南昌大学鹰潭医院彩超检查好吗养心解答

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原标题: 南昌大学鹰潭医院彩超检查好吗医助手
Television in America美国电视产业The bandit of broadcast广播电视业界的强盗The Supreme Courts decision on Aereo may affect more than the TV business最高法院将对Aereo案件进行裁决,而其影响范围或许会超出电视产业本身CHET KANOJIA, the founder of Aereo, wonders which actor will play him, when Hollywood makes a film about his startup disrupting the television industry. “Probably a white guy,” Mr Kanojia, who is Indian-American, says drolly. Whether his firm will feature on the big screen or rapidly be forgotten depends on the outcome of a lawsuit between Aereo and Americas big free-to-air broadcast networks—such as A, CBS and Fox—which is being weighed by the Supreme Court. Oral arguments in the case were heard on April 22nd and a decision is due within months.当好莱坞的电影公司想要拍一部关于Aereo创始人Chet Kanojia如何瓦解整个电视产业的电影之时,这位老板也在思考着到底让哪一位演员来扮演自己。“或许会挑个白人,”印度裔美国人Kanojia先生戏谑地说道。最后他的电影到底是能成功登上大荧幕,抑或是迅速被大家所遗忘,要取决于一场官司的最终结果。最高法院正在对这场官司进行权衡,而对抗双方则是Aereo与美国免费广播电视巨头,如美国广播公司、哥伦比亚广播公司和福克斯广播公司。案件的口头辩论在4月22日已经完成,而最终裁决将在数月之内宣布。Mr Kanojia and Aereo are not yet household names, but are the subject of much debate among geeks, copyright lawyers and TV executives. Aereo picks up the signals of free-to-air channels and streams them to its subscribers over the internet, so they can watch them with the same good picture quality as they get via cable, but for a fraction of the average monthly cable bill. Each subscriber is assigned one of a huge number of thumbnail-sized aerials in Aereos warehouses. Aereo claims this is in principle no different—and thus no less legal—than the subscriber putting an antenna on his roof. But broadcast bosses see it differently. They say Aereo is violating copyright law by not paying them for a “public performance” of their content.Kanojia与Aereo目前还不是一对家喻户晓的名字,但对于极客、版权律师以及电视主管们来说,这确实是极为火热的话题。Aereo公司接收免费广播电视的频道信号,并把这些频道转化成流媒体以供他们的付费订阅用户在线观看。因此,这些用户在付出相当于普通有线电视月租费用的很小一部分,就可以享受跟有线电视一样的高画质电视务。相当于在Aereo公司的仓库里,有数以百万计的“微缩远程天线”,而每个订阅用户都能分到其中一条。Aereo公司宣称,这与免费广播电视的务没什么不同,就像是让他们的客户在自己家的房顶安装天线接收信号一样,是非常合法的行为。但广播电视公司的老板们却不这么认为。他们坚持Aereo公司违反了版权法,因为后者没有给他们提供的节目内容付费,就进行了“公开传播”。So far Aereo is available in only 11 cities. But broadcasters worry that it threatens a fast-growing revenue stream: the fees they get from cable- and satellite-TV operators that retransmit their channels. Such fees came to about .3 billion in 2013, according to SNL Kagan, a data firm. The pay-TV companies would not want to keep paying these if Aereo did not have to. So broadcasters have threatened that if Aereo wins, they will take their content off the public airwaves and offer it through pay-TV only.目前,Aereo的务范围仅限于11个城市。但是,广播电视公司担心这样的务会威胁到自身的快速增长利润源:对有线或者卫星电视运营商处所收取的转播费用。数据公司SNL Kagan所提供的资料显示,2013年该转播费用总计为33亿美元。如果Aereo公司无需为转播权买单,那么其他付费电视公司也将停止为自己的转播权付费。因此广播电视公司对Aereo公司做出了相应的警告:如果Aereo公司胜诉,那么他们将停止在公共无线频道上提供电视转播务,转交由付费电视公司独家供应给观众。Aereo has raised around 0m from various investors, including Barry Diller, a veteran media executive. Mr Dillers volte-face is worthy of a prime-time drama: having launched Fox, one of Americas four big broadcast networks, in the 1980s, he is now a booster for broadcasts bandit. But if Aereo loses it will probably shut down. The government has supported the big broadcasters, undermining Aereos chances. As for the courts, so far their judgments on Aereos legality have been mixed: last year two federal courts sided with Aereo, but in February a federal court in Utah ordered it to close its operations in that state.Aereo已经得到了各路投资者约1亿美元的资金,这其中还包括传媒大亨巴里·迪勒。迪勒先生截然不同的投资转变就像是一出黄金时段的电视剧:80年代,他成立了福克斯广播公司,而现在他却成了电视业大盗的赞助者。然而Aereo公司一旦败诉,很可能对其意味着关门大吉。目前政府已经与各大广播电视巨头在统一战线,使Aereo公司的胜诉几率大减。在法庭方面,他们对Aereo合法性的判决并没有达成共识:去年两个联邦法庭持Aereo公司,但今年2月犹他州的一个联邦法庭则勒令其停止在本州内的所有业务。Legislation has not kept up with new technology. Cable in America is regulated by a 1992 law, and copyright by a 1976 one. Both were written before the rise of the commercial internet, notes Rich Greenfield of BTIG, a research firm.法律法规没有跟上新科技的步伐。有线电视产业受1992年出台的法律管制,而版权问题则受1976年的法律所管理。来自调查机构BTIG的Rich Greenfield表示,在网络商务兴起之前这两部法律就已经制订完成。Many are watching the case to make sure the verdict does not imply that it is piracy to transfer any sort of content via the internet without a licence from whoever owns the copyright to it. That could be costly for firms that store media files in the “cloud” for paying clients, such as Apple and Google. As Stephen Breyer, one of the Supreme Court justices, said in this weeks hearing, “What disturbs me…is I dont understand what the decision for you or against you…is going to do to all kinds of other technologies.”许多人正关注着本案的进展。他们要确定本次的宣判是否意味着在网络上传播任何未经版权拥有者许可的内容,都会被认定为盗版行为。一旦如此,许多为付费用户提供“云端”影音资料储存的公司将会出现极大的经营成本负担,比如苹果和谷歌。最高法院的法官之一斯蒂芬·布雷耶在本周的聆讯过程当中表示:“困扰着我的问题是...我不能确定本案的判决会对其他各类科技产生什么样的影响,无论好坏。” /201405/294430

Books and Arts; Book Review;History of diplomacy;Dealing with the enemy;文艺;书评;外交往事;应敌之策;George Kennan invented the American post-war policy of “containment” of the Soviet Union. His biography, 30 years in the making, fills in the detail;乔治·凯南是战后美国对苏“遏制”政策的始作俑者。他这本耗时30年而成的传记,充满了“遏制”政策的点点滴滴;George F. Kennan: An American Life. By John Lewis Gaddis.乔治·凯南:大国之策 约翰·加迪斯著。Three decades ago George Kennan— former American ambassador to Moscow, multilingual diplomat and conceptualiser of “containment”, the heart of his countrys foreign policy towards the Soviet Union—agreed to allow an American cold-war historian, John Lewis Gaddis, to serve as his biographer. Kennan had decamped from public service to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton more than 20 years earlier and was aly 78 years old. When he began giving Mr Gaddis interviews and stacks of personal papers in 1981, their understanding was that the biography would appear in the presumably not-too-distant future after the elder mans passing.三十年前,乔治·凯南—前美国驻莫斯科大使,掌握多种语言的外交官,美国对苏外交核心“遏制”政策的始作俑者—同意由美国冷战历史学者约翰·加迪斯为其撰写传记。那时,已78岁高龄的乔治·凯南,早退出政界在普林斯顿高级研究院从事研究已超过二十个年头。1981年起乔治·凯南开始与约翰·加迪斯会面并给予后者大堆个人资料,两人商定乔治·凯南的传记将在其过世后不久的将来面世。Decades of interviews later, Mr Gaddis, who is now 70, had become accustomed to his students “speculating sombrely about which of us might go first”. Even Kennan felt sorry for “poor John”; in 2003 he lamented the “serious burden” of his own “unnatural longevity”. It was only in 2005, when death finally claimed Kennan at the age of 101, that Mr Gaddis could begin thinking about publishing this long-awaited biography.自两人会面后的几十年里,如今已古稀之年的约翰·加迪斯已经习惯了让他的学生们“严肃地预测一下我们两个谁会先走一步“。即便是乔治·凯南也对约翰·加迪斯心怀愧疚;2003年他曾为自己的“超然长寿”带来的“不堪重负”而悲叹不已。2005年,101岁的乔治·凯南终于等到了生命的终点,也是从那时起,约翰·加迪斯才可以开始考虑出版这本经历了漫长等待的传记了。The extraordinary length of the books gestation meant that much changed between conception and publication. Had it appeared in the mid-1980s, the context would have been cold-war stalemate; in the early 1990s, celebration; a decade ago in 2001, concern about terrorism. Because “George F. Kennan: An American Life” finally arrives in the uneasy year of 2011, its context is economic misery and questions about the future of American dominance in international affairs.这本书无与伦比的超长“妊娠期”意味着其起初构思与最终出版之间的多次变更。在书中,80年代中期的背景主要是冷战僵局;90年代早期是庆祝冷战胜利;2001年之后的十年主要涉及反恐。熬到了经历漫长艰辛最终出版的2011年,背景则又成了经济困局和对美国将来是否能主导全球事务的疑问。Mr Gaddis is unequivocal on this topic. He told the New York Times in 2004 that “American imperial power…has been a remarkable force for good, for democracy, for prosperity.” He has also expressed his admiration for the former presidents, Ronald Reagan and George Bush junior, and their versions of “grand strategy”, a topic he now teaches at Yale University. All of these developments have naturally given rise to much speculation. Could Mr Gaddis, who admits that he speaks no foreign languages, get on top of the mountain of material and do credit to such an international polymath? Would his own views emerge along with Kennans? The 784-page answer to both these questions is yes.约翰·加迪斯对每一个话题都不含糊。2004年他曾告诉《纽约时报》的记者:“美利坚帝国有种非常不平凡的力量,一种使之优秀、民主、繁荣的力量。”同时他也表达了对前总统里根和小布什以及他们的“伟大战略”的敬佩之意,这也是他在耶鲁大学教授的课题。这些言语自然引起了人们进一步的猜测。承认自己不懂外语的约翰·加迪斯,能否征堆积如山的资料,为乔治·凯南这样的国际大家赢得赞颂?他的观点是否来自乔治·凯南?这部厚达784页的作品肯定的回答了这两个问题。Mr Gaddis has mastered the sources that came his way over the decades. The resulting biography is engaging and lucid. The first half of the book almost has the sweep of a novel. Readers join Kennan in Germany as the Nazis rise; in Norway in 1931 as the awkward young man meets the parents of his fiancée, to whom he would remain married for 73 years; in the Soviet Union in 1933 as he establishes the first American embassy; in Czechoslovakia as Adolf Hitler arrives and the world descends into another war; and back in Moscow again in 1945 when he receives skin-crawling personal compliments from Joseph Stalin on his Russian language skills. The chapter detailing Kennans breakthrough—achieved by redesigning American foreign policy at a stroke, via his 5,000-word “Long Telegram” from Moscow to Washington, DC, in 1946—is particularly gripping. As he himself put it: “My reputation was made. My voice now carried.”约翰·加迪斯掌握着几十年里符合自己观点的资源,所创作出的传记引人入胜又清晰明了。传记的前半部读起来几乎就是一部小说的翻版。读者们一起与乔治·凯南在纳粹兴起时造访德国;1931年在挪威,一起与这位笨拙的青年会见之后陪伴了他73载未婚妻的父母;1933年与之一起建立美国第一个驻苏联大使馆;和他一道与希特勒一起来到捷克斯洛伐克并目睹了第二次世界大战;之后又一块在斯大林对其俄语技巧令人起鸡皮疙瘩般的恭维下于1945年返回莫斯科。而描写乔治·凯南事业取得重大突破的章节—在1946年通过其从莫斯科发往华盛顿的5,000字“长电”,一举改写了美国外交政策—尤为精。就如同乔治·凯南自己给自己的评价一样:“功成名就,四海扬声。”Before this, Kennan was a promising young officer in the American foreign service; after it, he joined the top ranks of American strategists. His arguments convinced the Truman administration that efforts to continue wartime co-operation with Russia were fruitless. America should recognise the Soviet Union as a new kind of enemy, one seeking to destroy “our traditional way of life”. Rather than fighting a conventional war, America would need to contain Soviet hostility firmly and consistently over the long term. As America resisted Moscow more and more, Kennan felt it was crucial that his country maintain the “health and vigour of our own society” and not become a garrison state.而在那之前,乔治·凯南不过是美国外交界里颇有前途的小青年,之后则位列顶级战略家之层。他的论据实了杜鲁门政府继续与苏联战时合作的努力终究无果。美国应当把苏联做为一个新的,一个试图摧毁“我们传统的生活方式”的敌人来认识,应当放弃传统的战争方式,坚决地包纳苏联的敌意并长期持之以恒。随着美苏争霸的愈演愈烈,乔治·凯南意识到,对美国来讲最关键的是保持“我们这个社会的健康与活力”而不是变成一个堡垒式的国家。After the “Long Telegram”, Kennan returned to Washington and founded the State Departments influential Policy Planning Staff. But, according to Mr Gaddis, his prestige had peaked by 1948. After that, Kennan became increasingly sidelined for opposing what he judged to be excessive militarisation of his containment strategy. Yet he continued to condemn overly militarised policies for the rest of his life.“长电”之后,乔治·凯南返回华盛顿,组建了国务院颇具影响力的机构政策计划处。不过根据约翰·加迪斯的讲述,其名望在1948年达到了顶峰。之后由于抵制其认为的过度军事化遏制政策而逐步边缘化。而乔治·凯南终其余生都在谴责过度军事化的政策。Kennan took particular offence at the attitude of the Reagan administration, which he viewed as “simply childish, inexcusably childish, unworthy of people charged with the responsibility for conducting the affairs of a great power in an endangered world.” Nor did the end of the cold war change his mind. In 1992 Kennan made a point of stating that “nobody ‘won the cold war”. It had been a long, costly tragedy, “fuelled on both sides by unreal and exaggerated estimates of the intentions and strength of the other side.”对于里根政府,乔治·凯南的态度尤其地冒犯,他认为里根“简单幼稚,无法理解地天真,根本不配担负起在有危险的世界指导一个超级大国事务如此之重任。”冷战结束后他也没有改变自己的看法。1992年乔治·凯南曾阐述自己的观点,认为“冷战无赢家”。这场旷日持久,代价高昂的悲剧,“将对另一方意图和力量进行了不现实和扩大估算的双方同时埋葬。”Mr Gaddis disagrees. He closes his study by condemning Kennan for having “blinded” himself to the fact that, in Mr Gaddiss opinion, Reagan brought Kennans “strategy to its successful conclusion”. If Kennan were alive, he would probably still disagree, and not without reason. If the elder mans concern for the costs of bellicose foreign policy, rather than the younger mans enthusiasm for imperial exercise of American power, had dominated the last decade, it would have made for a sounder grand strategy. In ways that this biography seems not entirely to appreciate, Kennans far-sighted opposition to American over-militarisation makes his personal career history less gripping than his legacy.约翰·加迪斯对此并不认同。在传记结尾他责备了乔治·凯南对事实的“视而不见”,按照约翰·加迪斯的观点,是里根的采纳“成就”了乔治·凯南的战略。但是如果乔治·凯南还健在,他可能还会反对,而且还自有道理。如果这位老人担心的是好战外交政策所付出的代价,而不是在其后的十年起决定性作用的青年人对美国超级力量运用的热情,那么它将会是一个更加合理的宏伟战略。如此来看这部传记对乔治·凯南也不全是赞誉,乔治·凯南颇有远见地反对美国过度军事化使其个人职业生涯的精程度比其传记略逊一筹。 /201304/236955Science and technology科学技术Solar physics太阳物理学Sun down落山的太阳Several lines of evidence suggest that the sun is about to go quiet据的一些方式表明太阳即将变平静spots of bother?太阳黑子的困扰?DURING the four centuries that it has been studied in detail, the sun has usually behaved in a regular manner.太阳已被详细研究了四百年,它通常以规则的方式反应。The number of spots on its surface has waxed and waned in cycles that last, on average, 11 years.太阳表面的黑子数在其一般延续11年的活动周期内增增减减。Such cycles begin with spots appearing in mid-solar latitudes and end with them near the equator.这样的周期活动以太阳黑子在其中纬度出现开始并随着黑子移动到赤道附近而终结。And the more spots there are, the more solar storms there are around.而且太阳黑子的数目越多,周围就会有越多的太阳风暴。Sometimes, though, the sun sulks and this solar cycle stops.然而,太阳有时也会生气,之后这种太阳活动周期就停止了。That has happened twice since records began:自从对这种太阳活动周期有记载以来,这种现象已经发生了两次了:during the so-called Maunder minimum of 1645 to 1715 and the Dalton minimum of 1790 to 1830.就是所称的1645年至1715年蒙德极小期和1790年至1830年道尔顿极小期期间。These coincided with periods when global temperatures were lower than average, though why is a matter of debate.这些现象与全球气温低于平均水平时相一致,虽然这是为什么争议的一个问题。An absence of sunspots also means an absence of solar flares and their more violent siblings, coronal mass ejections.缺少太阳黑子也意味着太阳耀斑以及它们更强烈的同胞-日冕物质抛射的不存在。Such outbursts disrupt radio and satellite communications, electricity grids and a variety of electronic equipment, so the pattern of solar activity is of more than academic interest.这种大爆发会干扰无线电和卫星通信,电网和各种电子设备,因此太阳活动方式超越了学术兴趣。A new solar minimum, then, would test theories about how the climate works and also make communications more reliable.然而,一个新的太阳极小期将会测试关于气候如何起作用的理论以及还将使得通信更加可靠。And many solar physicists think such a new minimum is on the cards.而且许多太阳物理学家认为这样一个新的太阳极小期很可能发生。A group of them, who all work for Americas National Solar Observatory, have just had a meeting in New Mexico, under the aegis of the American Astronomical Society, to announce their latest results.在美国天文学会的主持下,美国国家太阳天文台工作的一群太阳物理学家刚刚在新墨西哥州举行了一次会议来宣布他们的最新成果。Frank Hill and his team were the discoverers, 15 years ago, of an east-west jet stream in the sun.弗兰克·希尔和他的研究小组就是15年前太阳内东西高速气流的发现人员。They also worked out that the latitude of this wind is related to the sunspot cycle.他们还计算出这次太阳风的纬度和太阳黑子的活动周期相关。At the beginning of a cycle the jet stream is found, like sunspots, in mid-latitudes.在一个活动周期开始的时候,就可以找到高速气流,像中纬度地区的太阳黑子。As the cycle progresses, it follows the spots towards the equator.随着活动周期的进展,高速气流随着太阳黑子向太阳的赤道方向移动。Intriguingly, however, Dr Hills studies indicate that the jet stream of a new cycle starts to form years before the sunspot pattern.然而,让人感兴趣的事情是,希尔士的研究表明一个新太阳活动周期的高速气流在太阳黑子活动方式前开始形成。This time, that has not happened.这次,高速气流还未产生。History suggests a new cycle should begin in 2019.历史表明一个新太阳活动周期应该开始于2019年。If the sun were behaving itself, Dr Hills team would have seen signs of a new jet stream in 2008 or .假如太阳自我反应的话,希尔士研究人员在2008年或年早已观察到新高速气流的迹象了。They did not.但是他们没有看到这些情况。Nor are there indications of one even now.即使现在,也没有一个迹象出现。If a change in the jet stream really is a leading indicator of solar activity, then no new cycle is on the horizon.如果高速气流的变化真地是太阳活动最重要的指示物,那么新的太阳活动周期还未露端倪。The second study which suggests something odd is happening looked at the strengths of sunspots.表明奇怪的事情正在发生的第二项研究检查了太阳黑子的活力。Matthew Penn and William Livingston have analysed 13 years of data which indicate that, independently of the number of spots around, there has been a decrease in their strength.马修·佩恩威廉·利文斯敦已独立见解地分析了大致太阳黑子数的13年的数据表明这些黑子的活力已经下降了。Sunspots are caused by irruptions into its surface of the suns deeper magnetism.太阳黑子是由入侵活动进入太阳深层磁性表面造成的。These create local drops in temperature, which make the surface gas darker.这些入侵活动导致了局部气温下降,使得太阳表面气体颜色更深。Over the period which Dr Penn and Dr Livingston analysed, the average magnetic strength of the irruptions has declined.佩恩和利文斯顿士分析表明,入侵活动的平均磁场强度已有所下降。Below a certain threshold, they will not be strong enough to overcome the convective mixing of the gas at the surface, and spots will disappear altogether.低于一定的临界值的话,它们将不足以克表面气体的对流混合,因而太阳黑子将完全消失。If the present trend continues, that will happen in 2021.如果目前的趋势继续下去,那么2021年太阳黑子就会消失。The third measure of the suns decline is in its outer atmosphere, the corona.太阳衰落的标准就是其外层的气体日冕。At each solar maximum, the corona sloughs off the magnetic fingerprint of the previous cycle by pushing it to the poles.在每次太阳极大期,日冕通过把气体推向两极而使前一活动周期的磁性特征消退掉。According to Richard Altrock, the leader of another NSO team at the meeting, that does not appear to be happening in the present cycle.根据会议上美国国家太阳天文台的另一研究组的领导理查德·阿尔乔克所说,目前的太阳活动周期那种现象没有出现。It looks, then, as if a new, extended solar minimum is about to begin.然而,看上去好像一个新延续的太阳极小期将要开始。That is good news for operators of communications satellites.对通信卫星的经营者来说,这是好消息。And it is interesting news for those who worry about global warming.而且这对那些担心全球气温变暖的那些人来说是个令人有趣的新闻。If the Maunder and Dalton minima actually did affect the climate,如果蒙德和道尔顿极小期确实影响了气候,then a new one might counteract the effects of the extra greenhouse gases people are now pumping into the atmosphere—at least, until the solar cycle returns.那么新的太阳活动极小期可能抵消人们现在大量释放到空气中额外温室气体的影响-至少要到太阳活动周期恢复时。Whether the breathing space thus granted would be used wisely or squandered is another matter.无论是如此承认的呼吸空间会被明智地使用还是被大手大脚地挥霍掉将是另一回事。Do not expect that debate to be as placid as the spotless sun.不要指望辩论就像一尘不染的太阳那么宁静安详。 /201308/251230

Governing partnerships管理合伙人制Electing the boss选举新老板Deloitte prepares to vote for a new CEO德勤准备选举新任CEOEVER since the inception of the corporation, the “principal-agent” problem has bedevilled shareholders. The partnership structure that prevails at consulting, accounting and law firms is supposedly free of the risk of executives acting in their own interest at the ownersexpense. As the businesses belong to the employees, the incentives of managers and proprietors should be aligned. But leaders there must pay greater heed to the views of their worker-shareholders than do corporate bosses, who need only answer to boards selected by proxy votes that are rarely contested, and can simply issue orders to staff.自公司成立以来,“委托代理”问题一直困扰着股东们。这种合伙制结构在咨询公司、会计师事务所和法律公司当中非常盛行,它被认为能够避免这样一种风险,即高管用所有者的资金从事跟自己利益相关的活动。虽然公司业务是由雇员经手,但是管理者的目标应该与企业所有者的利益一致。但领导人必须更加注意他们的同时也生为公司股东的员工们的意见,而不是公司老板们,因为他们只需要向精选出来并很少提出质疑的董事会回答问题、只需要简单地命令员工就行了。This distinction is never more apparent than when the head of a partnership steps down. They will be dusting off the ballot boxes at Deloitte, the biggest of the “Big Four” global accounting firms. On August 15th Joe Echevarria, the boss of the American arm, said he would be leaving the firm. Rather than summon an executive-search agency to do some discreet recruiting, Deloitte will hold a leadership election.然而当其中一位合伙人下台时,这样的差别对待就更加明显了。他们将准备在德勤重新使用投票选举。8月15日,德勤美国CEO乔埃切瓦里,说他要离开公司。此次,德勤决定举行领导人选举而不是通过猎头谨慎招聘来产生新任CEO。The firm does not disclose the mechanics of the process. But most partnerships form a nomination committee on their executive boards to assess candidates on both their visions for the firm and how much support they command from peers. After a series of informal consultations with fellow partners, the committee delicately advises likely losers to bow out gracefully. If these “soundings” yield a clear-cut heir apparent, the firm may proceed straight to a coronation vote where the new leader is rubber-stamped.虽然德勤没有披露选举过程中的机制,但大多数采用合伙制的企业都会在董事会形成一个提名委员会,通过对公司未来的计划以及同行持率等指标来评估候选人。在与合作伙伴进行一系列非正式磋商之后,委员会委婉地建议可能的失败者退出竞选。如果这些“声音”能够产生一个明确的候选人,那么公司可以不再进行评估和审核,而直接授权这位候选人。If there are a few strong contenders, the process starts to resemble a political campaign. Candidates often write manifestos outlining their plans, and occasionally address the electorate at annual partnersmeetings. Behind the scenes, horse-trading abounds, as the candidates promise juicy posts to influential partners who can deliver a block of support from colleagues. Each partner usually gets one vote, regardless of their equity stake.如果竞选中出现了多个强有力的竞争者,这个竞选过程就开始变得像一个政治运动。候选人经常写下竞选宣言提出他们的计划,偶尔也会在每年的合作人会议上强调选举事宜。但是在幕后,交易比比皆是,因为候选人会向具有影响力的能带来同事持的合伙人承诺以丰厚的回报。每个合伙人无论股权多少都只能投一票。The race to succeed Mr Echevarria is likely to be hotly contested. Under his stewardship since 2011, Deloitte has grown impressively. In the first two years of his term, revenues at its American arm rose from .9 billion to .9 billion. The other members of the Big Four—EY, PwC and KPMG—sold their consulting arms after the Enron scandal and have since had to rebuild them from scratch. Deloitte stayed in consulting and Mr Echevarria has pushed that side of the business.想要从埃切瓦里先生手里拿下接力棒也不是件容易的事。自2011以来,在他的领导下,德勤的业绩是非常惊人的。在他任期的前两年,其所在的美国分部收入从119亿美元上升到139亿美元。而四大的其他成员,安永、普华永道和毕马威,现在不得不重新建立他们在安然事件中出售的咨询分。德勤仍然保持着咨询业务,这也是埃切瓦里先生努力的方向。Since consultings profit margins are fatter than for auditing, Mr Echevarrias strategy has surely inflated partnerspaypackets. But it carries a greater risk of conflicts of interest, given the temptation for accounting firms to cut their clients slack on audits and compliance work in order to retain lucrative consulting business. On August 18th New Yorks regulators fined PwC m for watering down a report on sanctions-busting transactions with Iran at a Japanese bank; they punished Deloitte for a similar violation last year. The leaders of the Big Four have customarily come from the auditing side. If Deloittes partners vote for a consultant, it will leave little doubt that the firms roots in bean counting are being left further behind.由于咨询的利润率比审计要高,埃切瓦里先生的策略肯定已经让合伙人的荷包膨胀了许多。但同时,考虑到如果要保持咨询业务的丰厚利润,它就需要削减审计和合规业务的客户,因此德勤也面临着更大的利益冲突的风险。8月18日,纽约监管机构因为普华永道淡化了日本违反制裁伊朗禁令的报告而对其处以2500万美元的罚款;他们在去年也对德勤类似的违规行为做出了惩罚。四大的领导人通常来自审计方。如果德勤合伙人投票给咨询顾问,那它就是毫无疑问地向外界表示,该公司的审计业务会落得更远。 /201408/324725Science and technology科学技术Dendrochronology树木年代学Not always the ring of truth年轮不一定反映事实The use of wood to assess past environments needs care通过树木判断过去的环境时要小心了TREE rings are Mother Natures history books.年轮是大自然的史书。Researchers often look at chemicals stored in them when trying to reconstruct past environments.在试图重现过去的环境时,研究人员经常会从年轮中所含的化学物质入手。Like all history books, though, they can be unreliable.然而就和所有的史书一样,年轮也并不怎么靠谱。And in the case of one particular chemical of interest, mercury, Jose Antonio Rodriguez Martin of the National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology, in Madrid, and his colleagues have just shown how unreliable they are.通过其关注的一个特别的化学物质-汞,西班牙国家农业与食物研究及技术学会的何塞·安东尼奥·罗德里格斯·马丁及其同事便刚刚明了年轮多么不靠谱。Dr Rodriguez Martin was studying pines on La Palma, in the Canary Islands.罗德里格斯·马丁士一直在研究拉帕尔马岛上的松树。He knew that Hoyo Negro, one of the islands volcanoes, had erupted violently in 1949, and believed that the clouds of ash and explosive ejections of rock from the eruption had destroyed all of the pines nearby.他知道该岛上的霍约内格罗火山曾于1949年发生过剧烈喷发,并认为喷发产生的火山灰及迸散的岩石摧毁了附近所有的松树。However, as he describes in Naturwissenschaften, when he and his team examined the area, they were stunned to discover a revenant from this cataclysm just 50 metres from the crater.然而,正如他在《自然科学》杂志上所说,当他和自己的团队对该区域进行调查时,在离火山口仅50米的地方发现了一棵劫后余生的松树,让他们震惊不已。Like a battle-scarred soldier, this now-great pine had many half-healed wounds in its trunk.就像一名身经百战的士兵,这棵现已长成参天大树的松树的树干上疤痕累累。It had survived those. It did not, however, survive Dr Rodriguez Martins axe.这些伤口没让它倒下,但却没有逃过罗德里格斯·马丁士的斧头。He reluctantly felled it and, for comparison, collected a tree of similar age that was growing 400 metres from the eruption site, and another that was 16km away.罗德里格斯·马丁士忍痛将它放倒,并分别从离喷发点400米及16千米处砍倒两棵与其树龄相同的松树进行比较。One unpleasant element often ejected in volcanic eruptions is mercury.火山喷发时经常会喷射出一种不怎么好的元素-汞。That was certainly the case in 1949, as soil-sampling showed.正如土壤采样所示,1949年的火山喷发确实释放出了汞元素。The question was, how much of it had got into the trees·但问题是,有多少进入了树体中?Mercury falling脱落的汞When he analysed the survivors scar tissue Dr Rodriguez Martin found high levels of the metal in it:当罗德里格斯·马丁士分析了这棵幸存的树上的疤痕组织后,他发现其中的汞元素含量很高:more than 22 micrograms per kilogram of wood.每公斤木材中超过22毫克。That was not surprising, given that this tissue would have formed soon after the eruption.这并不出人意料,因为该组织是在火山喷发不久后形成的。What was surprising was that the wood of the survivor trees rings had only 2.3 micrograms of mercury per kilogram in it.出人意料的是这棵幸存的树中年轮的木质中每公斤仅含2.3毫克汞。More surprising still, the rings of the other two trees were mercury-free, despite there being mercury in nearby soil.更让人大跌眼镜的是,其他两棵书的年轮中汞含量为零,尽管其附近的土壤中含有汞。Tree rings are made of tissue called xylem.构成年轮的组织被称为木质部。This is a set of channels that carry water and minerals from the soil to the leaves, so its composition might be expected to reflect what is in the soil.这是从土壤中将水合矿物质输送至叶片的一组通道,所以其组分应该能够反映出土壤中的组分。A second set of channels, the phloem, found just under a trees bark, carries the products of photosynthesis to the roots.第二组通道叫韧皮部,就长在树皮之下,它将光合作用的产物输送到树的根部。This tissue, however, is not preserved from year to year.然而该组织每年都会更新。When Dr Rodriguez Martin sampled the phloem of the trees he had chopped down, he found it much richer in mercury than their xylem.罗德里格斯·马丁士对被他砍倒的树的韧皮部采样后,他发现韧皮部的汞含量比木质部的要高。Phloem from the tree at the eruption site had 9.5 micrograms of the metal per kilogram.位于喷发点的树上的韧皮部中每千克含有9.5毫克汞。The two more distant trees had 2.9 and 2.0 respectively.另外两棵较远的树的韧皮部每千克汞含量分别为2.9及2.0。The explanation for the discrepancy lay in the trees bark.产生这种差异的原因就藏在树皮之中。This had similar mercury levels to the phloem.树皮的汞含量与韧皮部相近。What Dr Rodriguez Martin reckons is going on is that trees are using their bark, which they shed continually, as a waste-disposal system.罗德里格斯·马丁士认为是这么回事:树木将其不断脱落树皮当做一种废物处理系统。Mercury is carried there by the phloem and selectively deposited in it, rather than in the plants more permanent parts.汞通过韧皮部被转运到树皮中,有选择性地在其中沉积,而非在自己不易更新的部位沉积。The metal is then got rid of when the bark is sloughed off.然后当树皮脱落时,其中的汞也随之被除去。That makes it invisible to researchers who come along later. What happens to mercury, moreover, might well happen to other toxic materials.这使随后而来的研究人员无法发现汞的存在。而且,在汞身上出现的情况很可能也会出现在其他有毒物质上。That could throw the calculations of palaeoecologists severely out of kilter.这会让古生态学家的推测严重失准。All of which is a caution to those who the Book of Tree Rings for clues to what happened in the past.对于那些在年轮史书中寻找线索来了解过去发生了什么的人来说,所有这些都是一个警示。Trees, it seems, are as good as rewriting history as people are.树木,似乎和人一样精于改写历史。 /201311/263839

With the discovery of the Stanley plot, the privy chamber went into locked out.随着斯坦利阴谋的发现,这个小房间成了外人永远不能踏足之地。Previously, its working was transparent, but with the new security overhaul, only those who would best content the king were admitted.以前,它的工作是透明的,但是随着新的安全检修,只有那些最好的内容才能被国王认同。So at the heart of this glittering household was an institutional black hole, whose working was known only to Henry himself.所以这个表面光鲜的家族核心其实是一个由来已久的黑洞,其工作仅仅亨利本人知晓。Inside the privy chamber, things were changing.在小私室内,一切都发生了改变。Henry was obsessed with control, especially when it came to money.亨利痴迷于控权,特别是提到钱的时候。The remit of his privy chamber treasure was expanding.他的职权范围之内的小私室财宝被扩大。These books are chamber accounts.这些书是皇室的账目。They are books of payments and whats interesting about these books is that they represent Henrys very personal control of finance.这是账单册而且关于这些书有趣的地方是,它们代表亨利非常个人的财务控制。These account books are brought to him, and he would look down everything and he would sign it at the bottom.这些帐册都会呈给亨利,他会仔细浏览一切,然后在最底下签字。We have everything from wages for trumpeters, for barbers, queens ministrants, the princes trumpeters, falcons bought from Hungary.我们已经掌握了从号手,理发师,女王的侍从,王子的号手,从匈牙利购买回猎鹰的薪金。Falcons bought from Hungary, brilliant.从匈牙利购买回的猎鹰,太棒了。Its quite a journey.那段旅途可真够漫长的。Brilliant.非常棒。Historian Sean Curriham has been studying Henrys account books.历史学家肖恩?克里姆一直在研究亨利的帐簿。This one shows money coming directly to Henrys personal coffers, and these pages are written by Henry himself.这一条目显示钱直接送入亨利的个人保险库,而这几页是亨利自己签字。He loved this entry in particular.他尤其喜爱这一条目。He had many delivered in old weighty crowns.他运送了许多旧的王冠。You can sense him weighing in his hand.你可以感觉到他在自己手里掂分量的情景。Thats right.是的。Picking his weighty crown.挑选他沉重的。Oh, thats good.哦,那很好。And then I like these good crowns.我喜欢这些好的王冠。These are some good crowns we have here.这些都是一些我们这里好的王冠。 201311/264921

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