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2018年04月22日 16:25:49来源:光明分享

Boeing and the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation are the winners in the competition to carry Americans astronauts to the International Space Station, NASA announced Tuesday.美国航空航天局(NASA)本周二宣布,在运送美国宇航员到国际空间站(International Space Station)项目的竞争中,波音(Boeing)和太空探索技术公司(Space Exploration Technologies Corporation)成为了赢家。The awards reflect a fundamental shift in NASA’s human spaceflight program, relying on private companies rather than the traditional hands-on approach, in which the space agency designed and operated the spacecraft.此举反映了NASA载人航天计划中的一个根本性转变,即把设计和运行航天器的任务外包给私人企业,而不是像以往那样亲力亲为。The first flights could take off as soon as 2017.该项目的首飞最早可于2017年开始。“We have credible plans for both companies to get there by that period of time,” Kathryn Lueders, the manager for NASA’s commercial crew program, said during a news conference on Tuesday. “We will not sacrifice crew safety for that goal.”“我们有可靠的计划,让这两家公司能如期提供务,”在本周二的新闻发布会上,NASA的商业乘务计划经理凯瑟琳·吕德斯(Kathryn Lueders)表示。“我们不会为了实现那个目标而罔顾机组人员的安全。”Boeing received a .2 billion contract. Space Exploration Technologies — better known as SpaceX, of Hawthorne, Calif. — received a .6 billion contract.波音公司获得了一份42亿美元(约合人民币258亿元)的合同。位于加州霍桑的太空探索技术公司获得了一份26亿美元的合同,该公司更广为人知的名字是SpaceX。“Today we’re one step closer to launching our astronauts from U.S. soil on American spacecraft and ending the nation’s sole reliance on Russia,” said Charles F. Bolden Jr., the NASA administrator.“我们希望在美国本土上用美国航天器运送宇航员,不再处于只能依靠俄罗斯的境地,今天我们向这个目标迈近了一步,”NASA负责人小查尔斯·尔登(Charles F. Bolden Jr.)说。Since the retirement of the space shuttles in 2011, NASA has had no way to send its astronauts to orbit, relying on the venerable Russian Soyuz spacecraft for transportation to and from the International Space Station at a cost of million per seat.自航天飞机在2011年退役后,NASA就无法自己将宇航员送入轨道,一直在依靠高龄的俄罗斯联盟号(Soyuz)航天器往返国际空间站,每个座位的价格为7000万美元。That became a politically uncomfortable arrangement after Russia’s annexation of Crimea and support of pro-Russian separatists in Ukraine.在俄罗斯吞并克里米亚,并持乌克兰的亲俄分裂分子之后,再这么做在政治上就不太妥当了。John Mulholland, the commercial crew manager at Boeing, said NASA called just before the news conference to tell him his company had won the competition. “It was a real mixture of inspiration and humbleness,” he said.波音公司乘务经理约翰·穆赫兰(John Mulholland)表示,就在新闻发布会开始之前,NASA致电告诉他,波音公司赢得了合同。“我感到既振奋又荣幸,”他说。Under the contracts, Boeing and SpaceX will finish development of their spacecraft. Boeing’s CST-100 capsule, configured to carry up to five people, will launch on an Atlas 5 rocket. SpaceX’s Dragon 2 capsule, a sleeker, updated version of the capsule aly carrying cargo to the space station, will ride on top of the company’s Falcon 9 rocket.根据该合同,波音和SpaceX公司将完成各自的航天器研制。波音公司的CST-100太空舱最多可载五人,将通过阿特拉斯5型火箭(Atlas 5)发射。SpaceX公司的龙2型(Dragon 2)太空舱将使用该公司的猎鹰9号(Falcon 9)火箭发射,相比于已经用来运载货物到空间站的太空舱,这个更新型号的外形更加美观。The bids from the two companies covered the same tasks. Boeing’s proposal was more expensive, in part because the Atlas 5 is more expensive than the Falcon 9. “We basically awarded based on the proposal that we were given,” Ms. Lueders said.两家公司为同样的任务进行了竞标。波音公司的方案价格比较高,部分原因是阿特拉斯5型比猎鹰9号更昂贵。“我们基本上是依据方案来选取公司的,”吕德斯说。A third company, Sierra Nevada Space Systems, of Louisville, Colo., had proposed a design that resembled a mini-space shuttle that would land on aircraft runways. A statement from the company said it would review its options.内华达山脉太空系统(Sierra Nevada Space Systems)是参与竞标的第三家公司,位于科罗拉多州路易斯维尔,它的设计方案是使用一架小型航天飞机,它能够在飞机跑道上降落。该公司发表声明,称将检视其手中的各个选项。Much of the money allotted to SpaceX and Boeing in the next three years will go to meeting NASA’s certification requirements for performance and safety. As part of that process, each company will conduct a test flight to the space station with a crew that is to include at least one NASA astronaut.未来三年内,在NASA拨付给SpaceX和波音公司资金中,将有很大一部分被用来满足NASA对性能和安全认的要求。作为该过程的一部分,两家公司将进行一次前往空间站的试飞,机组人员中将包含至少一名NASA宇航员。Once the companies are certified, NASA has promised each at least two missions. The full contract amounts will be paid if NASA orders six missions from each company.NASA已经承诺,只要两家公司通过认,每家公司至少能获得两次飞行任务。如果NASA给两家公司各分配了六次飞行任务,它将按合同金额的全款付费用。Mr. Mulholland said NASA had yet to discuss its plans in detail, but space agency officials in the past have said they expected two flights a year to the space station. If flights begin in 2017 and each company flies one a year, the contracts could run through 2023.穆赫兰说,NASA还没有就计划进行详细讨论,但其官员之前曾表示,他们预计每年会飞往空间站两次。如果从2017年开始,每家公司每年各承担一次飞行任务,该合同将一直持续到2023年。With each flight taking four astronauts, the space station crew will be able to grow to seven, from six. NASA officials said that additional crew member would allow it to double the amount of science conducted.由于每次飞行可以运送四名宇航员,空间站中的人员就能从六名增加到七名。NASA官员说,新增一名成员之后,空间站的科学研究量可以翻倍。The Boeing and SpaceX capsules will also serve as lifeboats for the space station crew in case of an emergency. The commercial crew program came out of the cancellation of an earlier program started under the Bush administration to send astronauts back to the moon.如果出现紧急情况,波音和SpaceX公司的太空舱也可以作为救生艇,供空间站人员使用。这个商业乘务计划,是在之前一个派遣宇航员重返月球的计划被取消后形成的,那个计划始于布什执政期间。That effort relied on two rockets designed and operated by NASA. The Obama administration concluded that approach was too expensive and canceled the rockets.该计划需要NASA设计和运行两枚火箭,奥巴马政府认为它的成本过于高昂,于是取消了火箭项目。Instead, the Obama administration built upon another Bush-era NASA initiative. NASA had hired two companies, SpaceX and the Orbital Sciences Corporation of Vienna, Va., to fly cargo to the space station. Beginning in 2010, NASA began a similar competition to choose companies to carry astronauts, not just cargo.不过,奥巴马政府推进了布什时代NASA的另一个项目。NASA雇用了两家公司,SpaceX公司和弗吉尼亚州维也纳的轨道科学公司(Orbital Sciences Corporation),把货物运送到空间站。从2010年开始,NASA采用类似做法,让公司竞标运送宇航员,而不仅仅是货物,到空间站。The hope is that the commercial approach will spur a space travel industry far larger than just NASA.人们希望,这种商业模式不仅能促进NASA的发展,还将大大刺激空间旅游业的规模扩张。Boeing, for example, hopes that the fifth seat in its CST-100 capsule could carry a paying tourist to the space station. “We’ll be working with NASA to try and bring that to reality,” Mr. Mulholland said.例如,波音公司希望利用CST-100太空舱的第五个座位,把付费游客运送到空间站。“我们将与NASA合作,努力让这个构想变为现实,”穆赫兰说。Both Boeing and SpaceX are working with Bigelow Aerospace, a Las Vegas company that plans to launch private space stations into orbit, to be leased to nations or companies.波音和SpaceX公司正与的毕格罗宇航公司(Bigelow Aerospace)开展合作。该公司计划把私人空间站送入轨道,供国家或公司租用。“We’re going to be aggressive to cultivate the business beyond NASA,” said John Elbon, vice president and general manager for space exploration at Boeing.“我们将积极进取地发展NASA之外的业务,”波音公司的太空探索副总裁兼总经理约翰·艾尔本(John Elbon)说。 /201409/329418。

  • Uber is facing its biggest legal challenge after its most popular service was banned throughout Germany, marking the first time the disruptive taxi app has been hit with a countrywide restriction.Uber受到了最大的法律挑战,此前其最受欢迎的务在全德国遭到了禁令,这是这款颠覆性的打车应用第一次遭遇全国性限制。The temporary injunction imposed by Frankfurt’s Regional Court prohibits the fast-growing company, valued in a recent funding round at bn, from operating its Uber Pop “ride-sharing” service, known as Uber X in other markets.法兰克福地区法院施加的这项临时性禁制令,不允许Uber营运其Uber Pop“拼车”务——在其他市场上被称为Uber X。Uber是一家快速成长的公司,在最近一轮融资中估值达到170亿美元。Uber said it would continue to operate in defiance of the injunction, but faces fines of up to /201409/325624。
  • Concerns about the potential for a national security threat posed by the Chinese networking concern Huawei have been simmering at a low intensity for some time. They burst out into the full glare of publicity today with the release of a report by the House Intelligence Committee saying that Huawei and another Chinese telecom-equipment concern, ZTE, pose sufficient security risks that government agencies should avoid buying their equipment. 关于中国电信网络提供商华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies Co.)可能对美国国家安全构成威胁的担忧已经不温不火地持续了一段时间。如今,由于美国众议院情报委员会发布的一份报告,此类担忧急剧升温并成为公众关注的焦点。这份报告称,华为和另一家中国电信设备公司中兴通讯股份有限公司(ZTE Corp., 简称:中兴通讯)对美国国家安全构成了风险,为此政府机构应该避免购买这两家公司的设备。 There aren#39;t a lot of specifics to get excited about in the 52-page report, though there are presumably some items of interest in classified portions of the report not released to the public. Huawei has had a difficult time showing to the satisfaction of Western sensibilities that its ties to China#39;s People#39;s Liberation Army are severed. If ordered, the thinking goes, Huawei gear could be turned into a valuable espionage tool in the event of war with the U.S. or another country. 这份长达52页的报告中并没有提供很多值得兴奋的具体信息,不过,报告中未向公众发布的保密部分可能会有一些让人饶有兴趣的东西。华为表明自己与中国人民解放军的关系已经断绝的努力一直难以让西方人满意。美国国会认为,如果订购华为的设备,在中国与美国或其他国家交战的时候,这些设备可能成为重要的间谍工具。 The concerns on the part of U.S. lawmakers and the national security establishment are certainly valid, but not for the reasons you think. While Chinese actors have certainly been among the most active when it comes to attacking the networks of large U.S. corporations and stealing their secrets, the U.S. and its allies fret about letting Huawei in because they know from their own experience how imported electronics can be turned into a weapon of espionage and outright sabotage. 美国议员的担忧和有关国家安全的说法毫无疑问是成立的,但原因并非你所想的那样。尽管在攻击美国大型公司的网络和窃取这些公司的机密方面,中国参与者毫无疑问属于最活跃的一群,美国及其盟友不愿让华为进入美国是因为他们自己的经验告诉他们,进口的电子设备可以成为进行间谍和破坏活动的武器。 Remember that it was intelligence agencies of the U.S., in partnership with Israel, that turned deep knowledge of the numerous variants of Microsoft#39;s Windows operating system combined with specialized knowledge of industrial control systems to create the Stuxnet worm that damaged the Iranian nuclear research program. Later discoveries included other U.S.-Israeli cyber weapons called Flame and Gauss. Taken together, they amount to evidence that the countries had mounted a less-than-covert military campaign against Iran that could in time have significant unintended consequences. 人们应该记得,正是美国的情报机构与以色列合作,凭借对微软Windows操作系统各种版本的深入了解以及对工业控制系统的专业知识,才创造了蠕虫病毒震网(Stuxnet),并利用这种病毒破坏了伊朗的核研究项目。人们后来还发现了美国和以色列制造的其他网络武器,如Flame和Gauss。所有这些据表明,这两个国家已经发动了针对伊朗的不那么隐秘的军事行动,这些行动最终可能引发始料未及的后果。 Prior efforts include a largely forgotten 1982 campaign of electronic sabotage against the natural gas pipeline being built by the Soviet Union that caused so large an explosion that U.S. military forces briefly thought it was an early sign of a nuclear attack. The episode was documented in the book #39;At the Abyss: An Insider#39;s History of the Cold War#39; by Thomas Reed, the late former secretary of the Air Force under President Reagan. 人们很可能已经忘了1982年发生的针对苏联天然气管道进行的电子设备破坏行动,这次行动引发了大规模的爆炸,以至于美国军队一时以为这是核袭击的早期信号。这个情节被记录在了《在深渊:一名知情者讲述的冷战史》(At the Abyss: An Insider’s History of the Cold War)一书中,作者是已故的里根时代前空军部长里德(Thomas Reed)。 Another incident, this one not as well documented but the subject of a great deal of informed speculation, concerns a 2007 Israeli air strike against what was at the time a suspected nuclear weapons research facility in Syria. A report by the IEEE Spectrum the following year traced reports that a French chip company that supplied the manufacturer of Syrian radar defense gear included a #39;kill switch#39; that allowed Israeli bombers to carry out their attack undetected. 另一起事件则没有被很好地记录下来,不过这件事也引发了诸多消息灵通人士的猜测。2007年以色列空军袭击了当时被怀疑是核武器研究机构的叙利亚的一处设施。第二年,《IEEE波谱杂志》(IEEE Spectrum)的一篇报道追踪到的消息显示,一家法国芯片公司提供给叙利亚的雷达防御设备中包含一个“切断开关”(kill switch),使叙利亚无法监测到以色列轰炸机正在执行的袭击活动。 So it#39;s not from out of nowhere that such national security concerns arise about a Chinese telecom concern. 因此,担心中国的一家电信公司可能威胁国家安全并非空穴来风。 One fundamental failure of all this official hand-wringing is that it neglects the fact that many if not most of the components, with the exception of certain higher-value chips like those from Intel, are manufactured in China. Cisco Systems and Juniper Networks in the U.S., Alcatel-Lucent in France and Ericsson in Sweden, all use Chinese-made parts and carry out at least some portion of the final assembly of their equipment in China. 美国官方对国家安全威胁的担忧存在一处根本性的疏忽,那就是它忽视了这样一个事实,即除英特尔(Intel)芯片等某些价值更高的芯片外,很多、甚至可以说大部分电信设备组件都是在中国制造的。美国的思科系统(Cisco Systems)和瞻网络(Juniper Networks)、法国的阿尔卡特朗讯(Alcatel-Lucent)和瑞典的爱立信(Ericsson)都使用中国生产的零部件,并且设备的最终组装至少有部分是在中国进行的。 Huawei certainly hasn#39;t done itself any favors. While its most senior U.S. employee described the company as #39;an open book#39; in a surprisingly short segment on CBS#39;s #39;60 Minutes#39; last night (see the below), its founder and chief executive, Ren Zhengfei, has never sat for an interview with a Western media outlet. And the precise ownership of the company#39;s shares are murky. U.S. regulators have prevented it from making certain acquisitions, and in Australia it was blocked from bidding on portions of a project to build a national broadband Internet network. 华为无疑也没有给自己带来任何助益。尽管在周日晚间CBS电视台“60分钟”(60 Minutes)节目一个出奇短的环节中,华为级别最高的美国员工将该公司描述为一个“让人一目了然的公司”,但该公司创始人兼首席执行长任正非却从未接受过西方媒体机构的采访。此外,该公司股份的确切所有权也晦暗不明。美国监管机构阻止其进行某些收购,在澳大利亚,华为被禁止竞标国家宽带网络建设项目的部分工作。 It hasn#39;t gotten to be the world#39;s largest telecom equipment concern for nothing. Wireless phone networks in Africa rely heavily on inexpensive gear sold by Huawei. There are suspicions about its dealings in this area too, though they are mostly economic. Huawei has a history of undercutting Western rivals in competitive bids by as much as 5 percent to 15 percent, raising suspicion that it is the benefactor of state-sponsored subsidies. However, it#39;s also to the benefit of these rivals to stoke the national security concerns as much as possible. 华为成为世界上最令人担忧的电信设备公司自有原因。非洲的手机网络严重依赖华为销售的低价设备。有人还对华为在非洲的业务表示怀疑,不过大部分是经济方面的怀疑。华为历来在竞标时出价比西方竞争对手最多可低5%至15%,这令人怀疑该公司是政府补贴的受益者。不过,这些竞争对手也会从尽可能地为国家安全担忧推波助澜中获得好处。 All told, it#39;s not as though there is no reason to be suspicious of Huawei, if only because the U.S. and its allies know too well from their own actions in recent years about the potential for electronic espionage, surveillance and warfare. 总之,华为并非毫无值得怀疑的地方,美国及其盟友从近年来自身行动中就已经深刻理解到了可能出现的电子间谍、侦察和战争。 For its part, Huawei defended itself and attacked the report in a response today ( it in full here). The company said the committee#39;s report, an 11-month effort, #39;failed to provide clear information or evidence to substantiate the legitimacy of the Committee#39;s concerns#39; and #39;appears to have been committed to a predetermined outcome#39; and #39;employs many rumors and speculations to prove non-existent accusations.#39; 华为周一为自己进行辩护,在一份回应中对美国会报告进行了反击。该公司说,委员会经过11个月的调查得出的报告未提供明确信息或据来明委员会的担忧是合理的,报告似乎是在为预先设定的结论自圆其说,使用了很多传言和猜测来明无端的指控。 Without having the classified portions of the report, which are said to contain more specifics - it mentions only vague instances of #39;beaconing,#39; which is intended to mean sending data back to China - it#39;s hard to argue with Huawei#39;s position. 在未看到报告保密部分内容的情况下(据说包括更多详情),很难反驳华为的立场。报告只提到一些隐约的“信标”活动,“信标”活动指的是向中国传回数据。 Nor is it easy to dismiss the committee#39;s fears out of hand. Which brings us to the possible unintended result of all this: Might China respond with its own restrictions against U.S. telecom firms like Cisco and Juniper? Is this the first shot of a telecom trade war? We#39;ll see. 当然,我们也难以完全忽略委员会的担忧。这就让我们可能面临这样一种意想不到的结果:中国是否可能做出回应,针对思科和瞻网络等美国电信公司推出限制措施?这是否意味着一场电信贸易战打响了第一?我们将拭目以待。 If that happens, expect Cisco to be hurt more than Huawei. U.S. sales account for only 4 percent of its overall revenue, whereas Cisco#39;s operations in Asia, the Pacific Rim and China account for more than 16 percent, and China was its second fastest-growing market in that region after Japan. 如果发生电信贸易战,预计思科将比华为更受伤。美国销售额仅占华为总收入的4%,而亚洲、环太平洋地区和中国业务却占了思科总业务的16%以上。此外,中国是思科在该地区仅次于日本的增长速度第二大快的市场。 /201210/203081。
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