show the skills needed to survive out here.我是Bear Grylls。我曾在英国特种部队役。我曾登上珠穆朗玛峰顶,横跨过严寒的北冰洋。现在的我处在澳大利亚内陆—一片辽阔的荒野里。每年有500万的游客来这里游览观看这片崎岖的山地。其中成百人需要被营救。我将为你们展示走出这片荒野的求生技巧。Im flying over western Australia in a region called the Kimberley. Its an area the size of California. Yet only 30,000 people live here and most of those by the coast. This place is wild. The outback has an extreme climate. For eight months of the years, it never rains and it can get up to 130 degrees. Now its the wet season and its even tougher. Humidity is often a hundred percent, which makes the temperatures feel even more unbearable. The Aussies call it the suicide season. Of the thousands of the hardcore tourists who come here, 40 lose their lives every year to heat, snakes and cyclones. They say if you get lost out here with no survival skills, theres a 75-percent chance youll die.现在我正飞过澳大利亚西部一个叫做金伯利的地区。这个地区面积与美国加州差不多。这里人口稀少,只有3万人,大多数人沿海居住。这是片荒凉的内陆地区,气候也很极端。一年有8个月不下雨,温度最高可达130度。现在这个季节较潮湿,但这却令气候更加恶劣。湿度常常到达百分之百,加上高温,实在这令人难以忍受。澳洲人称这个季节为“自杀季节”。每年来此地旅游的坚定的游客中,每1000人就有40人死于中暑,毒蛇和飓风。据他们说,如果你在这里迷路,而且不懂任何救生技巧的话,那么75%的可能就是死亡。But Im gonna show how you can survive in this harshest of environments. If needed, Ill get some help from local experts and a camera crew will follow me.但是我将为你们展示如何在最恶劣的环境中求生。如果有需要,我会向当地的专家寻求帮助,并且会有一个摄影队跟随着我。201206/185538

Science and Technolgy科技Forensic science司法科学Ignorance is bliss无知即是福Forensic scientists know too much about the cases they investigate法医科学家对他们调查的案子知道得太多AS ALL fans of crime fiction know, DNA is the gold standard of forensic science. Or is it? Itiel Dror, a cognitive psychologist at University College, London, thinks this doctrine of infallibility needs to be questioned. His problem is not with the technology itself, but with the way it is deployed. For he has gathered evidence that DNA examiners interpretations of their results are, at least in complex cases, open to subjectivity and bias.所有的罪案小说迷都知道,DNA是司法科学的黄金标准。它到底是么?一位伦敦的大学认知心理学专家Itiel Dror认为这个说法的正确性有待考验。他的问题不是针对技术本身而是它进行的方式。因为他已经搜集了据明DNA鉴定者对他们结果的解释至少在复杂的案子里易受主观性和偏差的影响。When Americas National Academy of Sciences produced a report on the state of forensic science in , it criticised many of the methods then in use. Citing earlier research by Dr Dror, the reports authors stated, for example, that fingerprint examiners claims of zero error rates were scientifically implausible. DNA, however, was spared their criticism. Now Dr Dror and Greg Hampikian, a forensic biologist at Boise State University in Idaho, have published a study in Science amp; Justice that suggests all is not shipshape in the domain of the double helix either.当美国国家科学院在年发表了一片关于司法科学现状的报告时,它批判了很多当时正在应用的鉴定方式。引用这篇报道的作者Dror士早前做的研究,例如,指纹鉴定者宣称的零误差在科学上是不合理的。然而DNA省去了他们的批判。现在,Dror士和伊西的爱达荷州立大学的法医学生物学家Greg Hampikian在;科学与正义;上发表了一篇研究,表明所有的东西都不是井然有序的,在双螺旋线的领域里也不是。Dr Drors and Dr Hampikians experiment presented data from a real case to 17 DNA examiners working in an accredited government laboratory in North America. The case involved a gang rape in the state of Georgia, in which one of the rapists testified against three other suspects in exchange for a lighter sentence, as part of a plea bargain. All three denied involvement, but the two DNA examiners in the original case both found that they could not exclude one of the three from having been involved, based on an analysis of swabs taken from the victim.Dror士和Dr Hampikian士的实验提供一个真实案例的数据给17个在一家受认可的北美政府实验室里工作的DNA鉴定员。这起案件涉及到一宗乔治亚州的轮奸案,其中一名强奸犯为了让自己获得轻判做了不利于其它三名嫌疑者的言,作为认罪辩诉协议的一部分。其他三名嫌疑人全部否认参与强奸,但是根据从受害者处提取的药签分析,原案中有两位DNA鉴定师都发现他们无法排除三名中的其中一名参与了强奸。As is almost always true in forensic-science laboratories, these examiners knew what the case was about. And their findings were crucial to the outcome because in Georgia, as in many other states, a plea bargain cannot be accepted without corroborating evidence. However, of the 17 examiners Dr Dror and Dr Hampikian approached—who, unlike the original two, knew nothing about the context of the crime—only one thought that the same suspect could not be excluded. Twelve others excluded him, and four abstained.由于在司法科学实验室里总是什么都是对的,这些鉴定师们知道这个案子到底是怎么回事了。而且他们的手指对于出来的结果是至关重要的,因为在乔治亚,同时也在很多其它州,认罪辩诉如果没有确实的据是无法被接受的。然而,在Dror士和Hampikian接触的17个鉴定师中——他们不像开始两位鉴定师那样,对犯罪内容一无所知——只有一位认为一样的嫌疑不能被排除。另外十二位把他排除了,而四位弃权。Though they cannot prove it, Dr Dror and Dr Hampikian suspect the difference in contextual information given to the examiners was the cause of the different results. The original pair may have subliminally interpreted ambiguous information in a way helpful to the prosecution, even though they did not consciously realise what they were doing.尽管他们无法明,Dror士和Hampikian士怀疑鉴定师得到的上下文信息的区别是引起这些不同结果的原因。开始的两个人也许已经在下意识里以某种有益于控方的方式破译了模棱两可的信息,即使他们没有清楚地意识到当时他们在做什么。And DNA data are ambiguous more often than is generally realised. Dr Dror thinks that in about 25% of cases, tiny samples or the mixing of material from more than one person can lead to such ambiguity. Moreover, such is DNAs reputation that, when faced with claims that the molecule puts a defendant in a place where a crime has been committed, that defendant will often agree to a plea-bargain he might otherwise not have accepted.而且DNA数据往往比普遍了解的要模棱两可。Dror士认为在大约25%的案子里,小样本或者从不止一人身上取来的混合物质可能导致这样的二义性。此外,DNA的好名声就是这样,当面临宣称用DNA分子明被告所犯的罪的时候,被告通常会同意认罪辩诉,否则他也许不会接受。This one example does not prove the existence of a systematic problem. But it does point to a sloppy approach to science. According to Norah Rudin, a forensic-DNA consultant in Mountain View, California, forensic scientists are beginning to accept that cognitive bias exists, but there is still a lot of resistance to the idea, because examiners take the criticism personally and feel they are being accused of doing bad science. According to Dr Rudin, the attitude that cognitive bias can somehow be willed away, by education, training or good intentions, is still pervasive.这个例子没有明系统性问题的存在。但是它确实指出了一个科学上草率的方法。根据一位加利福尼亚州芒廷维尤的法庭DNA顾问Norah Rudin,法庭科学家正在开始接受那种认知性偏差的存在,但仍然有很多阻力,因为鉴定师个人会接受批评,觉得自己被谴责说自然科学学得差。根据Rudin士,认知偏差可以通过某种方式意识性去除的态度是普遍的,比如通过教育、训练或好意的方式。Medical researchers, by contrast, take great care to make drug trials ;blind;, so that neither the patient nor the administering doctor knows who is receiving the drug being tested, and who is getting a control drug or placebo. When someones freedom—and, in an American context, possibly his life, as well—is at stake, it surely behoves forensic-science laboratories to take precautions that are equally strong.相比之下,医学研究者非常注意使药物试验;不透明;,所以病人和用药的医生都不知道接受药物测试的是谁,和控制药物和安慰剂的是谁。在美国环境中,当某人的自由和他的生命也危在旦夕的时候,法医科学实验室应当采取相当的强预防措施。 /201210/202505Obituary;Wynne Godley;讣告;韦恩·戈德利;Wynne Godley, British economist, died on May 13th, aged 83;英国经济学家韦恩·戈德利于五月十三日辞世,终年83岁;A certain ambiguity marked Wynne Godley. Was he at heart an aesthete, happiest making music in beautiful buildings among works of art? Or was he more naturally one of the sophisters, economists and calculators whose rise marked, for Edmund Burke, the passing of the age of chivalry? Was he by temperament a dissenter? Or just a typical scion of the British upper classes, an establishment man who played at being a rebel? Was he a determined pessimist, who took some pleasure in his reputation as the Cassandra of the Fens? Or a convivial, witty friend, who entertained with style and had a taste for gambling? Was he a shy violet, trembling before an audience? Or a controversialist who was hardly publicity-averse?韦恩·戈利这个人的特点带有几分模棱两可。从本质上讲他是不是一个唯美主义者,置身于华美的厅堂上,徜徉于艺术珍品之中,摆弄音乐,陶醉无比?还是说,以天生秉性而言,他更应当被看成是一个辩论大师、经济学家又兼计算高手,当初此等人物的出现曾被埃德蒙·伯克认为标志了骑士时代的终结?他是不是一个从性格上就爱拂逆众见的异议者呢?还是说,他仍未脱英国上流阶级子弟之典型,以体制中人的身份,玩几把反叛的游戏?他真是一个坚定不移的悲观论者并且能从“芬斯地区的悲观预言师”这样的名头上得几分快乐吗?还是说,这位朋友爱交游喜风趣,招待客人讲究排场,还有的雅兴?他是个在听众面前会紧张到发抖的“羞答答的紫罗兰”呢?还是一个好辩的主儿,动起嘴来几不忌惮抛头露面?If the answer to each of these questions is at least partly yes, that may mean no more than that Mr Godley was a man of several talents, many interests and an intelligence to make good use of them. His first love was certainly music, for when he left Oxford, where he politics, philosophy and economics, he went to the Paris Conservatoire and became a professional oboist. Performing in public, though, filled him with terror, which led him to give up his job as principal oboe in the B Welsh Orchestra. He turned to economics instead.如果对上述每一个问题的回答至少有一部分是“是”,则也许只是意味着——戈德利是一位有几份天资、多种爱好的男人,是一位有智慧对种种爱好善加利用的男人。他第一爱好无疑是音乐,因为当他离开他攻读政治、哲学和经济学的牛津大学后,他去了巴黎音乐学院,并成为一个专业的双簧管吹奏者。可是,由于他在公众场所表演充满紧张,致使他放弃了在英国B广播公司威尔士乐团首席双簧管演奏员的工作。他转向了经济学领域。That, anyway, became his profession. But his love of music never left him, and art remained a part of his life to the end, not least through his marriage to Kitty, the daughter of Sir Jacob Epstein. And though Mr Godleys good looks and elongated figure might seem to have been tailor-made for El Greco, El Greco being unavailable, it was Epstein who took him as the model for a huge bronze statue of St Michael that hangs on the outside of Coventry Cathedral, with the devil vanquished at his feet.反正经济学成了戈德利的职业。但他对音乐的热爱始终不离不弃,及至人生终点,艺术仍然是他生活的一部分,尤其贯穿于他与爱泼斯坦(1880-1959, 生于美国的英国雕刻家——译者注)爵士之女基蒂的婚姻生活中。此外,尽管戈德利英俊的外貌和高高的身材似乎是为埃尔·格雷考(十七世纪西班牙画家、雕塑家——译者注)量身定做的模特儿,但格雷考无福消受。把戈德利作为圣迈克尔巨型青铜塑像模特儿的是爱泼斯坦,这尊塑像立于考文垂大教堂外面,其脚下是被征的魔鬼。In Keyness footsteps, up to a point在某种程度上,戈德利是追随凯恩斯的足迹The devilish intricacies of economics Mr Godley seemed to overwhelm just as effortlessly. After a spell in business and a few years at the Treasury, he was enticed to Kings College, Cambridge, which 61 years earlier another economist-aesthete, John Maynard Keynes, had joined as a lecturer, writing (with his mothers help) a letter of resignation from the civil service to his boss, a Sir Arthur Godley. This man was to become the first Lord Kilbracken and eventually grandfather of Wynne.戈德利先生对于如魔幻般错综复杂的经济学,应对起来似乎毫不费力。在商界和财政部干了一些年头后,他神往起61年前另一个审美学家、经济学家约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯(注1)曾经就读的剑桥国王学院来,他在向其老板老板阿瑟·戈德利男爵写(在其母亲的帮助下)了一封文员辞职信后,成为了该学院的一名讲师。那位男爵就是基尔布拉肯勋爵一世并最终成为韦恩·戈德利的祖父。Mr Godley became best known for his outspoken criticisms of Conservative economic policies. In the 1970s he took the view, which he recognised as dissenting, that international trade should be, as he put it, “in some sense, managed” through import controls, adding unpersuasively that this was not really protectionism, since he did not want to reduce imports, merely the propensity to import; and protection should be “as minimally selective as possible”. More creditably, he correctly predicted that the boom generated by the Conservative government under Ted Heath in the 1970s would end in tears. He was also proved largely right in foreseeing the severity of the recession that came later under Margaret Thatcher.戈德利因直言不讳地批评保守党的经济政策而变得愈加有名。在上世纪70年代,他发表观点(他意识到此观点不受欢迎):国际贸易应该像他所指出的那样是通过进口管制实现的“某种意义上的管理”,他还缺乏说力地补充这确实不是贸易保护主义,因为他并不主张减少进口,只是减少进口倾向;应当“尽可能最少地选择”贸易保护措施。更值得称道的是,他正确地预言到了上世纪七十年代希思治下的保守党政府激发的繁荣,将以泪雨告终。对后来撒切尔夫人时期严重经济衰退的预计,也被明是大体上正确的。These doleful prophecies, coupled with his very public loathing of monetarism, earned him no friends in government and the grant for his forecasting group at Cambridge was abruptly stopped in 1982. But he was hardly an outcast. Though not properly trained as an economist, he had proved himself as a macroeconomic modeller, and had been made a university professor of applied economics. He had also become a director of the Royal Opera House. By 1992 he was back in favour at the Treasury, joining the panel of independent forecasters known as the “six wise men”.上述令人沮丧的预测,连同他对货币主义的公开反感,使得戈德利在政府没有朋友,其剑桥预判小组的政府拨款也于1982年突然停止了。不过,戈德利不大可能成为被抛弃的人。尽管他没有像经济学家那样接受正规高等教育,但他却明自己是一位宏观经济学缔造者,而且还是一位大学应用经济学教授。他也是皇家歌剧院的懂事。1992年,戈德利在一片赞赏中回到财政部,参加被称作“六智囊”的独立预测员小组。On the face of it, this was not a turbulent life. Mr Godley said he had a lonely childhood, involving a violent maiden aunt and the “chamber of horrors of a British prep school”. Later, in his 30s, he lived life “through an artificial self” in “a state of dissociation”, which drove him into the clutches of a fiendish psychoanalyst. This in turn blighted his middle years.单从表面上看,上述这一切算不上是混沌难驭的人生经历。戈德利说过,他有一个陷于粗暴未婚姑妈和“英国预科学校恐怖屋”之难的孤独童年。后来,在他30多岁期间,他过着“分裂状态”下“自我十足虚假”的生活,这种生活驱使他成为刁钻心理分析学家的掌中物。这种生活也相应地折磨着他的中年。His background, though it might misleadingly be called privileged, was mixed up. The first Lord Kilbracken had been a protégé of a Liberal prime minister, Gladstone, but was a Conservative; and the second, Wynnes father Hugh, also a Tory, had been madly in love with Violet Asquith, the daughter of another Liberal prime minister. Hugh separated from Wynnes mother about the time he was born, and was impotent, anti-Semitic and alcoholic. Wynnes mother paraded naked in front of him and would tell him, as a child, of the intense pleasure she got from sexual intercourse. But he reached the age of 17 not knowing that women had vaginas.虽然戈德利·韦恩的出生背景会让人误以为是特权阶层,但其实是模糊不清的。他的祖父基尔布拉肯一世虽曾是自由党首相格莱斯顿的门生,却是个保守派;而他的父亲基尔布拉肯二世休·戈德利也是一名保守党成员,疯狂爱上了另一位自由党首相的女儿维尔莉特·阿斯奎思。休·戈德利大约在韦恩出生后就与韦恩的母亲分居,是一个性欲低下者、反犹太者、嗜酒者。当韦恩还是一个孩子的时候,他妈妈在他面前展示她的裸体,并会告诉他她从性爱中获得的强烈快感。可是,成长至17岁的戈德利·韦恩先生尚不知女性是有阴道的。He was supremely happy at Oxford, where his tutor was Isaiah Berlin, to whom he said he owed all his higher education. But, he wrote, “Nora [his stepmother] shot herself in the head with a shotgun; my father, his entire fortune squandered, died alone in a hospital where the nurses were unkind to him; my half-sister was committed to a high-security mental institution at Epsom; my mother had a bad stroke and lived out her last six years hemiplegic and helpless, her mind altered. She told her nurses that they were ‘lower-class scum and complained that I was ‘marrying the daughter of a New York yid.”在牛津大学,韦恩快乐无比,他的牛津大学导师是赛亚·伯林,他曾说过他所受的全部的高等教育都是从柏林那儿得来的。不过,他著述称:“继母诺拉用猎结束了自己的生命;我父亲花光家财,在一家受尽护士冷眼的医院里孤独离世;我同父异母的被送进埃普索姆一家管理严格的精神病院;我母亲严重中风,在偏瘫无助中度过生命的最后六年,并改变了观点。她告诉护士:‘他们是低等的贱人,还抱怨我‘娶了犹太裔纽约人的女儿”。Against a background like this, a little waywardness in the world of macroeconomics seems entirely forgivable.在这样的家庭背景下,在宏观经济学界中,戈德利·韦恩的些许任性似乎是完全可以得到宽恕的。 /201209/200413Business.商业。Businesses and cyber-security.商业活动与网络安全。A spook speaks.鬼魅之声。Its cost may be hard to count, but cybercrime has companies worried.网络犯罪损失难料,公司企业忧心忡忡。LIKE blooms on a peculiar plant, speeches by the head of the British security service are rare; and when they do appear, they draw attention. On June 25th Jonathan Evans, the director-general of MI5, burst into oratorical flower for the first time in 21 months. After commenting on preparations for the Olympic Games and on counter-terrorism, Mr Evans turned to cyber-security-where the ;front line…is as much in business as it is in government.; States as well as criminals were up to no good, he said: in particular, a ;major London listed company with which we have worked; had lost revenue of ;some £800m; (.2 billion) to state-sponsored cyber-attack. The firm in question had lost intellectual property and had been put at a disadvantage in commercial negotiations.英国安全局的发言就如铁树开花一般罕见,而一旦他们发话了,便立即吸引众人目光。6月25日,军情五处的总干事Jonathan Evans在沉默了21个月后首次发表演讲。他先评价了奥运会准备工作和反恐的问题,接着便把话题转移到网络安全上——;在前线……企业和政府的遭遇没什么区别;。他说,国家和个人罪犯都不怀好意,尤其是国家给予经济持的网络攻击,使得;部分受我们保护的主要伦敦上市企业;盈利损失近达;8亿英镑;(12亿美元)。遭受攻击的企业失去了知识产权,还会在商务谈判中处于劣势。Examples and rumours abound of companies being burgled by cyberfrauds, cyberspooks or cyber-mischief-makers. On June 26th Americas Federal Trade Commission sued Wyndham Worldwide, a hotel group, alleging that security failures at the company in 2008 and had led to the export of hundreds of thousands of guests payment-card account numbers to a domain registered in Russia. The FTC says ;millions of dollars; were lost to fraud. Wyndham says it knows of no customers who lost money and that the FTCs claims are ;without merit;.关于公司企业遭受网络诈骗、网络幽灵或者网络恶作剧绑架的例子和传闻遍地开花。6月26日,美国联邦贸易委员会控告温德姆环球酒店公司,控诉其因安全疏忽致使08至09年客户的信用卡账号信息泄露,流入了一个在俄罗斯注册的域名。联邦贸易委员会称因受诈骗,;数百万美元;的资金遭受损失,而温德姆酒店方面则没有客户受害,联邦委员会的说法;毫无根据;。The loss of industrial secrets is perhaps even more worrying to companies than that of their customers credit-card data. Some think worry is overdue. Mark Anderson, the chairman of INVNT/IP, a new organisation of technology companies, says: ;We are encouraged by discovering the number of global technology CEOs who have come to understand this issue and its importance to their own company welfare, regardless of the incentives and protestations offered by China, Russia and other nations known to actively steal IP.;恐怕对于企业来说,更可怕的是泄露商业机密而不是顾客信用卡数据被窃取,有些人认为现在才开始担心来得太迟。INVNT/IP是一家新成立的技术公司,他的总裁Mark Anderson说:;中国、俄罗斯和其他猖狂进行IP偷窃的国家如今一味发表声明以正其身,尽管如此,我们仍然备受鼓舞,因为我们发现世界上越来越多技术公司总裁意识到网络安全的问题及其对他们公司资产的重要性。Working out the cost of cybercrime is a devil of a job. The FTC and Wyndham are poles apart on their estimates of the effect of the credit-card thefts. Companies say they are under constant cyber-attack in ever more ingenious forms, but they are loth to say in public how often the raiders get through and how much damage they do—assuming that the breach is spotted. That suggests the damage is underreported. When they are speaking to the security services they may be more forthcoming, but will they be accurate? Companies might anyway have lost some of the business written off to cybercrime. In that case, Mr Evanss £800m would be on the high side.核算网络犯罪带来的成本损失让人避之若浼,联邦贸易委员会和温德姆酒店集团对信用卡盗窃的影响预估大相径庭。公司企业声称他们经常受到网络攻击,其形式更甚高明,但他们却不愿意公布,如果他们的漏洞被盯上的话,他们受入侵的次数以及受损程度会是多少,估计损失也被低估。他们可能会向安全局透露更多,但在这过程中他们会给出准确信息吗?企业的部分业务收入可能也与网络犯罪的损失勾销。在之前提到的事例中,Evan先生的8亿美金就算偏高了。In a report by Britains Cabinet Office last year, Detica, the software arm of BAE Systems, a defence company, put the cost of cybercrime to the country at a staggering £27 billion, or 1.8% of GDP. Businesses bore £21 billion, mostly because of the theft of secrets and industrial espionage. Lots of people doubted these numbers-including, it seems, the Ministry of Defence, which commissioned a study from a team led by Ross Anderson, a computer-security expert at Cambridge University.据英国内阁办公厅去年的报告显示,主理防卫业务的英国BAE系统公司的附属公司Detica给其提供软件助理,Detica在去年投入到英国国内的网络犯罪防范成本惊人,达到270亿英镑,占了GDP的1.8%。他们的业务收入达到210亿英镑,大部分涉及偷取商业机密和行业间谍活动。包括国防部在内的许多人都质疑这份数据,国防部还特此委任了剑桥大学计算机安全专家Ross Anderson组织团队开展研究。The teams report, published this month, shies away from adding up totals, preferring to assess the costs of different types of crime in turn, but comes up with much lower figures-partly because it discounts Deticas numbers for intellectual-property theft and espionage entirely, saying they have ;no obvious foundation;. Most of the cost of cybercrime, it concludes, is indirect, such as spending on antivirus software or other corporate defences. In other words, a lot goes on payments by one lot of businesses to another: the computer-security industry.该团队于本月发布了报告,报告避而不谈损失总量,却反过来评估各种网络犯罪造成的不同损失,但是其估算出来的数据远远偏低——部分原因是他们完全不重视Detica关于知识产权窃取和商业间谍活动的数据,声称他们;没有明显基础;。该报告总结,大部分针对网络犯罪的成本损失都是间接的,比如说杀毒软件或其他公司防卫手段的出。换句话说,大部分花费付给了另一类行业:计算机安全保障行业。That may be inevitable. Cyber-attacks are happening more often and are becoming more precisely targeted. Greg Day, the chief technology officer for security in the European business of Symantec, a computer-security firm, says that for years cybercrime was more or less ;random;, as crooks looked for any holes they could find anywhere. In the past couple of years, however, they have chosen their corporate targets more precisely. Symantec observed virtually no targeted attacks before Stuxnet, a worm that attacked industrial-control systems, appeared in 2010. Last December it spotted an average of 154 a day.这是不可避免的,网络攻击越来越频繁,目标越来越精确。计算机安全公司赛门铁克的欧洲分公司技术总监Greg Day说,过去的网络犯罪多多少少有点;随机性;,不法分子只是在到处找寻他们可以突破的漏洞而已。然而,在最近几年,他们更加有的放矢。据赛门铁克观察发现,2010年之前,没有任何网络受到过针对性攻击,后来,旨在攻击企业控制系统的蠕虫病毒Stuxnet出现了,这种情况就改变了,去年12月,每天就有154个系统受到这种病毒的攻击。The bad guys are increasingly using social media to try to find a way in, either by gathering intelligence or by befriending employees who may be tricked into opening an e-mail with nasty code within. People, a security-industry adage runs, are the weakest link. Training them to be careful may still be the best defence.越来越多坏蛋利用社交媒体进行黑客攻击活动,他们要么成群结队地展开活动,要么找易上当的雇员下手,欺骗他们打开含有恶意代码的电子邮件。正如安保行业的格言所说,人们是最脆弱的环节。因此,训练人们警惕小心可能仍是最好的防卫手段。 /201209/198647

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