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2017年10月24日 15:54:05|来源:国际在线|编辑:求医卫生
Finance and economics财经商业Civil servants and austerity公务员与财政紧缩The times they arent a-changin不曾变革的时代Civil-service payrolls have held up surprisingly well一直以来,公务员的薪酬都出奇地好AFTER the party, the hangover.盛宴之后,宿醉来临。When debt-fuelled economic growth came to a crashing halt in the financial crisis of 2008, governments across much of the rich world sought to cut spending.在2008年的经济危机中,由债务推动的经济增长模式彻底崩溃,随后许多富裕经济体政府则力图缩减开。One obvious target was the states payroll.而其中一个明显的着手点便是公务员薪酬出。Leviathans minions are certainly costly.利维坦仆从们的耗费当然不菲。In the European Union public-sector wages and salaries take up about 10% of GDP.在欧盟国家当中,公共部门的薪水出大约占国民总收入的10%。The Initiative for Policy Dialogue, based at Columbia University, reckons that since 2010 almost 100 governments have set out plans to cut their payrolls.据哥伦比亚大学的政策对话倡议组织估计,自2010年以来,已有接近100个政府着手削减他们的公务员薪酬开。Some cuts may be savage.一些裁员计划或许能用残忍来形容。The headcount in many British government departments may fall by as much as 40% by 2019 from current levels, says a recent report from the Institute for Fiscal Studies, a think-tank.近期一篇来自英国政府智囊团财政研究院的报告表明,英国许多政府部门将于在2019年之前裁减目前总数40%的员工。Relative to its 2012 level Italy plans to jettison 20% of public-administration managers by 2016.而意大利政府则计划于2016年之前裁减相当于2012年总量20%的公务员。However, aggregated data on public-sector headcounts offer some surprises.然而,公共部门员工的统计数据却有些出人意料。Whereas Britains public-sector workforce has aly contracted by 8% since 2007, in Germany and France the number has increased.自2007年起英国政府公务员人数已缩减了8%,与此相反的是德国与法国方面却在增加。More intriguing still is what has happened to compensation costs—the amount governments pay bureaucrats in wages and salaries, but not pensions.更耐人寻味的是官僚薪酬待遇变化情况,而不是津贴方面的问题。Of the 30 countries in a Eurostat database, half are spending more after inflation on public employees than they were in 2007, even in cases where headcount has fallen.据欧盟统计局的资料显示,有半数国家公务员薪酬开与2007年的水平相比有所提升。The euro zone as a whole spends only 1.7% less on government wages than it did six years ago.其中部分国家甚至已经着手削减了其公务员规模。以欧元区国家作为整体来统计,其公务员薪酬开仅比6年前减少了1.7%。Belgium spends 10% more, Luxembourg 24%.与此同时,比利时政府反而增加了10%,卢森堡增加了24%。And since 2007, 21 countries, including Cyprus, Italy and France, have not cut the proportion of GDP that they devote to public servants wages.自2007年以来,有21个国家仍未削减公务员薪酬,这其中包括塞浦路斯、意大利和法国。Finding explanations for dearer public payslips is tricky.要为日益高昂的政府工资单找理由,不是一件容易的事情。One reason might be wage drift—the automatic increases in salaries that can occur as civil servants are granted annual promotions in seniority, simply for having been in their jobs for another year.其中一个原因或许可以总结为工资浮动—这一机制确保了公务员薪酬随着职位的逐年提升而增加,而职位的提升往往并不需要什么理由,仅仅在自己的岗位上又待了一年的公务员便可获得提升。In 2012, for example, more than 600,000 staff from Britains National Health Service received rises averaging 3.5%, despite a pay freeze.例如,除了一次薪金冻结之外,英国国家医疗卫生务系统超过60万名员工,在2012年得到了平均3.5%的薪金涨幅。In 2010 Barack Obama also decided to freeze government pay, yet the median salary for federal employees climbed by over ,000 during the following two years.在2010年,美国总统奥巴马虽然同样地实施了薪金冻结,然而在其后的两年内,公务员薪酬中位数则突破了3000美元的大关。Wage drift could outweigh the effect of reduced headcount, which is likely to be concentrated in the lower echelons of the civil service.工资浮动机制的影响,可能远比裁减人员的作用更大,而这是由于政府的裁员计划主要面向低层公务员。Another possibility, suggests Alberto Alesina of Harvard University, is that governments simply failed to implement planned spending cuts.哈佛大学的艾尔波托?艾莱斯那表示还有另一种可能:简单地说,那就是政府没有去执行早已制定好的开削减计划。At the end of January Greeces highest administrative court ruled that pay reductions for the armed forces and emergency services were unconstitutional: the government now faces a heavy bill in back pay.在一月底,希腊最高行政法院宣布,政府对军队以及应急务部门的经费削减行为是违宪的:这意味着政府现在要面对的是堆积如山的欠薪账单。Portugals constitutional court also opposed the scrapping of Christmas bonuses for civil servants on similar grounds.同样地,葡萄牙宪法法庭也反对其政府取消相关部门公务员圣诞节奖金的计划。These data are worrisome.以上种种数据令人十分不安。The implicit trade-off of austerity was pain now, prosperity later.如今交由政府当局权衡的利弊是自己能否忍受开削减的痛苦,以换取将来的经济繁荣。Yet as growth in advanced economies picks up, many civil services seem no more streamlined than before.但随着发达国家经济增长复苏,许多公共务将愈发臃肿不堪。 /201403/279136

Finance and economics财经商业Rigging currency markets操控货币市场Bank, fix thyself,作茧自缚The Bank of England faces questions over its role in rigged forex deals.英格兰面临非法操控外币市场的指控。ABOUT two dozen staff have so far been fired or suspended by banks for allegedly tampering with foreign-exchange markets.目前为止,总共约有24名员工因操纵外汇市场而被解雇或停职。The latest twist in the saga came from an unexpected quarter:给这一漫长风波带来新波折的,是令人意想不到的一方:on March 5th the Bank of England announced that it too had suspended an official following an internal investigation.3月5日,英格兰经过内部调查后宣布将一名职员停职。Awkwardly, Britains central bank has gone from inquisitor to a possible protagonist in the latest episode of financial-market chicanery.尴尬的是,这次金融市场诈骗案的最新发展却使英国中央从审问官变为了犯罪嫌疑人。Regulators globally have spent months investigating whether forex traders at big banks rigged global currency markets,全球监管部门已花费数月来调查大型的外汇交易员们是否操纵了全球货币市场,the worlds largest, where turnover is over trillion a day.这个世界最大的市场中的日流通额度达到了5万亿美元。They suspect that bankers used their knowledge of what currencies their clients wanted to buy and sell to nudge market prices against them.它们怀疑员工利用其客户想要买卖的现金种类的消息来推动市场上的汇率下跌。If so, it would be the latest in a long list of financial benchmarks that have been rigged in ways that have bolstered bankers bonuses.如果情况属实,这将成为那一长串纵以获取大量红利的基准数字中的新成员。Fines are still pouring in over LIBOR, an interest rate used to peg contracts worth trillions, which traders fiddled.因操纵LIBOR一个涉及到数万亿合同的利率数字,而受到巨额罚款的仍在不断增加。A plausible defence from the bankers in the latest probe might be that they had told the Bank of England exactly what they were doing.在最新一次调查中,员工辩称曾告知英格兰他们的具体行为。Minutes from regular meetings between the central bank and traders showed widesp concern about the structure of the currency markets as early as 2006.中央和交易员日常会议的记录文件显示,早在2006年货币市场的结构就引起了广泛关注。All sides agreed that it was open to abuse because many clients,各有关方面都认为这极易受到利用,因为众多顾客,from multinational companies to mutual funds with foreign holdings,从跨国公司到有外国资本的共同基金都以一个当日参考汇率来买卖货币,tended to buy and sell currencies from their banks at a single daily reference rate, the London fix, which is calculated using trades executed in 60 seconds of trading at 4pm in London.而伦敦定价是基于下午四点开始60秒钟内发生在伦敦的所有交易来计算的。That means rigging the market for just a minute could reap rich rewards.这意味着操纵市场一分钟就能带来丰厚的回报。A bank that had agreed to sell lots of Canadian dollars, say,比方说,一家在定价时为客户公司卖出大量加元,for a corporate customer could, in effect, depress that currencys price at the fix and so buy them for itself at a slightly lower price.这就会压低货币的价格,从而使能以低一些的价格买入加元。Bankers allegedly shared trading positions ahead of the fix, in internet messaging groups, among them The Cartel and The Bandits Club.据称,员工在在定价之前会在网络上共享交易头寸,比如在卡特尔和强盗俱乐部交易员从不以谨慎著称。Regulators think this is tantamount to fraud; banks have argued they were injecting order in an otherwise unworkable marketplace.监管部门认为这等同于诈骗;而辩解称,他们是在维护市场秩序,以保市场的正常运行。Notes taken by a trader at a meeting organised by the Bank of England in April 2012 suggest the traders had told the bank that they regularly shared information on forex positions.一位交易员在2012年4月英格兰会议上的笔记显示,交易员已经告知他们定期共享外汇头寸的信息。According to Bloomberg, the central bank at least tacitly endorsed their attempts to match buyers and sellers,根据彭社消息,英国中央至少是默许了交易员匹配买家和卖家的行为,purportedly to limit the volatility of everyone trading at the fix.据称这是为了限制定价时各类交易的不稳定性。Discomfitingly, the bank explicitly said notes should not be taken at the meeting. Its own minutes reportedly shed no light on the matter.尴尬的是,曾明确表示开会时是不允许记笔记。方面的会议记录中并未涉及相关事件。The Bank of England denies it endorsed any wrongdoing.英格兰否认自己曾允许违规操作。After reviewing 15,000 e-mails, 21,000 chat messages and 40 hours of phone-call recordings, it said it had found no evidence its staff were privy to any collusion.该表示,在其调查的15,000封邮件、21,000聊天信息和40小时的电话记录中,没有据显示员工私下勾结。But one person at Thneedle Street had breached rigorous internal control processes,但是针线街的一名员工确实违反了严格的内部控制流程,and others have been reminded of the importance of keeping accurate records and telling higher-ups when they hear something noteworthy.而其他人则被提醒了保管好准确的记录以及在得到重要消息时告知上级的重要性。A fuller investigation has been launched.进一步的调查正在进行中。It is not the first time the central bank is painted as a conspirator in financial fiddling—or at least a tolerator of it.这已经不是英国中央第一次被描述为金融舞弊的谋划者或者至少是默许者。In 2012 the then-deputy governor, Paul Tucker, had to flatly deny he had sanctioned duff LIBOR submissions by Barclays at the height of the financial crisis.在2012年,时任副行长的保罗塔克坚决否认自己在金融危机高潮时持了巴克莱提交的经过粉饰的LIBOR意见书。Chummy exchanges with Bob Diamond, at the time the boss at Barclays, made for awkward ing.而他与时任巴克莱行长的鲍勃戴蒙德之间的暧昧谈话,又像是在自打耳光。One potential problem for banks is that, unlike the people affected by LIBOR, it is easy for those who were fleeced by their forex bankers to figure it out.对而言,一个潜在的问题是这些被外汇交易员痛宰的客户不同于受到LIBOR影响的那些,他们更容易发现事实。Perhaps the most curious thing is the timing: much of the currency-market skulduggery happened after the banks had aly come under investigation for LIBOR.最值得玩味的事情也许是,大量货币市场舞弊发生在已经因为LIOBR受到调查之后。That suggests banks were slow to clean up the rotten culture on their trading floors,这表明在清除交易市场上的陈腐文化时非常缓慢,or that they genuinely thought their colluding ways had been officially endorsed.或者他们是真的认为串通行为被官方允许。 /201403/279797

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