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2017年12月18日 20:43:23来源:爱淘评论

  • If youve ever driven on a highway during a heavy rain, you know about the danger of skidding. This ;waterskiing; on the road is technically called hydroplaning, and it happens when water comes between the road and your tires, causing you to lose traction and go out of control. Your car is less likely to slide around when the road is dry because there is enough friction between your tires and the road to keep you steady, even at high speeds.如果你曾大雨天开车在高速公路上行驶,你就会知道打滑的危险。在技术上,这种“路上滑水”称作“湿路打滑”,当路面和轮胎之间有水时,就会发生这种现象,致使车子失去牵引力从而失去控制。当地面干燥时,就不可能打滑,因为轮胎和道路之间有足够的擦力来使车子在高速行驶时保持稳定。But when it rains, a layer of water builds up between your tires and the road. This water interferes with the friction that helps your tires grip the road surface. This is where the ts on your tires come in. If the road you are driving along is covered with water, the pressure of the tire against the road surface causes the water to be squeezed up into the tire ts. These ts help your tires pump water out from underneath the tire so that the rubber can be in contact with the road, thus creating the friction that will stabilize your car.但是当遇到雨天时,路面和你的轮胎之间会积起一层雨水。水会减小擦,而擦力的作用正是帮助加强轮胎抓地力防止其失控。这时轮胎上的条纹就起作用了。如果你一路上驾驶的道路被水覆盖,轮胎对地表施加的压力把积水挤压到轮胎面上。这些纹路会帮忙把轮胎下的水抽出,这样橡胶就又能与地面接触,从而产生阻力使你的稳步前进。The faster you go, the more water your tires have to remove. Thats why your car may not hydroplane at thirty miles per hour, but might at sixty miles per hour. In fact, at highway speeds, during hard rains, each tire must pump away about a gallon of water every second. This is hard for tires to do if they are old and have ts that are worn down. When there isnt enough space in the tires grooves, water cant find a place to go and so it creates a layer of lubrication, causing you to do the equivalent to waterskiing on the highway.你开得越快,轮胎需要排出的积水就更多。这就是为什么你的车时速30英里时不打滑,而时速60英里时却打滑。实际上,按照高速公路上的行驶速度算的话,在雨天每个轮胎每秒要排出一加仑的水。如果轮胎太旧或者已经严重磨损的话,排水就会很困难。当轮胎凹槽上的空间不够时,水无处可去,就充当了润滑层,造成车子打滑,就相当于在高速公路上做滑水运动。原文译文属!201209/202045。
  • Business Starbucks v Kraft A double shot of discord商业 星巴克对决卡夫 不合引发连环炮The kings of coffee brawl with the monarchs of macaroni咖啡之王对决通心粉之霸STARBUCKS once seemed so unstoppable that the Onion, a satirical paper, joked about a new Starbucks opening in the restroom of an existing Starbucks.星巴克曾经势不可挡,以至于以嘲讽著称的onion报开玩笑称星巴克的新店会开在老店的厕所内。Yet by January 2008, when Howard Schultz, the coffee chains most effective boss, returned as chief executive, it was rapidly declining.但是在2008年前,他的业绩款速下降。直至最为卓著的领导人Howard Schultz返回公司担任董事长。Mr Schultz closed stores, shed staff, slimmed the supply chain and arrested Starbuckss slide.Schultz先生关闭门店,裁减雇员,简化供应链。力挽了星巴克的颓势。In fiscal 2010 the firms operating margins rebounded to 13.8%, the highest in its 40-year history.2010财政年度,星巴克的运营利润率反弹至13.8%,为星巴克40年历史的最高。One of the problems Mr Schultz found, after a review of the business, was in the way Starbucks-brand coffee was sold in supermarkets.重新审视业务之后,Schultz发现其中一个问题-星巴克品牌在超市里售卖。The so-called consumer-packaged goods (CPG) business is handled by Kraft, Americas biggest food company, which is best known for having mastered the art of mixing macaroni with cheese.号称快消品业务是由美国最大的食品公司卡夫经营的,卡夫由于其搅拌芝士通心粉而被人熟知。Following an agreement in 1998, Kraft sells, markets and distributes bags of Starbucks coffee.按照1998年达成的协议,卡夫分销袋装星巴克咖啡。Mr Schultz told Kraft he was dissatisfied.Schultz先生告知卡夫他对此感到不满意。Kraft acknowledged the complaint, but, according to Starbucks, failed to act because it was focused on the takeover of Cadbury, a maker of superior British sweets such as Creme Eggs.卡夫实了Schultz的抱怨,但是按照星巴克的说法,他之所以不采取行动是由于卡夫把业务重心放在收购吉百利上面,吉百利是英国优质糖果制造商,其代表商品有糖心巧克力。By the spring of last year, both sides realised that their partnership was broken.去年春天,双方都意识到他们的合作关系已经破裂。Starbucks says it offered Kraft 0m to give back the CPG business.星巴克声称他将出价5亿美元买回其快消业余。As part of the proposed deal, it still wanted to supply capsules for Tassimo, Krafts single-portion coffee machines.作为意向交易的一部分,星巴克依然使用卡夫的全自动Tassimo咖啡机。Kraft initially agreed to the buy-out offer, but then changed its mind and demanded another 0m, according to Starbucks.星巴克声称:卡夫同意了此项收购,但是接着就改变了主意并要求追加2亿。Kraft disputes this account.卡夫对否认了此种说法。It claims that Starbucks offered 0m to buy out the business in August. It adds that it rejected the offer. A fair price would be .5 billion, Kraft says.卡夫声称星巴在八月克出价7.5亿美元来买下了业务,卡夫补充到其拒绝了此项收购,合适的价格应该为15亿美元。In October Starbucks told Kraft that it was in material breach of their agreement.十月,星巴克告知卡夫他严重违约。Unless the matter was resolved within 30 days, Starbucks said, all their agreements (including the one on Tassimo) would end by March 1st and Kraft would get nothing.除非30日内得到解决,否则所有协议(包括Tassimo咖啡机的协议)最迟将于3月1日作废届时卡夫将一无所获。The alleged breaches include Krafts failure to involve Starbucks in sales planning, to provide detailed budgets and to obtain approval for advertising.所谓的违约包括卡夫未能将星巴克纳入到其销售计划中,未能提供详尽的经费以及未能获得广告推广的批准。Starbucks says Kraft also violated an exclusivity deal by promoting its own premium coffee.星巴克说卡夫还通过推广自己的优质咖啡而违反了了排他协议。Kraft says all these alleged breaches are baseless. It says Starbucks brewed them up to give itself a pretext for grabbing back the best part of its business (its coffee shops are still sluggish) without paying for it.卡夫方面宣称这些所谓的违约时无依据的,星巴克制造了这些说辞来作为重夺优质市场而不花一分钱的借口,星巴克的咖啡店业务进展缓慢。Mr Schultz declared war. In November he announced that Starbucks was ending its relationship with Kraft unilaterally.Schul提起开始仲裁希望改变这种情况。On November 29th Kraft initiated an arbitration proceeding to challenge this move. Ignoring the arbitration, Starbucks said a couple of days later that from March onwards it would distribute its packaged coffee through Acosta, a marketing firm.星巴克方面宣称将不理会仲裁并于数十天后的3月开始通过行销机构Acosta来销售包装咖啡。In Acosta helped Starbucks to launch Via, a popular brand of instant coffee.年Acosta帮助星巴克开创了Via-大受欢迎的速溶咖啡。On December 6th Kraft sought a preliminary injunction against Starbucks in a District Court of New York, for allegedly violating the terms of their agreement.据宣称12月6日卡夫以违反协议条款为理由向纽约地区地区法院申请一项初步禁令,听会将暂定于于1月27日举行。The hearing of the injunction is tentatively scheduled for January 27th. Kraft says that it played a central role in the success of Starbuckss packaged-coffee business, which grew tenfold during the course of their partnership.卡夫方面称其在星巴克的包装咖啡业务从双方开始合作到现今增长十倍上发挥着核心作用。Starbucks retorts that it could have grown faster if someone else had handled it.星巴克方面则反驳若是其他人经营业务本该增长的更快。Even so, it will be tricky to prove material breaches of the agreement, so Starbucks will probably have to pay to end it.即便这样,明重大违约行为将变得非常棘手,星巴克极有可能以收购了事。Kraft stands to lose not only a lucrative business but also some ;category captaincies;.卡夫不仅失去了获利颇丰的业务而且部分领军地位。Each large American retailer elects a product-category captain who is closely involved in how its sales are managed.每个美国大型零售商都会选择一家积极处理与之相关业务的领军企业。Kraft is category captain in more than 60% of the supermarkets in which it distributes coffee. Acosta will soon be vying for this profitable honour.卡夫占据了超市咖啡分销市场60%以上的份额,Acosta也将紧盯这快大肥肉。 /201212/216168。
  • Mud from the ancient riverbanks is good for building nests.古老河岸边的泥浆有利于筑巢。lt also holds more evidence that will help us to reconstruct the ice age past.很多据表明,这将帮助我们重现过去的冰河世纪。Every now and then,new clues surface, hinting at what else might lie beneath.新的线索表面有时暗示着其他可能深藏的东西。ln this dried-up pond in South Dakota, known as Hot Springs, scientists unearthed great piles of bones.在被称为温泉的南达科达州干涸的池塘边,科学家发掘了成堆的骨头。What kind of creature died here? The bones reveal it stood four metres tall and weighed more than 10 tonnes.什么生物死在这里?骨头揭示了它有四米高,重达10吨。Theres nothing fitting that description living here today.今天没有这样大小的生物存在。Heres the give-away, a pair of tusks two metres long, the trademark of a Columbian mammoth, the biggest animal to roam the ice age plains.这是赠品,一对两米长的象牙,一个哥伦比亚猛犸象的商标,冰河时代的平原上最大的动物。By comparing it to elephants in Africa today, can we shed light on how those ice age elephants lived and what they lived on?和今天的非洲象相比,我们能够解释冰河时期的大象生活和它们如何生活的吗?These are mammoth teeth, huge molars the size of bricks.这些是猛犸象的牙齿,巨大的臼齿和砖块差不多大。They have deep ridges very similar to those of modern elephants, suggesting mammoths, too, survived by grinding vast amounts of grass.它们有深深的脊,和现代大象十分相似,表明猛犸象也靠磨大量的草为生。Plant fragments trapped between the ridges can still be identified today.今天还能看见在脊骨中间的残留的植物碎片。Thousands of years after this mammoth died, we know exactly what it ate for its last meal.在猛犸象死了,几千年之后,我们很明确地知道它的最后一餐吃的是什么。Grass is a tough, abrasive food. Even with protective enamel ridges, these teeth would gradually have worn down.草是强硬和需要研磨的食物。即使是有保护釉质的脊,这些牙齿也会逐渐被磨损。But just like modern elephants, the mammoths had evolved a way to deal with this.但是如同现代象一样,猛犸象进化到可以处理这一切。As one set of teeth was eroded, another grew up to take its place.一套牙齿被侵蚀了,新的一套又出现了。The evidence suggests they had six sets in all, to last a lifetime, up to 60 years.据表明在它们60多年的人生中,有六套牙齿。The South Dakota mammoth didnt make it to old age and it was not alone.南达科他州的猛犸象没能活到晚年,它并不孤独。The site turned out to be a mammoth graveyard, hiding more than 50 skeletons, all from animals in their prime.这片遗址变成了猛犸象的墓地,有超过50具骨骼在此,都是处于它们的鼎盛时期。Theres no sign they were killed by hunters, so how did so many healthy mammoths die?没有迹象表明它们被猎人杀害,这么多健康的猛犸象是怎么死的呢?201303/232538。
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