三门峡体检中心同城频道

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 三门峡体检中心天涯门户
WASHINGTON The Korean automakers Hyundai Motor and Kia Motors will pay the federal government a combined 0 million in penalties as part of a settlement for overstating vehicle fuel-economy standards on 1.2 million vehicles, the Justice Department and the Environmental Protection Agency announced on Monday.华盛顿——美国司法部(Justice Department)和国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency,简称EPA)周一宣布,韩国汽车制造商现代汽车(Hyundai Motor)和起亚汽Kia Motors)将向联邦政府付总计3亿美元(约合18亿元人民币)罚款。这是就两家制造商夸大120万辆车的节油标准所达成和解的部分内容。The penalty is the largest ever for a violation of the Clean Air Act, government officials said.政府官员称,这是有史以来因违反《清洁空气法Clean Air Act)而开出的最高罚单。Under the agreement, the automakers will pay 0 million in fines and forfeit an estimated 0 million in greenhouse gas emissions credits, which auto companies earn by building vehicles with lower emissions than are required by law.相关协议规定,两家汽车制造商将亿美元罚款,并且估计会失去价亿美元的温室气体排放许可。汽车公司通过生产低于法定排放标准的车辆,才能获得温室气体排放许可。“This type of conduct quite simply will not be tolerated,Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr., said at a joint news conference at the Justice Department with Gina McCarthy, the E.P.A. administrator. The Justice Department, he added, “will never rest or waver in our determination to take action against any company that engages in such activities.;“决不能姑息这种行为,”司法部长小埃里克·H·霍尔Eric H. Holder Jr.)在司法部与EPA局长吉娜·麦卡锡(Gina McCarthy)举行联合新闻发布会时说。他接着说,司法部“誓要打击从事这类活动的公司,我们的决心绝不会松懈或动摇”。Ms. McCarthy said that the action reinforced her agency’s determination to uphold the Clean Air Act. “Businesses that play by the rules shouldn’t have to compete with those breaking the law,she said.麦卡锡表示,这件事坚定了她领导的EPA捍卫《清洁空气法》的决心。“不应该让那些违法乱纪的企业,和遵纪守法的企业竞争,”她说。In 2012, Hyundai and Kia, which are both owned by the Hyundai Motor Group, admitted that they had overstated the fuel economy of vehicles sold in the ed States over the previous two years. The admission came after an E.P.A. investigation into consumer complaints that their cars were underperforming the official mileage estimates on the window stickers of new cars. Although few drivers achieve the mileage claimed on the stickers, the government requires automakers to conduct standardized tests to calculate the figures so that buyers can more easily compare the fuel efficiency of different models.2012年,同属现代汽车集团(Hyundai Motor Group)的现代汽车和起亚汽车,承认夸大了之前两年在美销售的车辆的节油能力。此前EPA接到消费者投诉,称自己所购车辆的节油性能,低于新车车窗标签上给出的官方节油估值,EPA随即展开调查。尽管几乎没有驾驶员能达到标签上宣称的里程数,政府还是要求汽车制造商进行标准化测试,以计算出相关数据,这样消费者就能更容易地比较不同车型的燃油效率。At the time, both Hyundai and Kia apologized for what they called “procedural errorsin testing that resulted in incorrect mileage stickers on some of their most popular models, including the Hyundai Elantra and Kia Rio. The companies continue to say that the misstatement of fuel mileage was inadvertent and that they did not intentionally mislead customers.当时,现代和起亚均表示道歉,称测试过程中的“程序上的差错”,导致现代伊兰Elantra)和起亚锐Rio)等部分最受欢迎的车型上出现了不正确的里程标签。这两家公司接着表示,错误的燃油里程信息是无意之举,公司并非故意误导消费者。In an emailed statement on Monday, Chris Hosford, a spokesman for Hyundai, wrote: “To be clear, Hyundai’s view is that this was an honest mistake and there was a lack of clarity/broad latitude in E.P.A. rules and guidance that resulted in the issues outlined by the government.”周一,现代汽车发言人克里斯·霍斯福德(Chris Hosford)在一份邮件声明中写道,“必须说明,现代汽车认为这是无心之过,EPA的规定和指导并不明确,缺少足够的回旋余地,导致了政府提出的那些问题。”The settlement comes as the Obama administration has used the Clean Air Act to create and enforce new regulations aimed at reining in planet-warming pollution. In , the E.P.A. released new fuel economy standards requiring automakers to aggressively increase average fuel mileage of passenger vehicles in order to cut carbon emissions from tailpipes.达成和解时,奥巴马政府已经利用《清洁空气法》制定并实施了一些新的监管措施,旨在控制导致全球变暖的污染009年,EPA公布了新的节油标准,要求汽车制造商大幅提高客运车辆的平均燃油里程,以减少碳排放量。On Monday environmentalists praised the penalties on the two automakers.周一,环保人士对处罚两家汽车制造商一事表示赞扬。“For many years, E.P.A. has enforced the Clean Air Act to make sure cars are as clean as they are advertised,said Frank O’Donnell, president of the Group Clean Air Watch. “It is very encouraging to see that E.P.A. plans to make sure that climate-related emissions must also be as advertised.”“多年来,EPA实施了《清洁空气法》,确保车辆像广告说的一样清洁,”洁净空气观察组织(Group Clean Air Watch)主席弗兰克·奥多尼Frank O’Donnell)说。“EPA计划确保与气候有关的排放行为也必须达到广告水平,这让人倍受鼓舞。”E.P.A. officials said they discovered the problems with the Hyundai and Kia vehicles in the course of auditing fuel-economy manufacturing programs. They concluded that the Korean automakerstesting of fuel economy technologies included procedures that led to inaccurately high fuel-economy ratings for vehicles including Hyundai’s Accent, Elantra, Veloster and Santa Fe vehicles and Kia’s Rio and Soul vehicles.EPA官员表示,他们在审计节油型汽车生产项目的过程中发现了现代及起亚汽车的问题。他们断定,韩国汽车制造商节油技术测试中的一些程序导致汽车的节油性能评级偏高,出现不准确的数据,比如现代的雅绅特(Accent)、伊兰特、飞Veloster)和圣达菲(Santa Fe),以及起亚的锐欧和秀Soul)车型。That testing was done entirely in laboratories in Korea, government officials said. They said that as part of the settlement, the companies would pay to build a separate, American-based center for testing vehicle fuel economy.政府官员称,这些测试全部在韩国的实验室完成。他们表示,作为和解的一部分,两家公司将出资在美国建立测试中心,检测汽车的节油性能。来 /201411/340796Battered by a deepening recession, lower commodity prices and the prospect of a credit crunch, Russia can count at least one advantage of having a devalued national currency: soaring agricultural trade with China.遭受衰退加剧、大宗商品价格下跌重创,还面对信贷危机风险的俄罗斯,至少可以指望从卢布贬值获得一个优势:对华农业贸易大幅飙升。Russian exports of foodstuffs, ranging from chocolate to sunflower oil and animal fodder, increased exponentially over the three months to the end of July, especially from regions close to Russia’s eastern neighbour, in a rare example of tangible benefits of the weaker rouble. While overall Russian exports to China dropped 23.5 per cent in the first six months of this year, agricultural exports are up 33 per cent in value terms and almost 80 per cent in volume.从巧克力到葵花籽油和动物饲料,在截止7月底个月里,俄罗斯食品出口(尤其是从毗邻其东方邻国的地区)出现指数级增长,成为卢布贬值带来切实利益的少数例子之一。尽管在今年个月期间,俄罗斯对华出口总体下降23.5%,但农业出口额上3%,出口量增长0%。“China always wanted to export its own products to our country, but now China is suddenly interested in Russian agricultural products,Alexei Alexeenko, a senior official at Rosselkhoznadzor, Moscow’s agricultural watchdog, said last week. “With regard to agricultural products, Russia and China have many new very significant supply projects. They range from pork to vegetables.”莫斯科农业监管机构——俄罗斯动植物防疫检疫局(Rosselkhoznadzor)的高级官员阿列克谢阿莱克延科(Alexei Alexeenko)最近表示:“中国过去总是想把自己的产品出口至我们的国家,但现在中国突然对俄罗斯农产品产生了兴趣。就农产品而言,俄罗斯和中国有许多新的重大供应项目,涉及从猪肉到蔬菜的各种农产品。”In the process a weaker rouble, which has shed 45 per cent of its value to the US dollar over the past year, has helped cement a bilateral economic relationship that has otherwise been slow to meet the ambitious expectations set by leaders in Moscow and Beijing.在此过程中,在过去一年里相对于美元贬5%的卢布,帮助巩固了双边经贸关系——从总体上说,俄中经贸关系在实现两国领导人的宏伟预期方面进展缓慢。Amid its political fallout over Ukraine with Europe, traditionally Russia’s most important trade and investment partner, Moscow has pledged to step up economic ties with Asia, and particularly with China. It has been trying to replace western funding blocked by sanctions with Chinese loans, and signed big-ticket energy deals.欧洲传统上是俄罗斯最重要的贸易和投资合作伙伴。面对乌克兰危机带来的政治后果,莫斯科承诺与亚洲(尤其是中国)加强经贸往来。俄罗斯试图用中国贷款取代被制裁掐断的西方资金,并签署了巨额能源协议。But Chinese banks have approached the Russian market with caution, and trade between the two countries has shrunk, albeit to a lesser extent than Russia’s overall foreign trade.但中国的对俄罗斯市场的业务态度谨慎,双边贸易下降,尽管降幅小于俄罗斯整体对外贸易的下降幅度。Many of the small-time Chinese entrepreneurs who long formed the bulk of economic co-operation with Russia have returned home as the thin margins of their trading businesses evaporated with the drop of the rouble.中俄经贸合作的主体一向是小本经营的中国生意人,现在他们当中有许多人回国,因为他们的贸易业务的微薄利润随着卢布贬值而消失。“There is nowhere else where we can cut cost. There is simply no longer a profit to be made from selling Chinese consumer goods here,says Gong Yu, who closed her business selling clothing, shoes and accessories in Moscow last month.上月关了自己在莫斯科的装、鞋和饰品店的龚宇(音译)表示:“我们找不到地方可以削减成本。在这里销售中国消费品怎么也赚不到钱了。”However, new investors are appearing. Since the end of last year, a growing number of Chinese delegations have been visiting Russia in search of agricultural land for sale or lease.然而,新的投资者正在出现。自去年年末以来,越来越多的中国代表团访问俄罗斯,寻找可供出售或出租的农地。“This is a good time to come here, prices are low and locals are more willing to rent to us,said a retired official from the central Chinese province of Henan who toured the Moscow region, the north Caucasus republic of Dagestan and the southern Urals this summer to look at agricultural land.来自河南省的一位退休官员今年夏季考察了莫斯科地区、北高加索地区的达吉斯坦共和国和乌拉尔南部地区物色农地。他表示:“现在是来这里的好时机,价格低,当地人也更愿意租给我们。”In the Far East, the Russian region closest to Mongolia, China, North Korea and Japan, this trend has been even more pronounced as Chinese agricultural investors have long been present there. State-owned and private farms, mostly from the north-eastern Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang and Jilin, have been leasing additional land in the Russian border regions of Primorye, the Jewish Autonomous Region, Amur and Khabarovsk.在最靠近蒙古、中囀?朝鲜和日本的俄罗斯远东地区,这种趋势甚至更为明显,中国农业投资者早就在这里立足。国有和私营农场——大多来自中国东北的黑龙江和吉林——一直在滨海边区(Primorye)、犹太自治州(Jewish Autonomous Region)、阿穆尔(Amur)和哈巴罗夫斯Khabarovsk)等俄罗斯边境地区租赁土地。“We used to produce for the Russian market, but now we only keep some of our vegetables for our own consumption and sell the rest back to China,says Liao Hong, a young man whose family runs a farm in the Jewish Autonomous Region.全家在犹太人自治区经营农场的年轻人廖红(音译)表示:“我们过去为俄罗斯市场生产蔬菜,但现在我们只保留一些蔬菜自用,其余蔬菜运回国内销售。”Larger investors are also jumping on the bandwagon.较大的投资者也在加入这种潮流。“Agriculture, aquaculture... take a good look at these in the regions close to the border going forward,said Xie Ping, executive vice-president of China Investment Corporation, the sovereign wealth fund, which claims to have invested about bn in Russia over the past seven years.中国主权财富基金——中国投资公CIC)的副总经理谢平表示:“农业、水产养殖业……我们将认真研究在边境地区推进这些行业。”中投称,过年里在俄罗斯投资了大0亿美元。Russian companies are benefiting from the more advantageous exchange rate as well. State-owned Rusagro started exporting sunflower oil to China last year. Russian chocolate and confectionery makers in the Far Eastern federal district, meanwhile, have reported an eleven-fold increase in sales to China over the quarter to August.俄罗斯公司也受益于更为有利的汇率。国有的俄罗斯农业集RusAgro)去年开始向中国出口葵花籽油。与此同时,远东联邦管区(Far Eastern federal district)的俄罗斯巧克力和糖果制造商报告称,在截止今月的季度里,对华销售增长了11倍。But China’s growing hunger for Russian foodstuffs does not meet with an unconditional welcome.但中国对俄罗斯食品不断增长的需求并未受到无条件的欢迎。Many local officials accuse Chinese agricultural investors of over-exploiting the land and doing long-term damage to Russia’s resources.许多俄罗斯当地官员指责中国农业投资者过度开发土地,对俄罗斯资源造成长期破坏。“The Chinese all plant soybeans. Soybeans are a good product, and they export well to China, but experts say we have to do crop rotation,said Alexander Levintal, governor of the Jewish Autonomous Region.犹太自治州州长亚历山大莱温塔Alexander Levintal)表示:“中国人全都种植大豆。大豆是很好的农产品,它们很容易出口中国,但专家说,我们必须采用轮作方式。”At a recent conference in Vladivostok, the government tried to convince potential investors from neighbouring Asian countries to transition from investing in raw commodities to more value-added goods as well.最近在符拉迪沃斯托克(Vladivostok,即海参崴——译者注)举行的一场会议上,俄方试图说来自亚洲邻国的潜在投资者从投资于原材料转向投资于附加值更高的产品。Mr Levintal said: “I hope that they will not only plant soybeans but also build processing facilities in Russia.”莱温塔尔表示:“我希望,他们在俄罗斯将不只种植大豆,而且还建造加工厂。”More fundamentally, there are questions over how Russia’s thinly populated Far East, with a population of just 5m, interacts next to more than 100m people in north-east China without compromising its interests. Moscow considers it a matter of national security to make sure its vast expanses of largely empty land in eastern Siberia will not become a resources appendix for China.更为根本的是,人们质疑,人口稀少的俄罗斯远东地区(只有500万人口)如何在不损害自身利益的情况下,与亿人口的中国东北地区打交道。莫斯科想要确保东西伯利亚基本上未被开发的广袤土地不会成为中国的附属资源,并将此视为俄罗斯的国家安全问题。“We must not put too much of our land out there in the hands of the Chinese,says Igor Lebedev, a deputy speaker of the state Duma, Russia’s parliament. “In the long term, that will become a risk to our sovereignty.”俄罗斯国家杜马(即联邦下议院)副议长伊戈尔列别捷夫(Igor Lebedev)表示:“我们不能将那里太多的土地交到中国人的手里。长期而言,那将威胁到我们的主权。”来 /201510/403031

Often likened to being “between a rock and a hard place Central Asia’s relatively isolated position has required it to maintain consistent and balanced good relations with two giant neighbours, China and Russia.中亚的处境常被比作“左右为难”,其相对孤立的地位要求它必须与两大邻国——中国和俄罗斯——保持协调、平衡的良好关系。Nevertheless, its high degree of integration with Russia has jolted the region’s local economies, the result of their twin exposure to the protracted Ukrainian crisis and the slump in commodity prices, manifested through tanking local currencies and reduced inflows of remittances from workers abroad.然而,由于中亚与俄罗斯高度一体化,受旷日持久的乌克兰危机和大宗商品价格暴跌的双重影响,该地区的经济遭受重创,这一点从当地货币糟糕的表现和海外工人汇款流入的减少便可见一斑。Anxiety has further gripped post-Soviet states in recent months, with the recent 35 per cent slump in the Azerbaijan manat and a 34 per cent devaluation in Turkmenistan, often considered the economy with the least direct exposure to Russia. Concerns are sping in Kazakhstan of an additional devaluation of the tenge (following last year’s 20 per cent decline) amid calls for early presidential elections.这些前苏联共和国近几个月来愈发焦虑,阿塞拜疆货币马纳特汇率近期下5%,土库曼斯坦货币贬4%,通常认为这两个国家的经济受俄罗斯的直接影响最小。哈萨克斯坦货币坚戈继去年汇率下0%后进一步贬值,担忧情绪正在其国内蔓延,民众要求提前举行总统大选。Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan arguably face even greater pressure, with both GDP and fiscal revenue highly dependent on remittances from Russia and the transit of Chinese manufactured goods into Russia/Uzbekistan. Neither has a promising outlook; the World Bank currently forecasts remittances to decline 4.9 per cent and 17.8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan respectively this year, while Kyrgyz export volumes to Russia slumped 33 per cent year on year last year also partly the result of a concerted crackdown on Kyrgystan’s re-export industries.吉尔吉斯斯坦和塔吉克斯坦无疑面临更大的压力,这两国的国内生产总GDP)和财政收入高度依赖来自俄罗斯的汇款,以及中国商品进入俄罗斯或乌兹别克斯坦的过境运输费。两国的前景都不乐观,据世界(World Bank)目前预测,今年吉尔吉斯斯坦的汇款将下.9%,塔吉克斯坦将下7.8%。吉尔吉斯斯坦对俄罗斯的出口量去年同比下3%,部分原因是吉尔吉斯斯坦再出口业受到联合性打击。Uzbekistan, the region’s most densely populated country, has also seen an 11 per cent decline in its som currency over the last year, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects inflation to remain in double digit figures as a result.中亚人口最稠密的乌兹别克斯坦,其货币索姆的汇率在过去一年也出现1%的下跌。据国际货币基金组织(IMF)预计,乌兹别克斯坦的通胀率也将因此保持在两位数。Diversifying remains a challenge多元化仍然是个挑战The twin factors of low oil prices and Russian weakness have further pushed Central Asian states to diversify their economies. Nevertheless, their ability to integrate into global manufacturing supply chains remains hampered by their relative geographical isolation, problematic infrastructure and mostly low population densities.油价低迷和俄罗斯经济走弱这两个因素进一步推动中亚国家实行经济多样化。但它们融入全球制造业供应链的能力,仍受阻于它们相对偏僻的地理位置、成问题的基础设施和普遍的低人口密度。As an example, Japanese companies have not expanded manufacturing facilities into Central Asia as they have rapidly done in Southeast Asia, due to this lack of competitiveness. Accumulated financial exposure to Central Asia and the Caucasus by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), Japan’s main policy lender, currently amounts to only #165;642bn, barely 3 per cent of its total #165;21,106bn exposure across Asia, and most of this has also gone towards energy-related services.举例来说,日本企业在东南亚迅速扩大了生产设施,但在中亚就没这么做,原因是这里缺乏竞争力。日本的主要政策性——日本国际协力银JBIC)对中亚和高加索地区的金融敞口累积到现在,才仅420亿日元,勉强为其对全亚洲211060亿日元总敞口的3%。而且JBIC在该地区的大部分敞口都投入了能源相关务。Moreover, the declining rouble itself further stymies the potential for local manufacturing, given Russia’s much larger industrial economies of scale. Car dealers in Kazakhstan, for example, have slashed retail prices by an average 30 per cent in recent months to compete with a surge in Russian imports.此外,由于俄罗斯工业的规模经济比中亚大得多,卢布汇率下跌进一步阻碍了当地制造业的发展可胀?比如哈萨克斯坦汽车经销商近几个月将零售价平均削减了30%,以与激增的俄罗斯进口汽车竞争。Separately, private sector development and local innovation are difficult to implement even in the region’s more advanced economies, due both to the dominance of the state sector in most countries and the lack of access to credit and capital markets.再有,即便是中亚发展水平较高的经济体,也难以实现私营部门的发展和地方创新。原因有两个,一是国有部门在中亚大多数国家占主导地位;二是缺乏进入信贷和资本市场的渠道。China’s role in widening the economic base中国在扩大中亚经济基础中的作用Diversification is thus largely dependent on an expected massive surge in Chinese investment into the region which, in theory, should help build local industrial capacity and manufacturing supply chains. On paper at least, China has committed to investing .3bn into multiple infrastructure projects across Central Asia.于是中亚经济的多元化很大程度上依赖于一个预期——中国对该地区投资的大量激增。这些投资在理论上应有助于提高当地工业产能,帮助当地建立制造业供应链。至少在纸面上,中国已承诺向整个中亚的多个基础设施项目投资163亿美元。Central Asian states, particularly Kazakhstan, have also embraced the idea of acting as “transit hubsfor manufactured goods between China and Europe. Kazakhstan’s vice president is known to favour Chinese investment and the Astana headquarters of Kazakhstan Temir Zholy, the state-owned railway firm, beams televised pictures of the China-Kazakhstan partnership in the sector onto the streets.中亚国家,特别是哈萨克斯坦,也接受了充当中欧之间商品“转运枢纽”的理念。众所周知,哈萨克斯坦副总理欢迎中国投资,该国国有铁路公司Kazakhstan Temir Zholy位于阿斯塔纳的总部还将中哈在该领域结成合作伙伴关系的电视画面播放到街头。In addition to collecting transit fees on transported goods, this is also expected to result in some manufacturing spillover. A recent Kazakhstan-China investment forum resulted in agreements to establish 20 JV manufacturing projects in sectors such as construction, transport, logistics, and food production.作为转运枢纽,中亚除了可以对转运商品收取过境费,或许还有望享受到中国制造业的溢出。在最近举行的哈中投资论坛的促成下,两国在建筑、交通、物流和粮食生产等领域达成了20个合资制造业项目的协议。Less-developed economies such as Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, which also face greater domestic political uncertainty, are seeking Chinese investment into infrastructure. One major flagship project is a mooted Kyrgyz-China rail project, although this faces both political risks in Kyrgzstan’s democratic environment, as well a clampdown on Kyrgzstan’s re-export trade. The deputy finance minister of Tajikistan, meanwhile, announced that China plans to invest bn into the Tajik economy over the next three years.吉尔吉斯斯坦和塔吉克斯坦等欠发达经济体还面临着更大的国内政治不稳定,这些国家正在寻求中国对基础设施的投资。一个主要的旗舰项目是酝酿中吉尔吉斯斯坦-中国铁路项目,尽管该项目除了面临吉尔吉斯斯坦国内民主环境的政治风险,还要面对该国再出口贸易受到打击的风险。与此同时,塔吉克斯坦财政部副部长宣布,中国计划在未来三年向该国投资60亿美元。Turkmenistan also aims to become a regional transit hub in which China has a special investment interest. Kazakhstan in late 2014 inaugurated the first direct railway link connecting Iran with western Kazakhstan via Turkmenistan, to more fully diversify from Russian transit routes to Europe. Positioned as a halfway point, this new route also enables Turkmenistan to act as a gate for traded goods simultaneously between Russia, other post-Soviet states, and southwest Asia.土库曼斯坦也打算成为该地区的交通枢纽,而中国对此拥有特殊的投资兴趣014年底,哈萨克斯坦正式开通了首条经由土库曼斯坦直接连接伊朗与该国西部的铁路,使得交通线路在从俄罗斯到欧洲的线路的基础上,更加多样化。这条新铁路使地处线路中端的土库曼斯坦同时成为俄罗斯以及其他前苏联国家与亚洲西南部国家之间商品贸易的大门。According to Shohrat Kadyrov, a researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Science, Ashgabat is not only a major provider of gas, but also acts as an interlocutor between China and neighbouring states in the negotiation of supranational infrastructure corridors that aim to facilitate economic integration. In this regard, Turkmenistan is using the prospect of retaining its gas market share in China by investing in additional pipelines, which in turns allows it to bargain for infrastructure investments to facilitate the transit of Chinese-produced goods, arguably at Russia and Kazakhstan’s expense.俄罗斯科学院东方研究所(Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Science)研究员肖赫拉#8226;卡德罗夫(Shohrat Kadyrov)认为,土库曼斯坦不仅是天然气的主要供应国,而且还在中国与邻国间关于建设旨在促进经济一体化的跨国基础设施走廊的谈判中,扮演中间对话者的角色。在这方面,土库曼斯坦利用保持其未来在中国天然气市场份额的前景,投资额外的管道建设,并借此争取基础设施投资以便于中国产商品的运输,但这无疑将牺牲俄罗斯和哈萨克斯坦的利益。The importance of Russia俄罗斯的重要性Media attention has mostly focused on the surge in aspirant Chinese investment in the region coming “at the expense of Russia with the economic downturn luring Central Asian governments towards China’s trade and investment prowess.媒体关注主要都集中在中国雄心勃勃的投资在本地区的激增(所谓“挖俄罗斯的墙角”),该地区的经济低迷使得中国的贸易和投资能力对中亚各国政府颇具吸引力。Nevertheless, it is also clear that Russia remains a crucial partner and ally not just for Central Asian states themselves, but for ensuring the stability of China’s investments in the region, in particular its energy supplies.然而,同样清楚的是,不仅对中亚各国自身,而且在确保中国对该地区(特别是能源供应领域)投资的稳定性方面,俄罗斯仍是一个至关重要的合作伙伴和盟友。Indeed, despite the recent pain caused by Central Asia’s economic alliance with Russia, countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan appear to be making what amounts to a political decision to join the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), which currently includes Kazakhstan, Belarus and, most recently, Armenia. This comes despite the clear evidence in Kazakhstan’s case that its participation in the EEU has not yielded significant economic benefits, as well as the concomitant exposure to Russian domestic political cycles.事实上,尽管中亚与俄罗斯的经济联盟导致了近期的阵痛,但吉尔吉斯斯坦和塔吉克斯坦等国似乎做出了堪称政治决策的决定——加入俄罗斯领导的欧亚经济联Eurasian Economic Union)。该联盟目前包括哈萨克斯坦、白俄罗斯以及最近加入的亚美尼亚。尽管有明确的据表明,哈萨克斯坦的加入并未产生显著的经济效益,而且还会暴露在俄罗斯国内政治周期影响之下,这些国家还是决定加入该联盟。Russia-led structures such as the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO), beyond bland gestures of Sino-Russian geopolitical alliance and common interest, are acquiring real significance through the emphasis on maintaining, expanding, and modernising Russia’s network of military bases in countries such as Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Armenia. Russian bases remain strategic for the security of Central Asian governments themselves, since nearly their entire domestic military budgets go to Russia.俄罗斯领导的组织——如集体安全条约组织(CSTO)——超越了中俄地缘政治同盟和共同利益的单调表态,正在通过强调俄罗斯在吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦和亚美尼亚的军事基地网络的维护、扩大和现代化,而获得真正的影响力。俄罗斯的军事基地对于中亚各国政府自身的安全仍具有战略意义,因为这些国家几乎所有的军事预算都流向了俄罗斯。In this respect, Sino-Russian co-operation is maintained out of a common interest to keep the Central Asian region stable. Chinese investment is required to buffer stagnant inward foreign direct investment flows into Central Asia from Russia.从这个角度看,中俄合作出于维护中亚地区稳定的共同利益得到维系。中亚地区需要中国的投资以缓冲来自俄罗斯的外国直接投资的停滞。However, Beijing needs Russia to provide security in a politically complex region subject to periodic unrest, as a means to ensure its massive investments into the region’s energy and infrastructure sectors. This is particularly crucial given the security imperatives in China’s own restive Xinjiang province, through which all energy supplies pass.然而,北京方面需要俄罗斯在这个政治形势复杂、受周期性动荡影响的地区提供安全保障,并以此确保中国大规模投资进入该地区的能源和基础设施领域。这种保障尤其关键,特别是考虑到中国在自身桀骜的新疆维吾尔自治区保障安全的必要——所有能源供应都要经过这一地区。This pattern of Sino-Russian cooperation is arguably being replicated elsewhere, such as in the ambitious pending construction of the Nicaragua canal, whereby China will finance the majority and Russia will provide military and other forms of security during the construction process.中俄合作的这种模式无疑正在被复制到其他地方。例如,在雄心勃勃、等待开工的尼加拉瓜运河项目中,中国负责大部分投资,而俄罗斯将在建设过程中提供军事及其他形式的安全保障。While media reports often emphasise the “historical distrustbetween China and Russia, evidenced by long-drawn and sometimes acrimonious negotiations over bilateral gas supply contracts, it is clear that China does not aspire to undermine Russia’s sociopolitical and security influence in the region, while Russia in turn is not resisting China’s economic encroachment into the region. It might be a stretch to call the relationship symbiotic, but it is certainly mutually tolerant.虽然媒体报道经常强调中俄之间“历史上的不信任”,并以两国间旷日持久、时而争吵激烈的天然气供应合同谈判为据,但很明显,中国并不想削弱俄罗斯在中亚社会政治和安全方面的影响力,而俄罗斯反过来也并不抵制中国对该地区的经济渗透。称这种关系为共生关系可能有些牵强,但它们一定相互宽容。Diana Gapak is a Russia/CIS analyst. Daniyar Kosnazarov is a head of Central Asia and Caspian Region department, Geopolitics and Regional Studies Division, The Library of the First President of Kazakhstan. Gavin Bowring is a researcher at Asean Confidential, a research service at the Financial Times.本文作者戴安娜#8226;加帕Diana Gapak)是一位专注于俄罗独联体的分析师。达尼亚#8226;科斯纳扎罗夫(Daniyar Kosnazarov)是哈萨克斯坦第一总统图书The Library of the First President of Kazakhstan)地缘政治和地区研究部(Geopolitics and Regional Studies Division)中亚和里海地区部门负责人。加#8226;鲍令(Gavin Bowring)是英囀?金融时报》旗下研究务机构《东盟投资参考Asean Confidential)研究员。来 /201503/364015

Germans think any plan that is put on paper should be executed which is why the country’s approach to government strategy has been a strong preference for not writing things down at all. So a report published yesterday in which the German foreign ministry reviews its own guiding principles represents a break with usual practice. It is as though, while hurtling towards a tornado, the pilot and crew of an airliner decided to rewrite their operating manual, publish it and invite comments from peers.德国人认为,只要是写在纸上的计划就应该执行。这就是该国一直强烈倾向于根本不把政府战略方针写下来的原因。因此,德国最近发表的一份报告可以说是一反常态。在报告中,德国外交部对其外交政策指导原则进行了评估。这就好像在飞机冲向龙卷风时,飞行员和机组人员决定修改操作手册并将其公布出来,同时邀请同业置评。Germany has become the pivotal power of Europe, with Berlin as the EU’s crisis management centre. It was not planned this way. When Chancellor Angela Merkel’s grand coalition took office in December 2013, Europe’s sovereign debt crisis was in abeyance and Ukraine was an obscure, faraway land.德国已成为欧洲的中坚力量,柏林是欧盟(EU)危机管理中心。但这并非计划之中的事情。在德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)领导的大联合政府0132月上台时,欧洲主权债务危机暂时告一段落,而乌克兰还是一个不起眼的遥远国度。These days Berlin is often harangued for not doing enough to counter the problems of the day: the eurozone’s stagnant economy; Britain’s drift away from continental europe; the adventures of President Vladimir Putin’s Russia.如今,德国经常被指责没有采取有力措施解决当下的问题:欧元区经济陷入停滞;英国与欧洲大陆渐行渐远;弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)领导的俄罗斯展开冒险行动。The recent turbulence had barely begun when Frank-Walter Steinmeier, the foreign minister, set in motion a year-long process designed to be a model of transparency, deference to outside opinion and democratic inclusiveness. It involved town hall meetings across the country and an internal review. Officials also commissioned expert views (I was among those asked to contribute).当德国外交部长弗兰克-沃尔#8226;施泰因迈Frank-Walter Steinmeier)启动为期一年的评估程序,力求在透明度、尊重外界意见以及民主包容方面树立一个典范时,近期的动荡几乎还没有开始。这项行动包括全国各地的市政厅会议和内部评估。政府官员们还委托专家发表意见(我是受邀发表意见的人士之一)。来 /201503/362172South Korea’s government may take back control over school history textbooks from private publishers next month, the education minister said, as debate over the region’s past heats up ahead of the 70th anniversary of Japan’s defeat in the second world war.韩国教育部表示,韩国政府下月可能从民间出版社手中收回对学校历史教科书的控制权。目前,在人们即将迎来日本二战战0周年之际,围绕东亚历史展开的辩论正在升温。“History should be taught in one way to avoid division of the people,Hwang Woo-yea told the Yonhap national news agency, in remarks published on Wednesday. “At the moment, since there are various history textbooks, there can be confusion.”在周三发表的讲话中,韩国教育部长黄伍延(Hwang Woo-yea)向韩国国家通讯社韩联社(Yonhap)表示:“历史教育应避免分裂人民。目前,历史教科书五花八门,可能存在着(认识上的)混乱。”Mr Hwang a trusted associate of President Park Geun-hye, who has given him the additional title of deputy prime minister said that he would not rule out the reintroduction of a single, state-provided history textbook “if necessary黄伍延说,他不排除这种可能性,即在“必要情况下”,重新推出由政府提供的单一历史教科书。黄伍延是韩国总统朴槿Park Geun-hye)信赖的副手,朴槿惠还任命他兼任韩国副总理。The government’s position on the subject will be announced next month, following a 20-month review by the education ministry that was launched in the wake of a controversy over a supposedly misleading textbook.韩国政府下月将宣布其在这个问题上的立场。此前,韩国教育部展开了长0个月的评估。这一评估是在一本据认为有误导性的教科书引起争议后启动的。Government control over the school history syllabus was asserted under military rule in 1974, and ended in 2010. Since then, schools have been free to choose between a range of books produced by private publishers, which must first be approved by the education ministry.韩国政府对学校历史教学大纲的控制是在1974年军事统治时期确立的010年废止。此后,学校可在民间出版社编制的各种教科书当中自由选择,但这些教科书首先必须得到韩国教育部的批准。The prospect of next month’s final report bringing a return to a single, government-determined history syllabus has sparked strong opposition from liberal opposition politicians, who say it would restrict the diversity of views central to a strong democracy.下月的最终评估报告有可能使韩国回到由政府确定的单一历史教学大纲的时代,这一前景引发了自由派反对党政治人士的强烈反对。这些人士表示,这么做将对强大民主制所必需的观点多样性造成限制。Yoon Gwan-seok, a member of the opposition New Politics Alliance for Democracy, said Mr Hwang’s remarks hinted at a “political movethat would divorce South Korea from the standard practice in advanced countries, and leave it with a similar system to North Korea, Russia and Vietnam. Ms Park’s supposed intolerance of dissent has been a favourite theme for her opponents.韩国反对党新民主政治联盟(New Politics Alliance for Democracy)成员Yoon Gwan-seok表示,黄伍延的言论暗示着一种“政治举措”,将导致韩国背离发达国家的标准做法,使韩国体制向朝鲜、俄罗斯和越南看齐。某些人眼中朴槿惠对异见的不容忍,一直是其反对者喜欢谈论的话题。History education has long been a fraught subject in east Asia particularly since the 2012 election as Japanese prime minister of Shinzo Abe, who stands accused in Beijing and Seoul of playing down Japan’s aggressive acts during its early-20th century colonial expansion.在东亚,历史教育长期以来一直是个争议不断的话题,特别是012年安倍晋Shinzo Abe)当选日本首相之后。中国和韩国对安倍淡化日本在20世纪初殖民扩张时期的侵略行为提出了谴责。Mr Abe has called for education to avoid “self-torturing views of history and it emerged in April that textbook publishers have pared back descriptions of atrocities such as the sexual enslavement of Korean women a development that prompted Seoul to summon the Japanese ambassador.安倍一直呼吁教育要避免“自虐史观”。今月有消息称,日本教科书出版社已删减了对日本战争暴行(比如强征朝鲜半岛慰安妇)的描述——这一事件导致韩国政府召见了日本驻韩大使。来 /201508/391132Chinese President Xi Jinping and his US counterpart Barack Obama said Monday they are y to work with each other and other relevant parties to make sure that the historic climate accord reached in Paris will be effectively implemented.中国国家主席习近平和美国总统奥巴马于星期一表示,他们已经准备好相互合作,确保在巴黎达成的有历史性意义的气候协议能有效实施。In a telephone conversation, Xi noted that the Paris deal, which resulted from concerted efforts of the international community, charts a clear course for global cooperation on fighting climate change from 2020.在习近平和奥巴马的电话会谈中,习近平指出,经过国际社会的共同努力才成功商定的巴黎协议,将会为2020年以后的全球合作应对气候变化问题指明了方向。China, the ed States and other relevant parties maintained close coordination and jointly contributed to the success of the UN climate conference in Paris, Xi said, adding that the Paris meeting marked a new starting point in global response to climate change.习近平表示,中美两国及有关各方保持密切沟通,共同为巴黎大会成功作出了积极贡献。他还补充道,巴黎大会是应对气候变化国际合作的新起点。China is willing to work with the ed States and other relevant parties to ensure the implementation of the Paris deal, and effectively expand pragmatic bilateral cooperation in tackling climate change so as to bring more benefits to the two peoples as well as people in other parts of the world, Xi said.中方愿同包括美方在内有关各方保持协调合作,确保巴黎气候变化协议的实施,有效拓展应对气候变化领域双边务实合作,更多更好地惠及中美两国人民和世界各国人民。Obama also applauded the Paris climate deal, saying the ed States and China as well as other relevant parties had strengthened coordination and cooperation in their efforts to secure the deal.奥巴马也祝贺巴黎气候协议的达成,称这是中美两国及有关各方加强协调、通力合作的结果。The US side stands y to work with China and other relevant parties to make sure that the deal will go into effect and be implemented, Obama said.奥巴马还表示,美方愿同中方及其它各方加强沟通共同努力,确保协定的生效和落实。来 /201512/416680

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