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2018年03月18日 00:25:17

鹰潭哪家医院治疗宫颈糜烂Rabbit#39;s Foot 兔脚 In the old English custom, the hare (not rabbit) was said to have an evil eye, whose glance can only be countered by people who own a hare#39;s hindfoot.在古代的英语文化习俗中,据说野兔(不是家兔)长着一只邪眼,只有拥有一只野兔的后脚的人才能正视它的目光。In the olden days, it was said that the warrior Queen Boadicea of Norfolk, East Britain, brought a hare with her to ensure luck in battle against the Roman Empire who had invaded her kingdom.据说,很久以前,来自英国东部诺福克的勇士阿迪西亚女王在与入侵其王国的罗马帝国军队打仗时,就随身带着一只野兔来确保逢战必胜。This brought people to believe that the hare had miraculouspowers. However, the paganpractice of worshiping the hare eventually stopped after most Britons were converted to Christianity in the 6th century by the first Archbishop of Canterbury.这个传说令人们相信野兔具有不可思议的魔力。然而,到了公元6世纪,随着大多数不列颠人在坎特伯雷大主教的教化下改信基督教,这种异教徒对野兔的膜拜行为最终停止了。Nevertheless, many Britons carried hare#39;s feet in their pocket or purse. Later, rabbits were introduced in Britain from the other European countries, and since rabbits can be caught more easily than hares, the rabbit#39;s foot replaced the hare#39;s foot as a lucky charm.尽管如此,还是有很多英国人的口袋或者钱包中放着兔脚。后来,家兔从别的欧洲国家被引进到英国,由于家兔比野兔更容易获取,所以家兔的脚便取代野兔的脚成了幸运符。 /201511/410223鹰潭希正妇科医院孕前检测多少钱“We’re steeped in Viking history, with all its fantastic stories, and if you have a story you can sell more,” said Patricia Retson, Highland Park’s brand heritage manager, after we had toured the distillery’s dankly atmospheric cellar and sleek tasting room. “But we’re also trying to make a real connection, and if it’s going to work, it has to be authentic.” To that end, the distillery’s Loki gets its mischievousness from an aroma that is all sweet apples, but turns to smoke and wood on the palate. Its Leif Erikssonis aged in 100 percent American oak barrels.“我们是浸透着维京历史的,有许许多多幻异故事,有了故事,东西就更好卖,”高原骑士品牌传承经理帕特莉西亚·雷特逊(Patricia Retson)说,她刚刚带着我们参观了阴冷潮湿的酒窖和装潢精美的品酒厅。“但是我们也在努力建立一种真正的联系,这种联系要想发挥作用,必须得纯正才行。”为此,酒厂出品的Loki(洛基)用甜苹果的芳香构成了一种调皮的气质,但尝起来却是烟熏和木味。而它的Leif Erikssonis(莱夫·埃里克松)是在百分之百的美国橡木桶里陈放的。Yet in downtown Kirkwall, where the Romanesque cathedral, built of sandstone, houses the relics of St. Magnus Erlendsson, the Norse-descended Earl of Orkney who was martyred after an unsuccessful battle with a rival chieftain in the early 12th century, and where miniature Viking ships still cap the post office lintel, Donna Heddle had no doubt the connection went considerably deeper than mere marketing.与此同时,在柯克沃尔市中心那座砂岩建造的罗马式大教堂里,存放着诺尔斯世袭的奥克尼伯爵圣·马格努斯·厄林德孙(St. Magnus Erlendsson)的遗物,他在12世纪初被一个敌对的高地领主击败,后被册封为圣人,在这里的邮局门楣上,至今还有维京人的船只造型。在唐娜·黑德尔(Donna Heddle)看来,跟维京的关联绝对不只是市场营销那么肤浅。As the director of the Center for Nordic Studies, Dr. Heddle sees evidence of Norseness almost everywhere: in the Orkney dialect that puts its prepositions at the end of sentences; in a concept of social justice that emphasizes egalitarianism and spurns status or rank; in the fact, she said, that 66 percent of Orcadians’ DNA is Norwegian. And just as the Nordic presence helps explain the separate sense of identity that Scots feel from the English, so too does it explain the separate identity that Orcadians feel from mainland Scots. “Vikings are very sexy now,” she said. “But for us it’s more than that. You can see it in our knitting patterns and our sailing skills and in the can-do attitude. This is a living legacy.”作为北欧研究中心(Center for Nordic Studies)主任,黑德尔士能在每个角落找到诺尔斯文化的痕迹:将介词放在句子最后的奥克尼方言;强调平等主义、摒弃尊卑或等级的社会正义观念;还有,她说奥克尼人有66%的挪威人基因。北欧特征让苏格兰人对英格兰产生了身份认同上的隔阂,同样也让奥克尼人跟苏格兰大陆有了距离感。“维京人现在很时兴,”她说。“但对我们来说不是那么简单。在我们的编织图案、我们的航海技巧、我们的进取心里都能看到。这是一份鲜活的遗产。”Living, but also dead. After Kirkwall, we drove across windswept hills and muddy farmlands, before arriving at Orphir and the archaeological remains of Earl’s Bu. According to the medieval Orkneyinga saga, the nearly 1,000-year-old site was home not only to a round church built by Magnus’s murderous cousin Hakon, but also to a grand drinking hall, or bu. Like most Viking drinking halls, it was the scene of quite a lot of violence (proximity to a church came in handy; the brawlers could slip next door to repent of their drunken behavior, and, consciences cleansed, get back to guzzling mead). Maybe it was the film in the modest visitor center that recounted how one drunken slight had unleashed a massacre at the hall, or perhaps we had watched too much of “Game of Thrones,” but as David and I walked about the lonely ruins of the stone church (a third of its curved walls still standing), I suddenly found myself charging him with an imaginary battle ax. After a brief but virtual bloody fight, we collapsed on the grass in giggles.鲜活的,但同时也是死的。离开柯克沃尔,我们驶过呼啸的山间和泥泞的田野,来到奥弗尔以及“伯爵酒廊”(Earl#39;s Bu)考古遗址。据中世纪的《奥克尼伯爵萨迦》(Orkneyinga saga)记载,这个有将近一千年历史的遗址,不仅包括马格努斯的那个残暴的堂兄弟哈孔(Hakon)所建的一座圆形教堂,还有一座宏伟的酒廊,也就是bu。和大多数维京酒廊一样,这里发生过不少暴力事件(离教堂这么近还是有好处的;斗殴者可以溜到隔壁去忏悔他们的酒后行为,涤净灵魂后,回去继续痛饮蜂蜜酒)。可能是因为我们在简朴的游客中心看了一部电影,讲到一句酒后的恶语导致一场酒廊大屠杀的事,或者就是我们看了太多的《权力的游戏》,总之当戴维和我来到一片萧瑟的石头教堂废墟(它的弧形墙壁尚存三分之一)时,我突然提起一把空想的战斧朝他冲了过去。经过一场短暂但按设想应该相当血腥的打斗,我们咯咯笑着瘫倒在草地上。All that Viking history will do that to you. There are similar archaeological sites all over Orkney, so we had plenty of opportunities to perfect our re-enactment skills. At Maeshowe, a grass-covered mound that encases a Neolithic tomb marked up with 12th-century Norse Runes, the sheep that stood between us and the burial chamber fell to our raiding swords. At the Brough of Birsay, accessible only by foot during the few hours when the tides recede, we sweated in the chamber marked the Viking sauna. But there was no fantasy involved at the nearby Barony Mill, where Brian Johnston, the miller, grinds bere, a landrace barley, with a flavor more pronounced than wheat. “Many people think the Vikings brought it here,” Mr. Johnston said as he showed us around the 19th-century mill, which is powered by a water wheel. “And the only other place it grows is in Norway.”这么多的维京历史是会有这种影响的。奥克尼到处都是类似的考古遗址,所以我们有的是机会完善我们的历史重现演技。在绿草遍野的梅肖韦(Maeshowe)地下有一座用12世纪的卢恩文字标出的新石器时代古墓,夹在我们和墓穴之间的那只羊,成为我们两个劫匪的刀下鬼。在只有趁着每天退潮那几个小时步行前往的赛镇(Brough of Birsay),我们在一个标着维京桑拿浴场的洞穴里出了点汗。然而附近的男爵磨坊(Barony Mill)是个没什么幻想的地方,磨坊主布莱恩·约翰斯顿(Brian Johnston)在那里磨bere,一种味道比小麦还要鲜明的地方品种大麦。“很多人认为它是维京人带来的,”带我们参观这座19世纪水车磨坊的约翰斯顿说。“除了这里之外,只有挪威能种这种麦子。”There would be more culinary connections on the Shetland Islands. We landed early in the morning on the main island after an overnight ferry. Waiting for a cafe to open, we prowled the industrial-looking buildings and still-closed sweater shops in Lerwick, the capital and Shetland’s only real town. Once suitably caffeinated, we returned to Jurgen and headed south. Shetland is almost entirely treeless, with a terrain that veers mainly between the barren and the bleak, but is adorably dotted with the tiny ponies that take their name from the place. Rocky soil and near constant wind explain why the local diet is almost entirely lacking in fresh fruit and vegetables. But even that lack can only partly explain the peculiar dish known as reestit mutton.烹饪上的联系,在设得兰群岛上体现得更为明显。经过彻夜的轮渡,我们一大早在主岛登陆。在设得兰的首府、也是唯一的正经城镇勒维克,我们趁着等待一家小餐馆开门的当口,在工业味十足的建筑和还没开门的毛衣店之间闲逛了一会。在摄入适量咖啡因后,我们立刻跟于尔根会合,向南进发。设得兰是个几乎没有树的地方,整个地貌不是贫瘠就是荒凉,但期间点缀着几匹可爱的小马,那是当地特有的设得兰矮种马。多石的土壤和几乎永远不停的风解释了当地的饮食特征——基本上不存在新鲜水果和蔬菜。但即使这种匮乏也不足以完全解释为什么会有“房椽羊肉”(reestit)这么奇怪的菜。“No, you wouldn’t expect to find this in a restaurant,” said Marian Armitage, the author of “Shetland Food and Cooking,” as she sawed off a few rocklike chunks of a fossilized slab of meat in her kitchen, where we had come to learn about the local cuisine. “Unless they were trying to do something quirky.” Through the windows of her enclosed porch, I could just make out the ruined walls of Jarlshof, another Norse settlement, in the distance. Ms. Armitage fried a bit of the mutton in a pan, and explained the process for making it: Raw meat was salted in brine, then hung from the rafters of the house, preferably over a peat fire, so that the smoke seasoned the meat. I put a bite in my mouth: Quirky was definitely one word for it. The mutton was fatty, salty and tasted, well, rotten. “Just what you want,” David said, “after a long day at sea.”“这东西在餐馆里吃不到的,”《设得兰食物与烹饪》(Shetland Food and Cooking)作者玛丽安·阿尔米塔奇(Marian Armitage)一边跟我说,一边在一块化石般的肉上切下几个硬梆梆的肉块,我们到她的厨房来是要学做当地的美食。“除非他们是有了什么离奇的想法。”从她家的包窗门廊往外看,隐约能看到远处的一些断壁残垣,那是雅尔邵夫(Jarlshof),另一座诺尔斯殖民地。阿尔米塔奇把一些羊肉放到锅里煎,并跟我们介绍这种肉的制作工艺:生肉放在海水里腌一下,然后挂在屋内的木椽上,最好下面用泥煤烧火,这样可以给肉加入烟熏味。我吃了一口:说离奇绝对是合适的。肉味肥肥的,很咸,像是……呃……腐烂的味道。“嗯,在海上辛苦了一整天,”戴维说。“回来当然就想吃这个。”Still, I was thrilled to eat it. A couple of years earlier, I had tried something similar in the Faroe Islands, an archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, where they make raest, which is raw mutton hung to air-dry in open huts for months, without the benefit of smoke or salt. Surely, I asked Armitage, raest and reestit were versions of the same dish, and evidence of a Nordic connection? “Ah no,” she said. “For that you’d be wanting vivda.” It turns out that Shetlanders once ate the exact same preparation — and called it by the Norse word for leg meat— until salt became more widesp in the islands.然而我还是很激动的。几年前在法罗群岛——北大西洋上一个大约在挪威和冰岛中间的地方,我试过一种类似的东西,那里的人会做半干风肉(raest),就是把生羊肉挂在通风的小屋里,在没有烟熏或盐渍的情况下风干几个月。于是我就问阿尔米塔奇,半干肉和房椽肉肯定是同一道菜的两个版本,并且是一种北欧亲缘的据?“不对,”她说。“你说的这个应该是vivda。”原来设得兰人曾经也有完全相同的一种做法——只是用了诺尔斯语“腿肉”一词来称呼它——后来盐在岛上普及起来以后,就不这么吃了。After lunch, we turned around (“Snu rundt,” Jurgen said) and headed back north. We passed helpful signs that translated the islands’ Old Norse geographic names into English (“Tingwall, Field of the Parliament”) and stopped, incongruously enough, at a fjord-side food truck for pulled pork sandwiches. It required two more ferries, but we finally arrived in Unst, the northernmost of the Shetland Islands, and hence, the northernmost in Scotland.午饭后,我们调头(“Snu rundt,”于尔根说)向北行驶。一路上有一些很有帮助的路牌,把岛上那些古诺尔斯语地名翻译成了英语(“Tingwall,议会之地”),最后我们很不合时宜地在峡湾边的一辆小吃车前停了下来,吃了个手撕猪肉三明治。接着我们又乘了两趟轮渡,终于来到设得兰群岛最北端、也就是苏格兰最北端的安斯特岛(Unst)。Unst has a higher density of rural Viking sites than any place else in the world, including Scandinavia, with 60 longhouses on a 46-square-mile island. For our first stop, at Hamar, we skirted some curious sheep and a watchful bull to walk among the low, grass-carpeted walls of one (David was saved from another re-enacted vanquishing only because the preponderance of dung at our feet made things especially messy.) From what would have been the front door, I gazed down the length of the shimmering fjord, before I looked down to find the fragments of a broken beer bottle. The idea that local teenagers might use this ancient home as a hangout for drinking, flirting and communing with their Viking past pleased me.安斯特的维京乡村遗址是全世界——包括斯堪的纳维亚——最密集的,在这个46平方英里的岛上有60座长屋(longhouse)。上岛后的第一站是哈马尔(Hamar),我们绕过一群好奇的羊和一头警惕的公牛,沿着其中一座长屋留下的矮墙走了走,墙上长满了情操(这次戴维躲过了一场被敌人征的历史戏,因为脚下到处是粪便,打起来会很难看。)站在应该是房屋正门的地方,我俯瞰着波光粼粼的峡湾,然后低头,看到一堆啤酒瓶碎片。想到本地的孩子也许把这座古老的宅邸当成了饮酒聊天、调情、和自己的维京过去联络的场所,我感到很欣喜。But at the Skidbladner, a reconstructed Viking ship up the road, the volunteer who showed visitors around had a much more prosaic explanation for how past and present came together: economic necessity. Clad in a woolen dress fastened with brooches that approximated what a Viking woman would have worn once she was back on dry land, the volunteer divided her time between welcoming visitors to the site and doing a bit of nalebinding, a Nordic form of needlework that predates knitting. As she showed us around the Skidbladner, a full-size replica of a ship found in a Norwegian Viking burial mound in the 19th century, she told us about the Royal Air Force base that once formed the basis of Unst’s economy. “But they shut that down some years back, and that left a terrible hole,” she said. “Viking tourism is meant to fill it.”但是在斯基德普拉特尼(Skidbladner)——路边的一艘复刻版维京船,一位志愿导游对往昔与当下的交汇持有一个更乏味的解释:经济所需。志愿者身穿一件羊毛裙,上面扣着饰针,这大概就是回到陆地上的维京女人的打扮,她一边招呼着访客,一边手上还干着针织活,这种北欧式的单针环织是比棒针环织更古老的技艺。她带我们参观了斯基德普拉特尼,这是一艘19世纪在一座挪威维京墓穴中发现的船的全尺寸复制品,她说安斯特的经济基础曾经是皇家空军基地。“但是几年前他们关闭了基地,这就留下了一个可怕的窟窿,”她说。“维京旅游就是打算用来填补它的。”We were back to the same question, with little of Scottish territory left. Luckily, just as we neared Shetland’s northern edge, we spied Valhalla. It looked more like a warehouse than the Norse god Odin’s grand hall for fallen warriors, but that may have been because on Unst at least, Valhalla is a craft brewery. The name wasn’t the founder Sonny Priest’s idea. “The Viking thing has been done to death, so I was dead against it,” he said, but more prescient minds on the regional council prevailed. These days, Mr. Priest sells his Old Scatness (named after a Shetland Viking settlement) and Simmer Din (from the Shetland phrase for summer’s long twilight) ales as far as Glasgow and Oslo.眼看已经快到苏格兰国土的尽头,我们又回到了最初的问题上。幸运的是,就在我们即将到达设得兰北端时,我们发现了瓦尔哈拉(Valhalla)。它看上去更像个仓库,而不是诺尔斯神奥丁为阵亡将士准备的灵堂,不过那可能是因为,至少在安斯特,瓦尔哈拉是一家精酿酒厂。这个名字不是创始人桑尼·普利斯特(Sonny Priest)想出来的。“维京那一套已经被用滥了,所以我是很反对的,”他说,但他输给了地区委员会里的一些比他更有远见的人物。如今普利斯特的Old Scatness(因设得兰一处维京殖民地遗址而得名)和Simmer Din(设得兰人用这个短语形容漫长的夏日暮光)牌爱尔啤酒远销至格拉斯哥和奥斯陆。He wasn’t sure what to make of his ancestors’ past. “When I was a kid, the ties to the Norse felt stronger,” he said as he stopped to stick his nose in a bag of hops. “There were all these words we used, and the whalers would take our men because they knew our seafaring skills went back to them. Now sometimes I think it’s just for the tourists. But everybody in Shetland is still proud of their Viking heritage.”他不知道该如何看待自己祖先的历史。“在我小时候,跟诺尔斯文化感觉要更亲近一些,”他话说一半,低头闻了闻一袋啤酒花。“那时候我们在用很多这种词,捕鲸的会来雇我们的人,因为他们知道,我们的航海技巧是祖上传下来的。现在呢,有时候我觉得只是给游客看的。但是维京传统依然是让每一个设得兰人很自豪的东西。”In the end, neither its Viking past nor its imagined Nordic future would be strong enough to sever Scotland from England. But at our final stop, David and I could see why it came close. After hiking through the heather at Saxa Vord, we arrived at the northernmost cliff on Shetland’s most northerly inhabited island. To the east, some 200 miles in the distance, was Norway; to the north, past the rocky outcrop of Muckle Flugga, was the Arctic. We watched the sun set, then got back in the car. “Reisen slutt,” Jurgen said. It was, as he said, journey’s end.到头来,无论是那段维京岁月,还是想象中的北欧未来,都不足以让苏格兰跟英格兰一刀两断。但是在我们的最后一站,戴维和我终于看到,为什么分裂差一点就成功了。在设得兰群岛中最北的一个有人烟的岛上,我们徒步走过萨克撒-沃德(Saxa Vord)的石楠花丛,来到北边的海崖。往东200英里是挪威;往北越过马克尔-弗拉加(Muckle Flugga)就是北极。我们看了日落,回到车中。“Reisen slutt,”于尔根说。没错,这就是此行的尽头。 /201512/414129With many of us contemplating marathons or other prolonged endurance events in 2016, we, our spouses and other family members most likely have wondered whether such strenuous training could be harmful to our hearts. Could any of us, in making ambitious resolutions, exercise too much?有很多人都考虑在2016年参加马拉松比赛或其他长时间的耐力活动,然而,这样的雄心会不会造成运动过度?如此艰苦的锻炼会不会损伤我们的心脏?我们的配偶、其他家庭成员、当然还有我们自己不由产生了担忧。A newly published scientific review offers both reassurance and some caution. It found that while most athletes’ hearts can withstand most exercise, there are exceptions. For some people in seemingly good health, heavy loads of exercise might be problematic. That’s why all of us who work out should be as informed as possible about our family’s cardiac history and our own potential genetic risks.最新发表的一项科学综述让我们大为安心,但它同时也提出了一些警告。该研究发现,尽管大多数运动员的心脏都能承受大部分的运动,但也有例外。运动的沉重负荷可能为某些看似身体健康的人造成麻烦。正是出于这个原因,所有平日锻炼的人都应该尽可能详细地了解自己家族的心脏病史以及自己潜在的遗传风险。Exercise, of course, is in general extremely beneficial for heart health. Dozens of large-scale epidemiological studies have found that people who exercise in any amount, whether five minutes a day or two hours a day or more, are much less likely to develop or die from heart disease than people who are sedentary.当然,一般而言,锻炼对心脏健康大有益处。数十项大型流行病学研究都发现,无论是每天锻炼5分钟还是2个小时,锻炼身体的人患心脏病或因心脏病死亡的风险要比久坐不动的人要低得多。But these studies, while encouraging, contain a disquieting subtext. Their plotted data typically shows some type of bell curve to the heart benefits from exercise, meaning that the more people work out, the less they are at risk of cardiac problems — up to a point, and then the benefits plateau or decline.但这些研究在给予我们鼓励的同时,也隐含着些令人不安的信息。根据数据绘制出的锻炼的心脏效益曲线往往呈钟形,这意味着,在某个点之前,锻炼得越多,人出现心脏问题的风险就越低,但越过这个点之后,锻炼的效益就会出现平台期或者有所下降。To some scientists, that finding made little intuitive sense. If a little exercise is good for the heart, why shouldn’t more be continually better?有些科学家直觉地认为这一发现说不通。既然少量锻炼有益于心脏,那为什么加大锻炼量却不会带来更大的好处呢?Dr. Paul Thompson, the chief of cardiology at Hartford Hospital in Connecticut and for years a dedicated marathon runner, was particularly drawn to that issue. He and his colleagues at Hartford Hospital, along with scientists at the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, recently decided to delve more comprehensively than had yet been done into the available data on the topic.作为一名有多年经验的马拉松跑者,哈特福德医院(Hartford Hospital,位于康涅狄格州)的心脏科主任保罗·汤普森(Paul Thompson)士对这一问题特别感兴趣。最近,他和他在哈特福德医院的同事们以及荷兰内梅亨大学医学中心(Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen)的科学家们决定一同对这一课题的现有数据进行更深入全面地研究。Many past studies have looked at individual aspects of prolonged exercise and heart health. But no past review had comprehensively examined all of the ways in which prolonged endurance exercise might affect the heart and whether, on aggregate, those studies indicated that we should — or should not — worry about the effects of heavy training.以往有许多研究着眼于从个人角度来探讨长期锻炼与心脏健康。然而,却未曾有综述全面审查过长时间的耐力训练对心脏的效应,或总结这些研究是否提示我们应警惕高强度锻炼带来的影响。So for the new study, being published next month in Physiological Reviews, Dr. Thompson and his collaborators gathered all of the studies they could find from the past 30 or more years related to exercise and heart health, and parsed their findings both singly and collectively.因此,在这项1月发表在《生理学》杂志(Physiological Reviews)上的新研究中,汤普森士及其同事收集了他们能找到的过去30多年来与锻炼和心脏健康有关的所有研究,并个别和综合分析了这些研究的结果。Their findings should reassure most of us and our concerned loved ones.他们的研究结果应该可以让我们和我们那些忧心忡忡的亲人放下心来。“There is no evidence that there is a level of exercise that is dangerous or too much for a normal, healthy person,” Dr. Thompson told me.汤普森士告诉我:“目前没有据说明某种运动水平会给正常、健康的人带来危险或让人‘锻炼过度’。”At the same time, those of us who work out should understand that frequent exercise training causes “profound changes in cardiac physiology and structure,” as Dr. Thompson and his colleagues write in their review.另一方面,正如汤普森士及其同事们在该综述中所写:平日锻炼的人也应该明白,频繁的运动训练确实会引起“心脏的生理和结构发生重大改变。”In the short term, these changes can mimic heart damage, they point out, with cardiac cells often becoming “leaky” after strenuous workouts or events, releasing proteins into the bloodstream that, in other circumstances, could indicate a heart attack. These proteins usually disappear within a few days, and the heart seems to recover fully, Dr. Thompson said.他们指出,短期看来,这些改变有点像心脏损伤,也就是说,在剧烈运动之后,心脏细胞往往会“漏”,将蛋白质释放入血液——换了别的情况,这可能预示着心肌梗死。不过,这些蛋白质通常几天内就会消失,心脏也完全“康复”了,汤普森士说。But in the process, the heart adapts and changes. Its left and right ventricles enlarge. It begins to look quite different than a non-athlete’s heart.但是在这个过程中,心脏出现了适应性改变:左、右心室扩大,从形态上开始与那些非运动员的心脏有了很大差异。For most people, these changes are beneficial and also necessary for successful athletic performance. But, as Dr. Thompson and his colleagues write, their review of the studies indicates that there are outliers, seemingly healthy people for whom strenuous exercise holds unexpected dangers.这些变化对于大多数人来说都是有益的,对于取得优异的运动成绩也必不可少。不过,正如汤普森士和他的同事所写的那样,他们在做完研究综述后发现,世事总有例外,有些人表面上健康,但剧烈运动却可能给他们带来意想不到的危险。Perhaps most surprising, older marathon runners can be just as susceptible as their sedentary counterparts to atherosclerosis, or the buildup of dangerous plaques in the arteries, the studies show. Strenuous exercise does not prevent these plaques in people who are predisposed by heredity or lifestyle to the condition.也许最令人惊讶的是,研究表明,中老年马拉松选手与久坐不动的人一样容易患动脉粥样硬化(也就是危险斑块在动脉中堆积)。在因遗传或生活方式原因更容易患这种疾病的人当中,剧烈运动对斑块没有预防效果。The act of exercising, however, may increase the risk that the plaques will rupture, precipitating a heart attack. Someone with atherosclerosis is more likely, studies show, to have a heart attack while running than while sitting quietly.而且,运动时的动作可能会增加斑块破裂的风险,引发心肌梗死。研究显示,与静坐时相比,动脉粥样硬化患者在跑步时更可能发生心肌梗死。But many older athletes with atherosclerosis have no idea they suffer from the condition, which often causes few symptoms.但是,很多患有动脉粥样硬化的中老年运动员对自己的病情一无所知,虽然有些症状已经出现。Similarly, according to the new review, people with certain inherited heart abnormalities, such as cardiomyopathy (an enlarged heart) or long QT syndrome, a disorder of the heart’s electrical activity, may exacerbate their conditions with strenuous exercise. The cardiac remodeling that is beneficial for most exercisers, the reviewers write, is undesirable for them and could lead to premature death, possibly contributing to the statistical downturn in health benefits from extreme exercise seen in some studies.这项新综述还显示,某些遗传性心脏异常,如心肌病(心脏肥大)或长QT综合征(心脏电活动的紊乱)的患者在剧烈运动时,病情可能加剧。作者们在综述中写道,虽然心脏重构对大多数锻炼者有益,但对上述患者却有害,可能会导致他们过早死亡。一些研究发现剧烈运动的健康效益从统计学上偏低,可能有这方面的原因。The best response to this information is not, however, to panic and avoid strenuous exercise, Dr. Thompson said. The best response is “to know your family history of sudden death,” he said. If a close family member has died unexpectedly of heart problems, talk to your doctor about whether you need to be tested for conditions such as atherosclerosis or cardiomyopathy.不过,汤普森士表示,对这些信息的最佳反应不是恐慌并避免剧烈运动,而是“了解自己家族的猝死病史”。如果你有近亲因为心脏问题而意外死亡,请与你的医生谈谈,看你是否需要接受测试,以检查有无动脉粥样硬化或心肌病等疾病。The rest of us should pay attention to symptoms such as unusual fatigue, shortness of breath or chest pain during exercise, he said, but are much more likely to strengthen our hearts with exercise than harm them.其他的人也应该注意在运动中是否出现了不寻常的疲劳、呼吸急促或胸痛等症状,汤普森士说,但总的说来,锻炼更可能强健我们的心脏,而不是伤害它们。 /201602/426530鹰潭希正妇科医院看妇科怎么样好不好

月湖区妇幼保健医院人流价格表鹰潭市人民医院剖腹产怎么样Chinese men now smoke one-third of all the world’s cigarettes, and a third of all young men in China are doomed to eventually die from the habit, scientists in China and Britain have concluded.中英两国的科学家推断,眼下中国男性抽的香烟数量占全世界的三分之一,且中国三分之一的年轻男性注定终究会死于吸烟这个习惯。Their study, published last week in The Lancet, estimated that two-thirds of all males in China smoked, more were still taking up the habit and more were starting as teenagers, which adds risk.上周,他们的研究论文发表在了《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上。文章估计,中国三分之二的男性吸烟,此外还有更多人正在沾染吸烟的习惯,从十几岁就开始吸烟的人也增多了。从十几岁就开始吸烟会加剧健康风险。With population growth stagnant, the number of men 60 or older is expected to double by 2030, and the number dying of smoking-related ailments each year will triple, hitting three million a year by 2050.随着人口增长停滞,到2030年,60岁或以上的男性人数预计会翻一番,而死于和吸烟有关的疾病的人数每年都会增加两倍,并在2050年达到每年300万。More smokers are stopping by choice, the study found, but still only 9 percent did so.研究发现,选择戒烟的吸烟者增加了,但依然只有9%的人戒烟。By contrast, smoking rates among women in China have dropped sharply; about 10 percent of older women smoke, but only about 1 percent of middle-aged women do. However, another recent study detected rapid increases among teenage girls in some regions.相比之下,中国女性吸烟者的比例显著下降。年纪较大的女性中,大约10%的人吸烟,但在中年女性中,吸烟者仅占大约1%。然而,最近的另一项研究发现,部分地区十几岁的女孩中吸烟者人数增加迅速。Before China achieved prosperity, the Lancet study said, smokers typically started at age 25, more smoked pipes and many could not afford multiple cigarettes every day.《柳叶刀》上的文章称,中国经济繁荣之前,吸烟者通常是从25岁开始的,并且抽烟斗的人更多,很多人负担不起每天吸好几根烟。The study estimated future smoking-related deaths from many causes, including lung cancer, obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, heart failure and other cancers. Lung disease rates are aly high in China, even among nonsmokers, owing to urban air pollution and to indoor wood fires used by the rural poor.文章预计,未来和吸烟有关的死因会有很多,包括肺癌、阻塞性肺病、中风、心力衰竭和其他癌症。在中国,因为城市的空气污染和农村地区贫困人口在室内烧柴,即便是在不吸烟的人群中,肺病的发病率也已经相当高了。The study was led by scientists from China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the University of Oxford.领导该研究的科学家来自中国疾病预防控制中心、中国医学科学院和牛津大学。Antismoking efforts in China face a difficult political situation: The central government has a monopoly through the Chinese National Tobacco Corporation, and more than 7 percent of government revenue comes from it.中国的禁烟行动面临困难的政治形势,中央政府通过中国烟草总公司实行烟草专卖,超过7%的政府收入来自该公司。According to an editorial accompanying the study, myths about smoking persist in China: that Asians are less susceptible to its dangers, that it is an ancient Chinese tradition and that quitting is easy.与该论文一同发表的一篇文章称,在中国,有关吸烟的谬论经久不衰,如亚洲人不那么容易受吸烟的危害、吸烟是中国的古老传统,以及戒烟很容易。 /201510/403526Literature : The Qing emperors understood themselves as patrons of artistsand writers. Especially the Emperor Kangxi promoted the compilation and publication of all knowledge and writing of China.文学:清朝统治者把自己看成是艺术家和作家们的守护神,尤其是康熙皇帝,他促成了中国的知识和作品的编辑发行。During his reign the History of Ming Dynasty came off the press, along with, the illustrated encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng , the Collection of Tang Poetry and Tang Prose Writings , the character dictionary Kangxi Dictionary , the Rhyme Dictionary , and the collection Siku Quanshu , a compendium that tried to subsummize all existent writings that had ever been published. Emperor Kangxi made great cotributions to Chinese literature.在他执政时期,出版发行了《明史》、《古 今图书集成》、《全唐诗》、《全唐文》,以及《康熙字典》、《佩文韵府》和《四库全书》。 《四库全书》尝试着对所有已发表的作品进行总结。康熙皇帝为中国文学发展作出了很大贡献。However his two successors went to far In order to ensure their rulership, they got literary inquisitions into full swing. Therefore, literary critics at that time were punished. The literary standard of the Qing rulers also enclosed demoralizing writings. Qing novels, which are colorful and rich in daily language, is therefore very different from Yuan and Ming novels.但是,他的两个继承人为了确保他们的统治地位而大搞“文字狱”。 为此,清政府时期的文学家受到了惩罚。清朝统治者的文学标准封杀了有伤风化的文学作品,清朝时期的小说与元朝和明朝时期的多姿多的和日常生活用语丰富的小说不一样。Qing novels like Cao Xueqin^ 14 Dream of Red Mansion , Wu Jingzi#39;S The Scholars , 〇nd Xi〇 Jingxu^ u Words of an Old Peasant Sunning are written in a very subtitle language with many reminiscences to the old literature that can only be understood by well educated people.清朝时期的小说主要有曹雪芹的《红楼梦》、吴敬梓的《儒林外史》、夏敬渠的《野叟曝言》,所有这些小说语言精练,并大多数都带有古文学 的味道,并且只有那些受到过良好教育的人才能读懂。Likewise are the short story collections like Pu Songling 44 Strange Accounts from, the Leisure Study , Yuan Mei^ u What Confucius did not Say f,, and Ji Yun u Essays from the Short Grass Hall”? Less popular anthologies are Pu Songling’s “Xingshi Yinyuan” or a Matrimonial Causations Awakening the World.同样的作品还有蒲松龄的短篇小说集《聊斋志异》、袁枚的《子不语》、纪昀的《阅微草堂笔记》等。还有一些 就是和前者相比略显逊色的蒲松龄的《醒世因缘》等等。In the sphere of high-class theatre, we also find a subtle and romantic style in the plays of Li Yu (the erotic novel M Rouputuan or M Carnal Prayer Matyi is attributed to him), Hong Sheng (u Hall of Everlasting Life ) 〇nd Kong Shangren ( Peach Blossom Fan ).戏曲方面有创作细腻、充满浪漫色调的戏曲作品,如,李渔(性爱小说《肉蒲团》就是描写李渔的)、洪升(《长生殿》)和孔尚任(《桃花扇》)等的戏曲作品。From the end of 18th century on, the private correspondence between scholars was written in a very free and apolitical style (for example, the autobiography u Six Records of an Unsteady Life ty by Shen Fu), and even in the public sphere, we find writers that did not hesitate to show their unconventional standpoint, like the poet and essayist Yuan AAei and Li Ruzhen (writing the nover“The Causal Connection of a Flower and Its Mirror Reflection”)who both supported thoughts of equal rights for women.从18世纪末期开始,文人之间开始用自由的非官方用语的形式互通信件(如 沈复自传《浮生六记》)。不仅如此,甚至在公开场合下也使用自由体和非官方文 体,他们毫不犹豫地表达了自己的非传统观点,如诗人和散文作家袁枚和李汝珍 (著有《镜花缘》)。同时,这两位作家还赞成男女平等的女权主义思想。For the scholars that lived during the conquest of the Manchu, the downfall of the Ming regime was a prove for the abuse of authoritarian power of the central government in Beijing.对于那些见了满清的征又看到了明朝的灭亡的学者们来说,他们知道明朝时期北京政府的高度集权和滥用职权最后导致了明朝的灭亡。However, these people did not only criticize the Ming autocracy, and thereby supporting the new Qing rulers. Thinkers and philosophers of the new age (mid 17th century to 18th century) also criticized the traditional, sterile and impeding style of Confucian classics that had been interpreted by the Neo-Confucianists of the Song and Ming eras. Criticizing or overworshiping the liter-ature authoritarism of the Ming also meant doubting the legitimacy of the new rulers.但是,这些文人墨客们,一方面 批判明朝的独裁统治,一方面又持新的清朝独裁统治者。新时期(从17世纪中 期到18世纪)的思想家和哲学家们也批判宋、明时期所演绎的传统、乏味和有碍于文学发展的儒家作品。批判和过于尊崇明朝时期的文学同样都是质疑清朝早期统治者的权威性。Many scholars were put to death for opposing the Qing regime, like Jin Shengtan, but others stayed unmolested, like the important history critics Huang Zongxi, the evolution theoretician Wang Fuzhi, Fang Yizhi, and Gu Yanwu. All of these philosophers were oriented to practical sciences and interpreted philosophy only as one part of a cosmism of sciences, the study of classical Confucian writings and their interpretations were by no means the heart of education.清朝时期也有很多学者由于反对清朝的统治而被处死,如金圣叹等。但是,也有一些人却安然无恙,如,举足轻重的历史学家黄宗羲,进化论观点持有者王夫之、方以智和顾炎武,所有这些哲学家们都致力于研究实学、并声称哲学不过是科学宇宙进化论的一部分而已,对儒家作品的研究和释义无论如何都不能 成为学习和教育的重心。This viewpoint was deduced by Gu Zuyu, Mei Wending, Yan Yuan, and Li Gong. The school of thinking that leads to a deepgoing change in the life of Confucian classics was the movement of text criticism that came up during the second half of 17th century.这一观点得到了顾祖禹、梅文鼎、颜元和李埭的进一步演 绎。这一导致儒家大作深刻变化的思潮源于17世纪后期对教科书的批判。The Rites of Zhou and the Book of Documentswere identified as later compositions than they purported to be, many histories and stories about early Confucian saints and rulers were detected as being later inventions. The Book of Songs did not only contain hymns for the Zhou rulers, but also simple love songs.《周礼》和《尚书》事实上要比人们所认为的出现的晚得多,其中,很多有关早期儒家圣 人和统治者的历史和故事也不过是人的杜撰而已。《诗经》不仅有关于周朝统治者 的颂歌,也有关于朴素爱情的诗歌。Confucius and the writings attributed to him were dethroned by man like Wan Sida, Yan Ruoqu, Hu Wei, Yuan Mei, Wang Zhong, Cui Shu, and Hui Dong.那些被认为是属于统治者的儒家思想和作品 则被清朝时期的文人和作家所废弃,这些人有万斯大、阎若璩、胡渭、袁枚、汪中、崔 述和惠栋等。This movement was quite similar to the first researches of the Greek and Hebrew original texts of the bible, a book whose Latin version had been sacrosanct since the being of Christianity.这种举动和对希腊语、希伯来语版本的《圣经》的早期研究极为相似, 而拉丁语版本的《圣经》自从基督教诞生以来被认为是最为神圣的。Zhang Xuecheng was one of the first historians to lay stress on the importance of local history of the huge empire of China. Every document, he said, had to be incorporated into a historiography, and not only annals and edicts like the official histories did. Historiography should also be a personal work although there might be subjective interpretations.章学诚是首先 强调庞大中国地方历史的历史学家之一。他认为,每卷史书都应融人编年史者的 工作,而不应该像官府史书那样仅仅是历史记载和政府法令的记录,编史工作可以 是个人行为,尽管会掺杂有个人的主观释义。Probably the most important writer and scientist of early and middle Qing peri-od was Dai Zhen, a universal scholar, mathematician, philologist, one of the ed卜 tors of the collection Siku Quanshu , and philosopher; the most objective and earnest criticist of Neo-Confucian interpretation of the classical writings and their nature philosophy.可以说,清朝早、中期的最主要的作家和科学家是戴震。戴震是一位多才多艺 的学者,他是数学家,语言学家,《四库全书》编纂者之一和哲学家,是古典文学作品 新儒思想释义和自然哲学最客观、最认真的家。His most important philosophical writing might be The Origin of Goodness ’’ or Yuanshan ? Instead of the Neo-Confucian universal order, he interpreted any being as being guided and led by breath, odem or matter that helps the abstract cosmic order to manifest all appearances.其最主要的哲学作品是《原 善》。他解释说任何人都受呼吸和气的引导,而不是新儒理论,气能助道在各方面 展现。Books about practical science and philology were not only written and published by scholars or officials, but also by rich merchants that patronized writers and artists and that engaged themselves in studies about geography, chronology, epigraphy, mathematics, philology, and the Confucian Classics.除此之外,有关实学和语言学的书籍也由学者和官方大量出版。同时,那些 赞助作家和艺术家的、甚至自己也直接参与学习研究地理、编年史、碑文学、数学、 语言学和儒家思想的富商们也积极出版发行作品。The places for scholars preparing for the state examinationswere provided by private academies. Private studies and patronage only ended with the financial and economical ruin of the rich merchant families of the lower Yangtze area at the end of 18th century. But all of these made the writing prosperous in the early and middle of the Qing Dynasty.当时,学子们备考科举的地方276由书院提供。最后,由于18世纪末期长江下游富商之家金融和经济的衰败而致使 私学和个人资助而告终。不过,所有这些,还是让清朝早中期的文学曾经一度繁荣。Science and technology : There are many fields of social activities and sciences the two cultural spheres learned from each other. During the end of Ming and beginning of Qing Dynasty, the Jesuit padres residing at the imperial court in Beijing was important media for the cultural and technical exchange from east to west and vice versa.科学技术:清朝时期,东西方在很多社会活动和科学领域中相互学习。明末清初,耶稣教传道士居住北京皇宫,这就是东西方文化和科技交流的重要媒介。While the Jesuits showed to the Chinese upper class the technical inventions made in Europe during the past century, like watches and astronomical instruments, they were impressed by the high standards of Chinese medicine, and land surveying.当这些耶稣使者向中国的上层阶级展现欧洲在上一个世纪重大科技发明的同时,包括 手表、天文仪器等,他们也被中国的高超的医疗水平和土地勘查所深深打动。Chinese painters and musicians adopted European concepts of art. Chinese painters and calligraphers had always stood in the century-old tradition of elder patterns and models. Musicians did not live as famous composers, but as nameless instruments of the ritual art of music.中国 画家和音乐家吸收采纳了欧洲艺术概念。那时,中国画家和书法家一直停留在对 有百年之久的老格局和传统模式的表达。音乐家不是作为著名的创作人而存在,而是音乐形式艺术中名不见经传的乐器而存在。The west was inspired by technically improved objects like suspension-bridges with iron chains, a push cart with a sail, rotating de-spelting machines, magnetism, and much more. The great universal genius Leibniz undertook deepgoing investigations into Chinese technique.西方被中国的高科技成就,如铁 索悬桥、有帆手推车、磁力学等所震惊。世界著名天才人物雷柏尼茨曾经对中国科 学技术进行过深人研究。Silk worms were introduced to the west some centuries before, but industrial production of silk could only be established in the 16th century. The German J. F. Bett-ger accidentally invented porcelain, but the need for Chinese porcelain was very high in the stream of a China fashion in 18th century Europe.中国蚕丝在几个世纪之前就传人欧洲,但是,丝绸工业生 产直到16世纪才出现。德国人J. F.伯特格尔一次偶然的机会发明了瓷器,但是, 18世纪的欧洲仍然大量需要中国瓷器。Philosophers interpreted the tranquil and prosperous empire of the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors as the ideal state, headed by a wise monarch. Until the end of 18th century, China was technically much more advanced than the west, and only the industrial revolution helped the western states to become prevalent powers during the 19th century, giving them a sentiment of being superior to the backward Chinese empire.哲学家们认为,清朝康熙、乾隆统治时期 的两大盛世理想的国度,是明君执政的理想国度。直到18世纪末,中国在科技方 面一直比西方世界先进,只是后来19世纪的工业革命使西方诸国变成优势国家, 让他们有了比落后的中国王朝先进的优越感。Art:Qing Dynasty art can be called a culmination of all art styles that have been developed during the past 2500 years. Unlike Ming artists , artisans, painters, calligraphers and craftsmen during the Qing period used very old forms and shapes for their works of art.艺术:清朝时期的艺术是过去2500年间中国各种艺术形式发展的顶峰时期。 不同于明朝,清朝时期的艺术家、手工艺人、画家、书法家以及工匠们在创作艺术作 品时都使用极为传统的形式和格式。Chinaware and lacquerware objects were given not only the bulgy shapes that had developed since the Song Dynasty, but we find also vases or cups with the shape of Shang or Zhou bronze ware like the zun type. Gourd shapes vessels,vases with three openings or more,the typical “rice” bowls and the small tea cups and tea pots we know today all developed during the QingDynasty.瓷器和漆器制作时,不仅使用了源于宋朝的 突出形状,花瓶和杯子也采用了商、周的铜器形状,如樽等。葫芦状容器、三开嘴或 多开嘴的花瓶、独有特色的“饭”碗,以及小茶杯、茶壶等,即便是现代的人们也是耳 熟能详,都是源于清朝时期。The typical bluegreen of the Ming chinaware changed to a broader palett of colors, ranging from orange to green and gold ; Qing chinaware is much more colorful than the former types.明朝时期的蓝绿色为特色的瓷器,在清朝时期发生了 极大变化,色趋向多样化,从橘黄色到绿色、金色等。所以清朝时期的瓷器比以 往任何朝代的瓷器都更加丰富多。New materials extensively used now are enamel, cloisonne and glass ware. Materials like jade, gold and cloisonne are first combined in a single art object.现在,人们广泛使用的新材料是珐琅、景泰蓝 和玻璃制品。玉、黄金和景泰蓝第一次同时使用在一件制品中。Additionally, a dark wooden base for vases or other i-tems came up. We also possess a lot of objects made from easy decayable materials like wood or bamboo, for example furniture, and of course cloth material that served as daily worn dress, or as simple object of admiration.除此之外,黑木花 瓶和其他艺术品也开始出现。到现在我们仍然拥有大量的使用易于腐烂的材料如 木头和竹子制成的物件,如家具等。当然,还有我们日常穿戴的布料或者简易的小 饰品等。In the field of calligraphy, Qing artists went on to use the traditional styles of writing, but unlike Ming calligraphers, people now studied the oldest examples of Chinese script like the oracle bones and bronze vessel inscriptions. With the advent of Christian missionaries in China, Chinese painters learned from the Jesuits Western painting techniques like perspective and the use of oil-paint instead of monochrome ink.在书法领域,清朝书法家继续沿用传统的书法形式。但是,与明朝书法家 不同的是,清朝书法家研究的是中国手迹的最古老的范本,如卜骨和铜器上的刻文 等。清朝时期随着大批基督教传道士的到来,中国画家也吸收了基督教中的绘画 技巧,如透视法和油画技术取代了单色墨画。Even buildings and palaces were constructed according to the Western style, like the Yuanmingyuan Palace that was destroyed in the 19th century the Eight-Power Allied Forces. Typical for the Qing Dynasty private houses are the many gardens laid out by rich families in Suzhou and Hangzhou.甚至楼房和宫殿的建造也是仿照西 方风格,如在19世纪被八国联军毁掉的圆明园。清朝时期民间建筑的典型形式是 苏州、杭州的富有之家建造的众多园林建筑。 /201603/428572鹰潭哪个医院妇科最好Rule of Wen and Jing文景之治When the emperors Wen and Jing in the Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.---- 8 A.D.) came into power, they went on with more moderate and humane policies carried by Emperor Gaozu.汉文帝与汉景帝执政时,相较于高祖,他们采取了更加温和与人性化的政策。Historical records show that during their reigns the Han Dynasty (206B.C. ---- 220A.D.) prospered.历史记录显示,当他们当政时,汉朝(公元前206年至公元220年)繁荣发展。Untroubled by wars or natural disasters, people lived in peace.人们平安度日,不受战乱或自然灾害的忧扰。This resulted in an increase in population and the development of manufacturing industries and commerce.这最终造成了人口的增长以及制造业和经济的发展。The emperor Wen attached much importance to agriculture and economy.汉文帝将注意力更多放在了农业与经济上。He encouraged agricultural output by further reducing taxes and asked people to grow mulberry and raise silkworms.他通过不断减少税收以及建议人民种桑树、养蚕来鼓励农业的发展。Meanwhile, Wen introduced the reform of punishment and abolished many cruel penalties, in the 23 years of his reign, there was no reconstruction of the palace and his carriages remained the same.同时,文帝提倡惩罚制度的改革并取消了许多残酷的刑罚,在他统治的23年间,他不曾修缮过宫殿,连自己的马车也多年如一日。According to the historical records, the food supply was so ample that much got perished in the bams.根据史料记载,那时的食物供给十分充足以至于许多粮食都烂在了谷仓里。Another important factor that contributed to the prosperity of Han was that Wen and Jing endeavored to maintain a friendly relationship with Han and neighboring countries.另一个使得汉朝繁荣兴盛的原因在于文帝和景帝致力于与汉朝周边的国家维持良好的关系。 /201510/397344鹰潭打胎哪里比较好

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