时间:2018年02月25日 12:02:58

You can stay healthy despite diabetes with these strategies for keeping your blood sugar controlled.遵循下面控制血糖的方法,即使患有糖尿病,也可以保持健康。You Will Need你需要A balanced meal plan平衡的餐饮计划Healthy foods健康的食品Regular eating habits规律的饮食习惯Carbohydrate and sugar contents碳水化合物和糖含量A doctor医生Exercise运动Relaxation techniques放松技巧Non-starchy vegetables (optional)不含淀粉的蔬菜(可选)Sugar-free drinks (optional)不含糖的饮料(可选)Steps步骤Never change your diet without first consulting your physician.要改变饮食习惯,一定要先向医生咨询。STEP 1 Eat healthy1.饮食健康Follow a healthy, balanced meal plan that includes carbohydrates, protein, and fat, as well as vitamins, minerals, and fiber.遵循健康平衡的饮食计划,包含碳水化合物,蛋白质,脂肪,以及维生素,矿物质和纤维在内。Fill up on non-starchy vegetables, such as greens, peppers, broccoli, and green beans.用不含淀粉的蔬菜来充饥,比如绿叶蔬菜,辣椒,西兰花和四季豆。STEP 2 Eat regularly2.饮食规律Don#39;t skip or delay meals. Keep your metabolism running strong and avoid overeating later by enjoying regular meals and snacks.每餐不要省略或延后。享用规律的餐饮和零食,保持有力的新陈代谢,避免稍后暴饮暴食。STEP 3 Count carbs3.计算碳水化合物Count carbohydrates to consistently control the amount of sugar in your bloodstream.计算碳水化合物,坚持控制血液中的糖含量。STEP 4 Don#39;t drink too much sugar4.不要喝太多含糖饮料Be mindful of the carbs and sugar present in drinks, such as regular sodas and juices, and limit your intake of these beverages.警惕饮料中的碳水化合物和糖,比如汽水和果汁,限制这些饮料的摄入量。Carry your own sugar-free drinks when you are away from home. Good choices are bottled water, club soda with lemon or lime slices, sugar-free soft drinks, and unsweetened or artificially sweetened tea.外出的时候自己携带不含糖的饮料。良好的选择包括瓶装水,加柠檬或青柠片的汽水,无糖软饮料,无糖或人工甜味剂的茶。STEP 5 Take your meds5.携带药物Make sure to take medication that your doctor prescribes as directed.一定要随身携带医生开的药物。STEP 6 Get your blood pumping6.锻炼Exercise regularly to keep your blood sugar down and maintain a healthy weight.经常运动,将血糖维持在较低水平,保持健康的体重。STEP 7 De-stress7.放松压力Use relaxation techniques, such as slow, deep breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, to reduce the level of sugar-elevating stress hormones in your blood.使用放松技巧,比如缓慢的深呼吸和渐进性肌肉放松技巧,降低血液中刺激血糖增加的压力荷尔蒙水平。Approximately 22 million people in the U.S., or 8 percent of the population, have diabetes.美国大约2200万人,也就是大约8%的人口患有糖尿病。 /201411/341220

Once we had the anatomy and physiology required for speech,从我们拥有说话必备的生理结构那刻起we were primed to talk.就准备好了说话Enriched their lives enormously.极大地丰富了他们的生命I don#39;t know why I said it.我不知道我为什么要这么说To create everything that exists up till now.创造至今存在的一切But when did we actually start to speak?但我们究竟是何时开始讲话的呢The dawn of speech is one of the great puzzles of evolution语言的黎明是进化史上的巨大谜题之一because there#39;s no fossil record of verbal communication因为并没有记录语言交流的化石for scientists to look back through.供科学家来回溯过去Mark Pagel is an evolutionary biologist马克·帕杰尔是位进化生物学家on the hunt for the origins of language.专门寻找语言的起源There#39;s a lot of ideas about this.关于语言起源有很多说法They#39;re all speculation都是推测but they rely on having the right genetics in place但他们都依赖于适当的基因and having the right anatomy in place,以及适当的生理结构and we know that by 200,000 years ago,我们知道 在二十万年前both of those things were available.人类就具备了这种基因和结构 Article/201412/351350

Most malnutrition occurs as a result of the intense大多数营养不良是由于高强度的癌症治疗cancer treatments such as chemotherapy. Chemotherapy比如化疗kills rapidly dividing cells and in effect damages化疗迅速杀死分裂细胞破坏小肠粘膜细胞cells lining the intestines. This makes the intestines这使得小肠不能吸收营养和食物unable to absorb nutrients and food. Anorexia,厌食症,黏膜炎 就是消化道内壁mucositis which is the inflammation of the mucous细胞黏膜发炎membranes lining the digestive tract, vomiting,呕吐 腹泻以及味觉改变diarrhea and alterations in taste are important side都是化疗的重要副作用effects of chemotherapy that also contribute to weight从而导致消瘦以及营养不良loss and malnutrition. Because of the side effects由于这些副作用 所以导致了恶病质cachexia can often result. Cachexia, also known as the恶病质也称消耗症wasting syndrome can also result in extreme cases.也可以导致极端病例Cachexia is the loss of weight and the atrophy of恶病质表现为消瘦 肌肉萎缩muscle resulting in an intense fatigue and weakness.会导致强烈的疲惫和虚弱It cannot simply be reversed by eating more calories仅仅靠摄入更多的卡路里是不能恢复的因为because lean body mass is also lost. To avoid cancer身体的瘦体重也减轻了 为了避免癌症恶病质cachexia it is extremely important for children to eat对于孩子在治疗过程中摄入足够多的蛋白质enough protein and calories throughout the treatment.和卡路里是至关重要的The type of cancer itself plays a role in malnutrition癌症自身的类型在营养不良里也扮演了as well, in fact it has been well documented that很重要的角色 事实上记录表明certain tumors and stages of diseases are associated某些肿瘤和疾病的阶段with an increased risk of becoming under nourished.能够增加营养不良的风险In a study conducted in 2011 by Bower and others在2011年有鲍尔及其同事entitled ‘important aspects of nutrition进行的“癌症患儿营养不良的重要方面”in children with cancer’ different types of研究中,比较了不同种类的癌症cancers were compared and their corresponding risk以及处于营养不良时for becoming under nourished were assessed.相应的风险Overall, malnutrition was more prevalent in children总体来说,营养不良在with advanced solid tumors such as neuroblastoma患晚期实性肿瘤孩子中很常见and in aggressive tumors and tumors in the later stages比如成神经细胞瘤,恶性肿瘤of malignancy. Undernourishment was seen less以及恶性肿瘤的后期frequently in children diagnosed with non metastatic被诊断为没有转移性肿瘤的或者是更有利的tumors and diagnosis with a more favorable prognosis.预后诊断的孩子中,营养不足是很少见的We will now turn our attention to the side effects and现在我们将把注意力转移到在癌症治疗期间problems malnutrition causes during cancer treatment.由营养不良引起的副作用和一系列问题上There are many side effects that malnutrition causes癌症治疗期间由于营养不良during cancer treatment, however we will focus on 3引发了很多副作用key side effects; an increased treatment time,我们将关注三个主要的副作用a decreased quality of life after survival and治疗时间愈后生活质量下降a greater chance of becoming underweight or以及以后的生活overweight later in life.身体变得消瘦或超重的可能性增大Studies have shown that malnutrition reduces the研究表明,营养不良会降低化疗的有效性effectiveness of chemotherapy, thus increasing the从而延长了孩子们必须length of time children must spend being treated在医院接受治疗的时间in the hospital. Being malnourished also increases由于免疫系统的减弱the likelihood of developing an infection due to营养不良还可能会使a weakened immune system.孩子们更容易受感染Malnutrition has also been proven to lower the事实明,营养不良还会降低生活质量overall quality of life and lower the chances of以及病人治疗后存活的机率a patient survival post treatment. In children under对孩子来说nourishment has a significant role in survival rates,营养不足对存活率有很大的影响especially in children with solid tumors and特别是患有实体瘤和转移性疾病等metastatic diseases which are children at a high risk.严重疾病的孩子Many studies have also shown that survivors of很多研究已表明specific cancer types are more likely to cause a child如果孩子在治疗过程中营养不良to become underweight or overweight later in life那么某种癌症的幸存者在以后的生活中if the child experienced malnutrition during treatment.更有可能变得消瘦或者超重 Article/201501/351111

文章编辑: 医专家