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2018年02月20日 23:50:43来源:兰州晨报


  • The day the power went off in Delhi and northern India, I was at home in Bangalore, a city that fortunately escaped the blackout. It brought back memories of my student days in Kolkata, a city then (in the 1980s) notorious for its power cuts. Eight or 10 hours without electricity were de rigueur. The fan would stop working at night: at 38C and 90 per cent humidity, this meant no sleep until the power came back. We would gather outside, talking in groups, varying our routine by walking to the highway that ran alongside our campus, where dhabas served tea (and stronger stuff) all night. 德里及印度北部停电的那天,我正在班加罗尔的家里,这座城市幸运地未受波及。这让我想起了我在加尔各答上学的日子,当时(上世纪80年代)加尔各答以频频停电而臭名远扬。每天停电8至10小时是家常便饭。晚上电扇会停转,而气温高达38摄氏度,空气湿度达90%,这意味着,来电之前根本没法睡觉。我们就聚在室外,扎堆儿聊天,或向校园旁的高速公路走去,而不是像通常一样在原地干等来电。高速公路边的Dhaba(印度公路旁边的餐馆——译者注)通宵供应茶水(以及一些更带劲儿的饮品)。 Even now, many villages have electricity for only four to six hours a day and some still have no power at all. As a student, I awoke when the fan went off. On the other hand, peasants wake themselves up when the lights come back, to use the tubewells that irrigate their fields. 即便到了现在,很多村庄每天也只有4至6个小时有电,有些村庄甚至仍不通电。当时作为学生的我是电扇一停转就醒过来,而农民则是灯一亮就起床,好抓住有电的时机使用管井灌溉庄稼。 Indians have long been used to erratic power supply; yet the recent outages were special, spectacular in their scale and impact. Twenty one out of 28 states were without power for long stretches. Some 600m Indians were affected. It is not yet clear what caused the collapse. With the monsoon having failed, it is far hotter and drier than is usual at this time of year, driving the rich to use more air conditioning and peasants to rely more heavily on their tubewells. In the rush to satisfy their citizens, individual states drew more than their share from the National Grid. As The Hindu newspaper reported, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand all ;ignored strong warnings from the#8201;.#8201;.#8201;. Central Electricity Regulatory Commission to maintain grid discipline and stop over-drawal;. 印度人早已习惯了不稳定的电力供应;但近期的停电比较特殊,其规模和影响比较惊人。印度的28个邦中有21个遭遇长时间停电。约6亿印度人受到影响。目前尚不清楚大停电的原因。今年的季风带来的降雨偏少,天气比往年同期更加炎热干燥,结果富人的空调使用量增加,农民也更加依赖管井。个别邦急于满足本邦居民的需求,从印度国家电网(National Grid)汲取了超出其配额的电量。《印度教徒报》(The Hindu)报道称,北方邦、旁遮普邦、拉贾斯坦邦、哈里亚纳邦和北阿坎德邦全都;无视中央电力监管委员会(Central Electricity Regulatory Commission)要求遵守电网纪律、停止过度用电的强烈警告;。 Behind this short-term political desperation lies a longer-term institutional decline. Back in the 1990s, the distinguished energy scientist A.K.N. Reddy outlined a strategy to overcome India#39;s energy crisis. This focused on reducing theft and distribution losses (estimated at 30-40 per cent of total consumption), upgrading transmission and end-use technologies and running state electricity boards professionally. The suggestions were disregarded. Antiquated technologies were not replaced. Political interference and corruption continued. 在这种短期的政治层面的丧失信心背后,隐藏着一种较长期的机构层面的衰败。上世纪90年代,杰出的能源科学家A#8226;K#8226;N#8226;雷迪(A.K.N. Reddy)提出了一项解决印度能源危机的战略。这项战略的重点是减少偷电和配电损失(估计占电力总消耗量的30%至40%),升级输电和终端使用技术,并让专家来管理国家电力委员会(State Electricity Board)。但这些建议无人重视。过时的技术没有得到替换。政治干预和腐败依然存在。 On the same day as the power outage in the north, some bogies in a train in south India caught fire. Forty passengers perished. Although less widely reported in the western media, this accident was likewise symptomatic of the failure of state-run institutions that are crucial to social wellbeing. Hundreds of millions of Indians use the railways every year. They are indispensable to work and family life, carrying migrants back to their homes and to their first jobs. 印度北方大停电的同一天,印度南方一列火车的部分转向架起火。40名乘客遇难。虽然这起事故在西方媒体中报道得较少,但它同样反映出那些对于社会福祉至关重要的国营机构的失灵。每年有数亿名印度人乘坐火车。火车对于工作和家庭生活而言不可或缺,印度农民工走出家乡寻找第一份工作和返回家乡都要乘坐火车。 Between April 2010 and March 2012, the Indian railway system suffered 218 accidents, in which some 500 people died. Successive railway ministers have disregarded safety and technological modernisation in favour of running more lines to their own states and constituencies. 2010年4月至2012年3月,印度铁路系统发生218起事故,导致约500人丧生。连续几任铁道部长均无视安全和技术现代化,只喜欢往自己的邦和选区多开设几趟车。 As with railways and electricity boards, so also with public health and education departments. Indeed, the degradation of state institutions is perhaps the most serious threat to the vitality of Indian democracy and to the long-term success of India#39;s ;growth story;. 铁路和电力委员会如此,公共医疗和教育部门亦不例外。实际上,国家公共机构的衰败可能对印度民主的活力以及印度;增长故事;的长远成功构成最严重的威胁。 Four years ago, I wrote an essay for Outlook magazine, mocking the claim – then commonly made by the country#39;s political, business and media elite – that India could or would become a superpower. I argued that despite electoral democracy and high growth rates, there remained pervasive faultlines. These included religious and caste chauvinisms, rising social inequalities, corruption and environmental degradation. I was not optimistic that these faultlines would be easily corrected, given the ;decline in the quality and capability of our politicians and public officials; and ;the apathy and corruption of the state;. 4年前,我为《印度嘹望》杂志(Outlook)撰写了一篇文章,嘲讽了当时印度政界、商界和媒体界精英常说的一句话:印度能够或将会成为超级大国。我认为,尽管印度有选举民主和较高的经济增长率,但;断层线;依然普遍存在,包括宗教和种姓沙文主义、社会不公加剧、腐败以及环境恶化。考虑到;我们政客和公共部门官员的素质和能力的下滑;以及;国家的冷漠和腐败;,我对这些;断层线;能轻易得到修正不抱乐观看法。 I further argued that: ;in the short term, at any rate, the Indian political class can only get more corrupt, and the Indian state more inefficient. In the current, fragmented, political scenario, short-term rent-seeking will take precedence over long-term policy formulation. This shall be true of governments in the states, as well as at the centre;. Far from becoming a superpower, I concluded, India would muddle along in the middle – as it always had. At the time, I was derided as a party-pooper and professional sceptic. I was accused of lacking patriotism and even of being a ;western stool pigeon;. 我在文中进一步指出:;无论如何,在短期内,印度政治阶层都只会变得更加腐败,印度这个国家都只会变得更加效率低下。在目前这种四分五裂的政治局面下,政府将优先考虑短期寻租,而不是长期政策的制定。对各邦政府而言是如此,对中央政府而言亦是如此。;我的结论是,印度成不了超级大国,它仍会像以往那样,在中等国家俱乐部里混日子。我被奚落为;扫兴之人;和;职业怀疑论者;。人们指责我缺乏爱国精神,甚至是;西方的卧底;。 So far as I can tell, the short-term is still with us. How else to explain the fact that on the very day the lights went off in 21 states, the power minister, Sushil Kumar Shinde, was promoted to the post of home minister? His tenure in his previous position was undistinguished. However, he is a long-term loyalist (not to say acolyte) of the Congress party#39;s president, Sonia Gandhi. Besides, he hails from Maharashtra, where a state election is due in a few months. 在我看来,这种短视依然伴随着我们。否则如何解释恰恰在21个邦停电的同一天,电力部长苏希尔#8226;库马尔#8226;欣德(Sushil Kumar Shinde)被提升为内政部长?欣德在担任电力部长期间表现平平,但他长期效忠于国大党主席索妮娅#8226;甘地(Sonia Gandhi)(甚至可以说是她的助手)。而且,欣德来自马哈拉施特拉邦,几个月后那里将举行邦选举。 I need only add that, in these respects, the Congress is not exceptional. In Indian politics and public administration, personal loyalty and the appeasement of special interests take precedence over professional competence and the public good. 我唯一需要补充的是,在上述各方面,国大党与其他政治力量并没有什么不同。在印度的政治和公共管理中,个人忠诚和迎合特殊利益集团优先于专业能力和公共利益。 /201208/194026
  • 你的主人们把你当宠物养是为了减少压力,如果你不能为主人减少压力,那么你会被控告玩忽职守, 这就是你为什么要买猫保险的原因。
  • Father: I promised to buy you a car if you passed your examination, and you have failed. What were you doing last term?父亲:我曾向你许诺,如果你考试及格就给你买俩小汽车,可你却未能做到。你上学期一直在干什么呀?Son: I was learning to drive a car.儿子:我在学开汽车。 内容来自: /201204/176505
  • It#39;s a safe bet that some 200 countries and regions competing in the London Olympics are represented in the British capital.保守地说,有来自200多个国家和地区的代表团在本届伦敦奥运会上一决胜负。But who will represent London? One of the city#39;s oldest and signature communities is trying not to get lost in the *clamor.但是谁能代表伦敦呢?整个城市中最古老和最具代表性的群体正试图在喧嚣中表明自己的地位。Cockneys have been proud residents of London#39;s East End for centuries – and they want to make sure the world knows it.考克尼人是多个世纪以来自豪的伦敦东区市民not;——并且他们想要全世界都知道这一点。Traditionally, a Cockney is anyone ;born within the sound of Bow bells; – the bells of St Mary-le-Bow church in the heart of medieval London. It#39;s usually taken to mean a working-class native Londoner.在传统意义上,考克尼人指的是;出生时能听到圣玛丽-勒-波教堂钟声的人;——该教堂位于中世纪时伦敦的中心地带。它通常泛指土生土长的东伦敦区工人。Cockneys speak in a distinctive accent. East Enders, as they are often called, use a distinctive form of rhyming slang, in which ;would you believe it; becomes ;would you Adam and Eve it?;考克尼人的口音与众不同。人们常常称他们为;伦敦东区人;,他们使用独特的同韵俚语(同韵俚语使用一个与单词押韵的短语代替这个单词)。比如把;would you believe it(你相信吗?);说成;would you Adam and Eve it(;Adam and Eve;是伦敦东部地区的押韵俚语,与;believe;是相同意思。)Pearlies盛装的伦敦小贩Flamboyantly dressed figures with their black costumes covered in thousands of pearl buttons - does that ring a bell?这些身穿缀满珠母纽扣的黑色饰、盛装打扮的小贩,是不是让你觉得很熟悉?They are probably among the most recognizable Cockney symbols – the so-called Cockney royalty: Pearly Kings and Queens.他们或许是最鲜明的考克尼象征之一——这就是所谓的;考克尼皇室;:珠母纽王和王后。Organized by local officials before the Olympics, these ;Kings and Queens; met journalists and guests in an East End pub to help raise some awareness for the Cockney culture.奥运会开幕之前,在当地官员的组织下,这些;国王和王后;们在东区的一家酒吧里同诸位记者和来客见面,借此让人们了解考克尼文化。The ;pearlies; have their origins a century ago in a street sweeper named Henry Croft, who adapted the button-festooned clothes worn by London apple-sellers to help draw attention to his charity *fundraising.这些;穿着缀满珠母纽扣节日盛装的伦敦小贩;的历史可以追溯到一个世纪之前,那时有位名叫亨利#8226;克罗夫特的清洁工。他将伦敦苹果商贩所穿的以纽扣镶边的装加以改造,以吸引人们来参加他的募捐活动。Today, pearlies across London elaborately decorate hand-sewn outfits to raise money for charity. Many pass their honorary Cockney titles on from parent to child. But they worry their traditions may soon be lost.如今,为了筹钱做慈善,整个伦敦的盛装小贩精心装饰着一件件手工缝制的装。许多小贩将这种象征荣誉的考克尼人头衔传给下一代。但他们还是担心这种传统文化不久将消亡。;We are dying out,; said Jimmy Jukes, the Pearly King of Bermondsey and Camberwell in south London. ;A lot of people think we#39;re just about fancy dress.;;我们这种传统濒临衰退,;来自伦敦南部坎伯威尔和柏孟塞区的;珠母纽王;吉米#8226;朱克思如是说。;很多人认为我们只是喜欢穿着花哨罢了。;Changing times时代在变Some believe the distinctive Cockney brand of English is also in danger of dying out. In today#39;s East End, the children of immigrants speak with Cockney accents, but their slang is as likely to come from American *jargon.有些人相信,与众不同的考克尼英语也面临着消亡的危险。在如今的伦敦东区,虽然外来移民家庭的孩子说的是考克尼口音,但是他们说的俚语可能来自美国方言。Yet most Londoners recognize that ;apples and pears; is a slang for stairs or ;trouble and strife; means wife, even if they wouldn#39;t use the expressions themselves.然而大多数的伦敦人还是能够辨别出俚语;苹果和梨;指的是楼梯(编辑注:pears和stairs押韵),;麻烦和冲突;指的是妻子(编辑注:strife和wife押韵),尽管他们自己可能不会使用这些表达。But don#39;t count the Cockneys out just yet. This is a community that#39;s proud of its resilience. East Enders, after all, withstood the bulk of wartime bombing and personify Britain#39;s ;Blitz Spirit;.但是,不要忽视考克尼人。这是一个以坚韧为荣的群体。毕竟这些伦敦东区人经受住了战火的考验,而且赋予了大不列颠的;闪电战精神;。Local resident Vicky Groves hopes to share that culture with the world during the Summer Games.作为土生土长的考克尼人,维奇#8226;格洛夫斯希望借夏季奥运会之机,与全世界分享考克尼文化。;All eyes are on London,; she said. ;I think it#39;s great to be able to say, we#39;ve got traditions that go back hundreds of years.;;全世界都注视着伦敦,;她说。;我们有着几百年的传统,我想这样向世界宣告是再合适不过的了。; /201208/194590
  • One-hundred-and-eleven-year-old Japanese engineer Tomoji Tanabe was awarded official recognition Monday as the world's newest oldest man by the Guinness Book of World Records(GBWR).A 111-year-old Japanese engineer born at the end of the century before last was awarded official recognition Monday as the world's newest oldest man, and joked he was sorry for still being alive.Tomoji Tanabe, a teetotaller who has repeatedly said that avoiding alcohol was a secret of his longevity, was given a certificate from the Guinness Book of World Records by the mayor of his local municipality.Tanabe, from Miyazaki prefecture on the southern island of Kyushu, was born on September 18, 1895 -- before Japan became a world player, Australia became independent or the Wright Brothers created the first plane."It is nothing special," he said, addingtongue-in-cheek, "I have lived too long. I am sorry."With the recognition, Japan boasts having both the world's oldest man and the oldest woman -- Yone Minagawa, 114, who also lives in Kyushu.To look after himself, Tanabe mainly eats vegetables and few greasy dishes, an official said.He became the oldest male after his predecessor, Emiliano Mercado del Toro of Puerto Rico, died at the age of 115 on January 24.Since then, the Guinness Book of World Records has investigated who should take the title as the oldest man on Earth and contacted Miyakonojo authorities earlier this month to verify Tanabe's birthdate.More than 28,000 Japanese are at least 100 years old, most of them women, according to the government.The Japanese people's renowned longevity is often attributed to eating the country's traditional healthy food, despite the hectic lifestyle many lead in the big cities.But the longevity is also presenting a headache as the country has very low birthrate, spelling a future demographic crisis as a smaller pool of workers supports a mass of elderly.本周一,一位于19世纪末出生的111岁的日本工程师被授予官方书,成为世界上“最新的”寿命最长的老人。他开玩笑说,他很抱歉自己活了这么久。滴酒不沾的田锅友时不断重申,其长寿的秘诀主要是不沾酒。他所在市的市长为他颁发了《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》授予他的书。来自九州岛南部宫崎县的田锅生于1895年9月18日。当时,日本在世界上还未占据一席之地,澳洲还未独立、莱特兄弟也还没有发明出第一架飞机。田锅说:“这没什么特别的。”后来又半开玩笑地说,“我活得太久了,我很抱歉。”田锅获得吉尼斯世界纪录的认后,日本便同时拥有了全世界寿命最长的男性和女性,目前全世界寿命最长的女性是114岁的皆川米子,她也住在九州岛。据一位官员介绍,田锅平时以吃蔬菜为主,很少吃油腻的菜。波多黎各的115岁老人Emiliano Mercado del Toro今年1月24日去世后,田锅就成了世界上寿命最长的男性。之后,吉尼斯世界纪录大全便开始调查谁可以接过这个头衔,他们于本月早些时候与宫崎县都城市有关部门取得联系,对田锅的出生日期进行了核实。据日本政府统计数据,目前日本的百岁老人超过2万8千人,其中大多数是女性。日本人以长寿著称,这常被归结于人们的饮食以日本传统的健康食品为主,尽管大城市里很多人生活得忙碌而紧张。但“长寿”现象对于日本来说也是个头疼事。日本的出生率极低势必造成一小群劳动者养活很多老年人的局面,这将会导致未来出现人口危机。Vocabulary: tongue-in-cheek:不认真的;半开玩笑的 /200808/45869
  • A New Zealand kayaker made the semi-finals of the men#39;s slalom at the Olympics despite being given a two-second penalty by his mother who is a judge at the games.新西兰一位奥运男子皮划艇激流回旋比赛选手昨天闯进了半决赛,但在比赛中,他因犯规被身为裁判的母亲罚时两秒钟。Mike Dawson touched gate five when going down the 18-gate Olympic course on Sunday, and his mother, Kay Dawson, did not hesitate to penalise her son. It was one of two two-second penalties Dawson received, but he still advanced to Wednesday#39;s semi-finals.上周日参赛时,迈克#8226;道森碰到了第五个障碍门,本届奥运比赛赛场共设有18个障碍门。他的母亲凯伊#8226;道森毫不犹豫地处罚了儿子。迈克#8226;道森被罚时2秒,但他仍然晋级了本周三举行的半决赛。Dawson joked that he was tempted to get his coach to put in a protest ;about that particular judge;.赛后道森开玩笑说,打算让教练去找那位“特殊”裁判抗议。It would have made dinner time at the Dawsons#39; even more awkward. His coach is father Les.这会让道森一家的晚餐更加“尴尬”,因为道森的教练正是他的父亲兰斯。;That would#39;ve had all sorts of ramifications after the Olympics and besides, I like mum#39;s cooking too much!; Dawson said.道森说:“这本来会在奥运会比赛之后把我们家的关系搞复杂。另外,我非常爱吃妈妈做的饭!”Dawson added that Kay#39;s penalty ;definitely dispels any hint of bias and I wouldn#39;t have it any other way;.道森补充说,母亲的判罚“当然消除了人们的任何偏见。我当然要接受处罚。”;Fortunately it was definitely a genuine touch and, of course, she called it right, as I#39;d expect her to,; he said, ;though I#39;ll be trying my hardest to keep mum unoccupied in my semi-final run.;他说:“幸运的是,很显然我碰到了障碍门,当然,我母亲的判罚也很正确,我也希望她这样判罚。我会尽全力在半决赛中不出现失误。”Dawson qualified eighth of the 15 kayakers who made the semi-finals. The 25-year-old Dawson is at his first Olympics, while his mother is at her second after officiating at the 2008 Beijing Games.道森在进入半决赛的15名选手中排名第八。25岁的道森是首次参加奥运会,而他的母亲是继08年北京奥运会后第二次出任奥运会裁判。 /201208/193079
  • Is romantic love a mental illness, as Plato said, a story that ends in death or the highest human achievement?Sarah Vine and Tania KindersleyThere are 21 dictionary definitions for the word love. Every woman may come to a point in her middle life when she suspects that she doesn't understand the first thing about any of these. Poets, philosophers, playwrights and pop singers from Socrates to Stevie Wonder have had a great deal to say about love.It is the sweetest thing; it is a red, red rose; it is a battlefield; it is a drug, a delusion, a lunacy. It is the answer, and the question. It is a balm, and a piercing arrow. H.L.Mencken compared it to perceptual anaesthesia; Keats wrote that it was his religion; Shakespeare called it a familiar, a devil, an ever-fixed mark, a smoke, a fire, a sea, a madness, a fever, a choking gall; it is like sunshine after rain, and does not bend.Of the various loves, romantic love is the most complicated and inexplicable. It can come on when you least expect it (and with the most unsuitable person), it can cast you from the heights of ecstasy to the abyss of despair, it can roar in you one moment then dissipate as quickly as breath on glass. It is what drives you to offer yourself to another human for the rest of your natural life, but only a few years later you may look back and have no memory at all of that initial ecstasy. Romantic love can be so confusing that sometimes you simply want to give up on the whole thing and concentrate on the nature of dark matter, or macroeconomics, or something else less tiring.A little biology can be helpful here. In the first throes of romantic love you are under the influence of a powerful chemical cocktail: dopamine (which makes opiates look like aspirin) is rushing through your veins. As if that were not enough, a perfect mixture of vasopressin and oxytocin, the attachment hormones, are raging around your body. Much of this was discovered through extensive study of prairie voles, who mate for life, spend a great deal of time tenderly grooming each other and nesting together, and studiously avoid meeting other potential partners.If only all men were just like prairie voles, we say, but if wishes were horses we would all be Lady Godiva.Aside from the chemical cosh, you also have the small-brain problem. MRI scans have shown that falling in love involves only a very tiny part of the brain, a much smaller part than is used when, say, operating heavy machinery. Researchers at University College London have remarked wryly that it was fascinating to reflect that Helen of Troy could have launched a thousand ships through the agency of such a limited expanse of cortex.It is vital, therefore, to bear in mind that when falling in love and choosing your mate you may be making a decision about the rest of your life based on only a fraction of your cognitive function. This limited section of the brain is also the exact same part that responds to cocaine, which means that you may select a partner for life, move to Anchorage and decide to make many babies, all based on the same area of the cortex that enjoys an illegal substance that makes you talk accelerated gibberish all night long.Plato said that love is a mental disease. Modern researchers agree enthusiastically, categorising love as a form of madness and echoing what psychologists have been telling tearful patients for years. (There are certain shrinks who refuse to treat people in the early throes of love because they are too insane to do a thing with.) Currently, scientists are having a genteel academic squabble over whether love most closely resembles the manic phase of bipolar disorder or the characteristics seen in obsessive compulsive disorder.There is also a school of thought that insists love is a cultural phenomenon. As the great French cynic La Rochefoucauld said: “People would not fall in love if they had not heard love talked about.” The culture keeps up a rapid-fire bombardment of the power and the glory of romantic love, and yet it seems curious that so many of the Greatest Love Stories Ever Told - Cathy and Heathcliff, Tristan and Isolde, Heloise and Abelard, Lancelot and Guinevere - end in disaster, if not death and carnage. If we were being really sceptical, we might conclude that it is delusional that “in love” should be regarded as the greatest and most time-consuming aspiration of the modern female. /200902/62698
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