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来源:时空卫生    发布时间:2017年10月22日 21:54:00    编辑:admin         

Taking a leak may soon involve far less trickle of precious water, that is. A California-based company has developed the waterless urinal, saving facilities thousands of gallons of water per year. James Krug of Falcon water-free technologies, says that Californians have plenty of experience of water shortage.不久的未来,小便将不再会浪费大量水资源。一家位于加利福尼亚的公司发明了一种无水便池,这种便池每年都能节约成千上万加仑水资源。James Krug,无水设备研究者表示加利福尼亚州经常要面对水资源短缺的情况。;There are 55 million urinals approximately around the world. And if you multiple that by the 40,000 gallons, also that they are using for water, there is an opportunity to save billions and billions of gallons of water. And the idea of just flushing fresh water down a urinal is seemed to make no sense to me.;“全世界大概有5千5百万小便池。如果你再乘以每个小便池浪费的4万加仑水资源,将会是多少?如果把这些有水都换成无水小便池的话,则会节约十亿百亿加仑的水。在我看来用水冲刷小便池可不是个好主意。”A traditional urinal uses water to flush urine. But the folks at Falcon believed that because urine is aly liquid, gravity, not water is needed for flushing. They developed a plastic cartridge filled with biodegradable liquid sealant that traps gases and odors as urine flows through it. One cartridge lasts about 7,000 uses, and an average facility only needs 2 to 3 replacement cartridges a year. But surely no water means more bad smells and germs.传统的小便池用水冲走附着的池壁的尿液。但Falcon公司的人认为,既然尿液已经是液体了,加上地心引力,那就无需其他的水来冲刷了。他们发明了一个塑料筒,内置密封的生物降解剂,只有当尿液流经的时候吸收异味。40美元一筒,可用7千次。一般的公共卫生间一年只需要更换2到3次即可。而且,无水也意味着无气味和无菌。;The answer is actually much more hygienic. We know that we need water for life. So when you have a dryer system, when you have less water moisture in the urinal, you do not have the growth of bacteria.;“原因显而易见。我们知道,正常生活都需要水,而用了这套无水系统,小便器中的湿度会相应降低,也就不容易滋生细菌了。”The famous Hollywood Bowl Concert Venue has installed waterless urinals, saving them about 3 million gallons of water a year, according to COO, Avon Manoucher.雅芳首席运营官Manoucher透露,好莱坞的名人Bowl Concert Venue已经安装了这套无水系统,这套系统为他们每年节约了3百万加仑的水,;I think its important as a major venue and an icon in the city that we helped take the lead, and are trying to do things that are good for the environment and forward-looking, and for water-free technology its just one aspect of our program.;“我认为我们应该在城市的主干道和繁华地段应用这种新技术,因为这对于环境有益,具有前瞻性,而这只是我们要做的一部分工作。”Krugs company has installed 200,000 urinals worldwide, 100,000 in the US alone, insuring that this is one idea that wont be flushed down the toilet.Krug的公司在全世界已经安装了20万无水便池,仅美国就达到了10万部。看来无水便池的想法不会很快过时。Tara Cleary, Reuters.Tara Cleary,路透社报道。biodegradable adj. 生物所能分解的,能进行生物降解的sealant n. 【医学】密封剂注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/189908。

A CONCERT by Gustav Leonhardt was not like any other. He approached his harpsichord with the air of a mortician, slightly flexing his long, delicate hands. As he played he sat bolt upright, gaunt and aquiline, unsmiling in his crisp, perfect suit, with his elbows held close to his sides. No unnecessary gesture, no hint of emotion: senza baldanza, as a composer might have marked it. He did not have the look of a man on a mission. But he was.古斯塔夫bull;莱昂哈特的演奏会与众不同。他带着一种殡仪师的气质慢慢走近他的羽管键琴,轻轻地扭动一下他那纤细修长的双手。在演奏时他的背挺得笔直,瘦削且轮廓分明,穿着一身干净得体的西装而表情严肃,手肘紧靠在身体两侧。没有花俏的手势,没有透露出一点情绪,作曲家可能会把这叫做;缺乏自信;。他看上去不像一个肩负使命的人,但他是的。Mr Leonhardtrsquo;s life-work was to persuade the world how beautiful the harpsichord was, and how the harpsichord repertoire should be played. When he first fell in love with it, in the shape of the fairly bad instrument his parents bought for their house at Graveland in the Netherlands, he recognised it as the king of keyboards. Organs were noble characters, and he played church organ for years. Virginals were pleasing; he wrote a book on Flemish examples. But fortepianos were awful, the sound muffling all over the place when the hammer hit the keys, which put him off playing his beloved Mozart; and modern grands were unspeakable. None had that direct pluck of plectrum on string for which he loved the harpsichord;though that mechanism was also fearsomely exacting, even ;diabolical;, and that was why he did not smile as he played.莱昂哈特先生的毕生心血都花在让世界了解羽管键琴是多么美好的一种乐器,以及应该怎样弹奏羽管键琴曲目上面。当初,他父母替位于荷兰格雷弗兰村的房子买了一台音质很差的羽管键琴,从那时起他就爱上了这种乐器,认识到它是键盘乐器之王。风琴具有高贵的特色,他曾在教堂弹奏多年的风琴。小键琴则悦耳动听,他曾著过一本讨论弗兰芒小键琴的书。但是古典钢琴糟透了,当琴槌敲出音调时到处都是压抑的声音,让他在弹奏他钟爱的莫扎特时大受打击,至于现代钢琴,简直糟得无法形容。所有这些乐器都没有琴拨在琴弦上的直接拨动,而这正是他热爱羽管键琴的原因。不过同时要掌握这种发声机制也费劲得令人害怕,简直有如;恶魔;一般,这也是为什么他在演奏时从不微笑的原因。It would also have been vulgar. Mr Leonhardt was ever on the watch for that, whether in the form of electric lighting, or showy articulation, or hotel breakfast buffets, or Beethovenrsquo;s Ninth. (;That lsquo;Ode to Joyrsquo;, talk about vulgarity! And the text! Completely puerile!;) His own manners were exquisitely courteous; he seemed to have stepped from the past, and even a shockingly fast drive in his Alfa Romeo might end with Mr Leonhardt, lost, finding his way home not by sat-nav but the stars.而且羽管键琴的演奏也容易流于低俗。不管是电灯照明,或是浮华的发音,抑或旅馆的自助早餐,还是贝多芬的第九交响乐里(;那首《欢乐颂》,简直是低俗的代表!再看看歌词!幼稚极了!;),莱昂哈特一直小心翼翼,让自己远离低俗。他自己的行为举止都带有一种高雅的礼貌,就好像他来自于过去的时代,给人感觉莱昂哈特就算开他自己的那辆快得让人乍舌的阿尔法bull;罗密欧去兜风,最后可能也会落得迷路下场,而且他会借助星星而不是导航器的指引找到家。When he began to study harpsichord seriously, at Basel in 1950, the instrument had been neglected, or overlaid with Romantic sweetness, for decades. He intended to restore it to the simple, original sound, ;salt rather than sugar;, that Johann Sebastian Bach had written for. If people found that sound too thin for modern halls, and the pitch disturbingly low, too bad; their ears would just have to get used to it. And after a while, they did.1950年他开始在巴塞尔正式学习羽管键琴,当时这种乐器要么被人忽略,要么就是用来表现浪漫风格的甜蜜感,这种情况已经有几十年了。他决定要让羽管键琴重拾它原本那种简单的声音,那种;是盐,而不是糖;的声音,约翰bull;塞巴斯蒂安bull;巴赫当初就是为这种声音作曲的。如果人们觉得这种声音对于现代音乐厅来说太过于稀薄了,或是调子低得令人不安,太糟了,让他们去习惯这种声音吧。实际上,经过一段时间,人们真得习惯了。It meant hard work for him. He began by tirelessly hand-copying hundreds of original scores in the Vienna Library, when he was meant to be studying conducting (but he scorned conducting, thinking it ;the easiest way out; in music, with never a wrong note to worry about). He continued by making a definitive recording in 1953 of Bachrsquo;s ;Art of Fugue;, and publishing an impassioned argument that the piece had been written for solo harpsichord rather than ensemble. That stirred up interest in pre-Romantic music, though still not enough to fill a room when his little consort played Biberrsquo;s unpublished ;Fidicinium sacro-profanum;, or other treasures he had unearthed. He thought of those as his catacomb days. Fairly quickly, however, listeners warmed to Byrd and Frescobaldi, Rameau and Ritter; his own recordings, especially with Nikolaus Harnoncourt of all Bachrsquo;s Cantatas, fanned the flame; and the early-music movement has flourished ever since.这对他来说可不是轻松的工作。就在他本应学习指挥的时间里,他孜孜不倦地从维也纳图书馆手抄了数百份原谱(他本来就很轻视指挥,认为这是音乐中;最轻松的一条路;,从不需要担心弹错音)。他继续努力,在1953年录制了一张巴赫《赋格的艺术》的权威唱片,同时出版了一篇热情洋溢的论文,提出这首曲子并不是为了合奏,而是为了羽管键琴独奏而写的观点。这激起了人们对前浪漫主义音乐的兴趣,虽然在他的小乐队演奏比贝尔的《宗教世俗弦乐集》以及其它他挖掘出来的宝藏时,这种兴趣还没有大到可以让听众填满一个房间。他后来回忆时说那是一段暗无天日的时期。不过,很快的,听众对伯德,弗雷斯科巴尔迪,拉莫,斯瑞特的曲子反应热烈,他自己的一些唱片,尤其是和尼古劳斯bull;哈农库特合作录制的巴赫康塔塔全集进一步提高了他的声望,从那之后早期音乐运动就如火如荼地展开了。201202/170553。

And did any man ever show as much affection for his trusty boots as Vincent years later went on to show.而且多年之后,文森特的靴子也被用去展览。There aint a lady living in the land.不是一位女士住在这片土地上。As Id swap for my dear old Dutch,我是去寻觅我的亲爱的荷兰旧交。There aint a lady living in the land.不是一位女士住在这片土地上。As Id swap for my dear old Dutch,我是去寻觅我的亲爱的荷兰旧交。Stokesschool in Isleworth turned out to be another no hoper.斯托克斯在艾尔沃斯的学校变成了另外一处更没有希望的地方。But just down the Twickenham Road was another boy school run by the Reverend Thomas Slade-Jones, a congregational minister, the first man ever to understand fully Vincents religious passion.但城市道路的下面是由会众部长牧师托马斯·斯莱德·琼斯开设的另一间男生学校,牧师曾经第一个充分理解文森特的宗教热情。The reverend was one of the few heroes of Vincents life.牧师是文森特生命中为数不多的英雄之一。He gave him a job at this school and paid him.他给他在这个学校的一份工作并付酬劳。It was in this house that Vincents frantic Bible ing and growing religious mania finally found an outlet.在这所房子里,文森疯狂的阅读圣经而且他不断增长的宗教狂热终于找到出口。He decided he wanted to be some sort of missionary.他决定他想成为某种传教士。Teaching wasnt enough for him.教学并不能使他满足。He thought about going up north to work among the poor in the dark satanic mills.他想过要到北部在黑暗的穷人作坊中工作。But there was quite enough poverty to be getting on with in London where a man with a religious mission could find plenty to do.但在伦敦贫困足够让一个有着宗教信仰的男人找到很多可做的事情。注:听力文本来源于普特201208/194978。

An ocean is the last place yoursquo;d expect to find a freshwater lake. As strange as it may seem, the Arctic Ocean is home to a lake roughly twice the size of Lake Victoria, one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world. This arctic lake is located in the Beaufort Gyre, an area near northwestern Canada where the water circulates in a clockwise pattern. Normally, as rivers empty into an ocean, fresh water mixes with the salty ocean water. Over the last decade, scientists have discovered that arctic river water and melting sea ice have pooled with little mixing. The growing pond isnrsquo;t entirely salt free, but its size and stability have scientists worried.海洋是能找到淡水湖的最后的地方。看起来似乎很奇怪,北冰洋中的湖泊,其大小是世界上最大的淡水湖泊之一;维多利亚湖;的两倍。这个北极湖位于加拿大西北部附近的Beaufort Gyre,那里的水按顺时针模式循环。通常情况下,河流流入海洋,淡水与咸海水混合。在过去十年里,科学家们已经发现,北极的河水和融化的海冰只有少许融合。日益增长的池塘并非完全无盐,但其规模和稳定性令科学家们担心。201202/170044。

Ear rocks, also known as ;otoliths,; are tiny pebbles of calcium carbonate in our inner ear that help keep us balanced. Theyrsquo;re located deep inside the inner ear in a small pouch called a utricle. When we move our heads, the tiny rocks move around and bump into nerve cells. These nerve cells send signals to our brain that tell it which way the head is oriented. Itrsquo;s one way we know up from down. But problems with ear rocks can be a cause of chronic dizziness or vertigo. Occasionally the little pebbles fall out of the utricle and can get into another part of the inner ear canals. When this happens, the brain senses that wersquo;re moving much more than we really are, resulting in sensations of unsteadiness or dizziness.耳岩,也被称为;耳石;,是内耳中碳酸钙形成的晶体,它帮助我们保持平衡。它们位于内耳深处一个叫作;胞囊;的地方。当我们移动头部时,晶体也会四处移动并接触到神经细胞。这些神经细胞将信号发送到我们的大脑,告诉大脑头面向的方向。这是一种让我们知道上下的方式。但耳石有问题的话,它会导致慢性头晕或眩晕。有时候,小晶体会从;胞囊;中掉出来,并进入到内耳道中。当这种情况发生时,大脑感到我们移动的距离要比实际移动的距离多很多,这会造成不稳或头晕的感觉。201202/170688。

How Rocks Appear In Your GardenI wonder how many of us went out this past spring to get our gardens y for planting, smug in the thought that last year we got rid of all the rocks.There’s that nice big mound of them in the corner of the garden where we piled them. Surely by now they are all cleaned out.“Wait! What is this?!” A big stone, and another one, and another one! Where did they come from?Did some mischievous kid bury a bunch of them for me to find this spring? Well, that could be,But maybe this time the kids were actually innocent.Any place that has winters cold enough to freeze the ground might experience the magical appearance of rocks welling up from beneath the surface.This is so common in the eastern U.S. that the rocks are called “New England potatoes.”Here’s what makes these stones mysteriously appear. Stones are better conductors of heat than soil, so the stone conducts heat away from the warmer soil beneath it.That colder soil under the rock then freezes before other dirt at the same depth.Remember that when water freezes it expands. So, when the water in the soil under the rock freezes, it expands and pushes the rock up a little.When the ground thaws a space is left under the stone which fills with dirt, so the stone rests a little higher.Over a period of time this repeated freezing, expanding, upward push, and filling underneath eventually shoves the rock to the surface. /201205/184265。

Further ahead in our story, after some turbulent religious times the preacher who stood up here and delivered his first sermon was to give up religion rather fiercely and claim to despise it.在我们的故事的未来往前一点是一些动荡的宗教时期,一些传教士站出来宣称他的第一次布道是放弃宗教信仰而且激烈疯狂的鄙视它。But one of the keys to understanding the real Van Gogh is to realize that once all this has soaked into his art, it could never be removed. Never.但是真正理解梵高的一个关键点是意识到,一旦这一切已经浸透进他的艺术,这可能永远不会被删除。永远不会。That Christmas, Vincent went home to his family.那年圣诞节,文森特回家和家人团聚。He said hed returned to London after the holidays.他说他想在假期后回到伦敦。注:听力文本来源于普特 201208/196754。