时间:2017年11月25日 11:56:02

Singles Day in China is the celebration -- or mourning -- of being unattached. Started by students in Nanjing in the mid-1990s, the date was selected in observation of its four solitary digits: 11/11.中国“光棍节”,一个庆祝(或哀嚎)没人相伴的节日。光棍节起源于90年代中期,由南京的几位大学生创立,节日定在每年的11月11日,因为这四个光秃秃的数字,看上去像极了“光棍”。While relatively obscure in most other countries, Singles Day is likely to increase in prominence as more single men in China are unable to find female partners. According to a recent study by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, more than 24 million Chinese men could find themselves without spouses by 2020.虽然光棍节在其他国家的文化中看来有些难以理解,但在中国,光棍节的影响力越来越大,在中国有越来越多的单身男性找不到女朋友。据中国社会科学院最近的一项调查显示,到2020年全中国将有2400万男性找不到配偶。Celebrating Singles Day comes in many forms across the Asian nation, and like Christmas and Valentine#39;s Day, it has become a multi-million dollar industry.中国各地均有不同形式来庆祝光棍节的仪式。就和圣诞节、情人节一样,光棍节已经成了一门能创造几百万收益的产业。The Fig Tree, a luxury pastry school in downtown Beijing, is offering a chocolate truffle-making course to foster ;fun, flirting, measuring and mixing,; among singles on Thursday.北京市中心一家叫菲格树的高级烘焙学校,从这周四起开始招收学习松露巧克力的学生。“乐趣及情致一体、衡量及混搭并进”是他们的宣传主题。他们招的都是单身学徒。;Baking brings people together,; said Lin Zhong, school owner and pastry chef. ;[We] invite the city#39;s singles ... for an education in flirting and chocolate making.;“烘焙将人们的距离拉得更近”,校长及主厨Lin Zhong说道,“我们旨在邀请全城的单身人士……教会他们如何边制作巧克力边调情。”For those with more adventurous tastes, Beijing#39;s flagship amusement park Happy Valley is hosting a day of activities for singles, featuring games that include a singing contest entitled ;Bachelor#39;s Love Song.; Another activity in store: a dedicated area in which singles can ;confess their true feelings.;对于那些更喜欢冒险的人来说,北京具有代表性的游乐园欢乐谷就将以一系列的游乐项目庆祝光棍节,其中包括一个名为“单身情歌”的歌唱比赛,另一个针对光棍们推出的活动叫做“说出你的爱”All of this mingling comes at a price. For every male who buys a full price ticket for , he may bring one female along at no cost.以上这些游乐项目当然不会是免费的。每一位买价值25美元全价票的男士可以免费带一位女士入场。Shenzhen#39;s theme park, Splendid China, which boasts miniature replicas of many of the country#39;s most famous landmarks, will host a vegetable hunting contest, much like an Easter egg hunt, to encourage singles to meet. The vegetables, mostly cucumbers and tomatoes, will be hidden throughout the park in a scaled-down Great Wall and bite-size Forbidden City.深圳的一家名为“锦绣中华”的主题公园拥有许多世界知名地标建筑的复制品。他们将在光棍节举行“蔬菜猎人”比赛,就跟复活节寻蛋的游戏差不多,旨在让单身人士们相遇。蔬菜主要由黄瓜、番茄组成,它们将被藏在公园的各个角落,以缩小版本的长城和紫禁城为主。In Shanghai, the city#39;s main ;marriage market; nestled in People#39;s Park is teeming with more traffic than usual. Concerned parents of unmarried children posted personal ads and photos, boasting their education, salary levels and height and weight proportions. The advertisements line the perimeter of the park, and many anxious parents sit along the curb, hoping to meet another set of parents to make a good match.在上海,人民公园中赫赫有名的“相亲市场”一定比平时还要爆满。那些为单身孩子忧心忡忡的父母们展示着子女的个人信息、照片,夸耀他们的学历、薪水、身高、体重等各种信息。相亲广告贴满了人民公园的墙,而心急如焚的父母们则在旁等候着合适的人选前来与自己儿女配对。To the west in the city of Xian, singles can reenact a famous Tang Dynasty love story or learn about the principles of love at Qujiang Cave Ruins Park, which claims to be the ;first love-themed park in China.;往西走,在古都西安,单身人士们能参与扮演一个有名的唐代爱情故事,或在曲江寒窑遗址公园学习爱情守则,据说这是中国第一个爱情主题公园。However, in a society dominated by children who grow up without siblings (due to China#39;s one-child policy), finding love on Singles Day is unlikely to be as easy as a walk in the park.然而在一个以独生子女为主的社会里(缘于中国的计划生育政策),在光棍节成功“脱光”可远远没有听上去这么简单。;For a lot of young men, they feel that what can make them more attractive to their potential dates is their good education, a good job and a lot of money ... [and] a car and apartment handy so they can attract more women,; said Dr. Chang Wei, a psychologist at Beijing ed Family Hospital. ;That leads to a lot of young men working 10-12 hours a day with no time to socialize. Parents feel they have to step in and help them find dates, and sometimes the men are okay with that.;“很多年轻男人认为,自己的教育背景、工作和钱财将决定自己在异性面前的吸引力……如果还有车有房的话,那就在女人眼里更加抢手了,”北京和睦家医院的心理医生常伟说道。“这导致很多年轻男性每天工作10-12小时,连社交的时间都没有。他们的父母感到自己需要出手帮助自己孩子寻找对象,而孩子们也往往同意这样做。”Not everyone desires to be matched up, though. In a survey of white-collar workers on popular Chinese jobs site Zhaopin.com, about 70 percent of married or committed individuals said they missed being single.然而并不是所有年轻人都愿意被凑成对。中国知名的智联招聘网站曾进行过一项针对白领的调查显示,70%已婚或已订婚的受访者都表示:他们怀念单身时光。Once frowned upon in China, divorce is now common, too. In 2009, more than 2.46 million couples divorced in the country, almost twice the number in 2001.离婚在过去的中国是不大能被接受的,然而现在已变得十分普遍。2009年,中国有246万对夫妇离婚,这个数字几乎是2001年的两倍。But like many singles in China, Alexandra Shi, an undergraduate student at Beijing Foreign Studies University, is looking for love. This year, she#39;ll mark the day with her fellow single friends, and they will likely take one chopstick and make a wish to not be ;a #39;single stick#39; anymore.;Alexandra Shi 是一位来自北京外国语大学的本科学生,她和许多单身人士一样,正渴望找到真爱。今年她将和其他几位同样单身的好友一同庆祝光棍节,并且她们会拿起一根筷子,许下“尽快摆脱单身” 的愿望。;Being single is not cool...for me, being in a relationship would do me good I guess,; Shi said. ;But being single for now doesn#39;t make my life miserable. Definitely don#39;t want to celebrate next year#39;s Singles Day though!;“单身并不酷……对我来说,也许谈恋爱对我更有好处吧。” Shi 说道。“虽然单身的时光也不能算痛苦,但明年这个时候,我绝对不要再过光棍节了!” /201211/208461

Psychology: Pseudo-Psychologies - From Planets to Palms伪心理学:从星座到手掌Pseudo-psychologies (;pseudo-; means false) are dubious and unfounded systems of predicting behavior that superficially resemble psychology. What are some of these pseudo-psychologies? Why do some people accept them as valid?伪心理学表面看上去像是心理学,但它预测人类行为的机制既靠不住又没有事实依据。伪心理学有哪些经典案例?为什么人们会相信它们是真的?Probably the most popular pseudo-psychology is astrology. It is based on the assumption that the position of the planets and stars at the time of a person#39;s birth determines personality characteristics and affects behavior. Palmistry, another pseudo-psychology, claims that the lines in the hand are indicators of personality and the person#39;s future.最著名的伪心理学大概是占星术(星座论)。占星术的理论基础建立在这样一个假设上:一个人出生时行星的位置决定了这个人的性格并且会影响他/她的行为。手相是另一种伪心理学,声称手上的线条昭示了这个人的性格和未来运势。Graphology, a third pseudo-psychology, indicates that personality is revealed by a person#39;s handwriting. Although graphology is only moderately popular in the ed States, some companies in this country use handwriting analysis to evaluate job applicants. Even though graphology is definitely valuable in detecting forgeries, careful test of accuracy in psychological studies have shown that graphologists score close to zero in rating personality.笔体学是第三种伪心理学,认为一个人的字迹能够揭露性格。笔体学在美国还算流行,有些公司使用笔迹分析来评估应聘者。即使笔体学在鉴定赝品时非常有用,心理学的研究中对它进行的准确性测试显示,在评估性格这方面,笔体学的准确性几乎低至0。Another pseudo-psychology, phrenology, was started in the nineteenth century by a German anatomy teacher, Franz Gall. His theory was that personality was revealed by bumps on the skull. Phrenologists assumed that parts of the brain governed different personality characteristics. It was thought that - like muscles - parts of the brain that were used more often tended to get bigger. In turn, these enlarged areas pushed on the skull causing bumps. With advances in neurology, this was shown to be impossible, and phrenology declined. Although some brain areas do have specific functions, they are not directly related to specific personality traits.另外一种伪科学颅相学始于19世纪,发起人弗兰茨·格尔是一个德籍解剖学老师。他认为,颅骨上的凸起可以揭露性格。颅相学家假设大脑的不同部分控制不同的性格特征。就像肌肉一样,多次使用的那部分大脑会变得比其余的更大。接着,这些膨胀的区域对颅骨施加压力,造成凸起。神经病学的先进研究已实这是不可能的,此后颅相学开始衰落。虽然大脑的某些区域的确有特殊的功能,但他们与具体的性格特征没有直接联系。Why do these pseudo-psychologies survive and retain their popularity? One factor is the P. T. Barnum effect. P. T. Barnum, a famous circus showman, had a formula for success - ;Always have a little something for everybody.; Read the following personality description.为什么伪科学依然存在而且如此热门?其中一个原因便是巴纳姆效应。巴纳姆是一个著名的马戏团演员,有个成功公式:“永远有一点对每个人都适用。”阅读下面的性格描述:You have a strong need for other people to like you and for them to admire you. You have a tendency to be critical of yourself. You have a great deal of unused energy, which you have not turned to your advantage. While you have some personality weaknesses, you are generally able to compensate for them. Your sexual adjustment has presented some problems for you. Disciplined and controlled on the outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure inside. At times you have some doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed-in by restrictions and limitations. You pride yourself on being an independent thinker and do not accept others opinions without satisfactory proof. You have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others. At times, you are extroverted, affable, sociable, while at other times, you are introverted, wary and reserved. Some of your aspirations tend to be pretty unrealistic.你强烈的需要别人喜欢你,崇拜你。你倾向于对自己严格。你有很多还未使用的潜力,还没有来得及成为你的优势。你有一些性格上的缺点,但大体上你能补偿它们。外表上你遵守纪律,很有自制力,但内心里你会忧虑,没有安全感。有时你会怀疑你自己是否做出了正确的选择或者做了正确的事。你愿意接受一定程度的改变和多元,但一旦有条规限制,你会感到不满。你为你自己的独立思考能力而骄傲,并且在没有令人满意的据时不轻易接受他人的观点。你认为过于坦诚地向他人暴露自己的真实想法是不聪明的。有时候你外向,和蔼,合群,但有时候你内向,谨慎,保守。你有一些非常不切实际的抱负。Does this describe you? A psychologist this summary individually to 79 students, who had taken a personality test. Of the students, 29 said the description was ;excellent.; 30 said it was ;good,; 15 said it was ;average,; but only 5 said it was ;poor.; Thus only 5 of the 79 thought the description - supposedly determined from the personality test - was inadequate.这一段是否描述了你?一个心理学家单独向79名进行了性格测试的学生阅读了这份总结。其中29名认为这份描述“极好”地描述了他们的性格,30名认为“还不错”,15名认为“一般”,只有5名认为“不好”。79名学生中只有5名认为性格测试出具的这份结果不够好。Barnum#39;s method works because of the fallacy of positive instances. Because people tend to remember whatever confirms their expectations and forget the rest, an illusion of accuracy is created. If you still doubt this, all 12 of the daily horoscopes in the newspaper for several days. You will find that the predictions of the other signs will fit you as well as your own. Although astrology has a highly developed system that makes it look like a science, studies have repeatedly shown it to have no scientific validity. In addition, astrologists still can#39;t explain why the moment of birth should be more important than the moment of conception in determining personality. (It is most likely because the exact time of birth can be determined, but the moment of conception cannot.巴纳姆的理论之所以奏效是因为正例谬误效应。人们倾向于记下那些符合他们期望的,无论那是什么,而忘掉剩下的,因此产生这份描述“准确”的错觉。(注:所谓的正例谬误效应,是指人们由于只关注与自己期望相符的信息而忽略其他信息所产生的知觉错误。在生活中,正例谬误效应有很多实际的体现,当你看表时,你是否会觉得“怎么老是11:11(或者是其他你觉得特殊的数字)”而实际上,如果你记录每次看表时的时间,你会发现这个特殊数字并没有比别的时间多。要克正例谬误效应比较难,因为人天生喜欢相信神奇的事情,况且大多数情况下对方给出的都是一些取悦你的话(无批判接受顺言 uncritical acceptance),你是女的就说你气质好,男的就说你有天赋,人又是自恋的,想不相信都不行。)如果你依然对此持怀疑态度,请连续几天阅读报纸上12个星座的每日星座运势,你会发现其他星座的预测就像你自己星座的预测一样,与你的情况相符。尽管占星学有一套发达的系统,它看起来像是真正的科学,但研究已经一而再再而三的实占星学和科学根本沾不上关系。而且,占星术依然无法解释在决定性格时,为什么出生时刻比怀时刻更重要。(最有可能的解释是出生时间可以被确知,而怀时间不能确定。)For most people, astrology is a harmless and entertaining pastime. However, uncritical acceptance of any system leads to problems. Rather than trying to ;put down; those who believe in these pseudo-psychologies, this article is trying to make you a more critical observer of human behavior and to clarify what is - and what is not - psychology.对大多数人来说,占星术并没有害处,是用来消磨时间很有趣的方式。但是,不假思索的接受任意思想体系会导致问题。这篇文章的目的并不是试图打倒那些伪心理学的信徒,而是澄清什么是、什么不是心理学,并希望你在观察人类行为时能够更加谨慎。 /201301/220070

文章编辑: 飞度媒体