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2017年10月21日 20:04:16|来源:国际在线|编辑:门诊助手
This year’s US election has given rise to plenty of peculiar developments. 今年的美国大选引发了很多奇怪的事态。Here is another one: Carbon Black, a cyber security firm, has released a poll suggesting that 58 per cent of voters think it likely that electronic voting machines could be cyber-hacked. 这里又有一样:网络安全公司Carbon Black公布民调显示,58%的选民认为电子投票器被入侵的可能性较大。Indeed, popular concern is so high that 15m voters may refuse to participate, Carbon Black says, noting that voters believe a US insider threat (28 per cent), Russia (17 per cent) and the candidates themselves (15 per cent) pose the biggest risks.Carbon Black称,事实上,公众担忧之甚,以至于1500万选民可能会拒绝参加投票。该公司指出,选民认为美国内部人士(28%)、俄罗斯(17%)和候选人本身(15%)是前几大构成风险的危险因素。It might seem tempting to dismiss this as marketing, or as a sign of the febrile political mood, but discounting that 58 per cent number that would be a terrible mistake. 我们可能很容易想把上述结果简单地归结为一种营销造势,或一个显示狂热政治情绪的标志,但是忽视这个58%的数字将是个严重的错误。One reason is that many US government officials quietly share voters’ concerns. 一个原因是,美国很多政府官员私底下也存在与选民们相同的担忧。Little wonder. 这也难怪。Small cyber breaches of the electoral register have aly occurred in Arizona and Illinois. 亚利桑那州和伊利诺伊州的选民名册数据库已经遭到过小规模入侵。Several states are thought to be vulnerable to attacks on the election system, particularly those, like Pennsylvania, that use direct-recording electronic machines to tally the vote. 多个州的选举投票系统被认为容易受到攻击,特别是那些使用直接记录电子机器来计票的州,比如宾夕法尼亚州。Pennsylvania, largely thought to be a key battleground state in the upcoming election, may be the largest concern when it comes to electronic voting machines, Carbon Black suggests.Carbon Black指出:宾州在即将举行的大选中被认为是关键战场,而这个州的电子投票器可能是最令人担忧的。Even if election fears turn out to be misplaced, they highlight a bigger point: a new front is opening up in cyber warfare. 即便关于大选的担忧到头来原来是多虑,它们也突显了更重要的一点:一条新战线正在网络战争中打开。This has big implications for both political pundits and business leaders.这对政治专家和商界领袖影响重大。Two decades ago, it was presumed that hackers aimed to do one of four things: steal money; grab secrets; highlight a political cause; or inflict physical sabotage. 二十年前,人们认定黑客的目标无非是做以下四件事之一:偷钱、窃取情报、促使世人关注某项政治事业、或造成实际的破坏。Western intelligence forces have moved to offset those threats. 西方情报部门已采取行动来消除这些威胁。For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Department of Homeland Security are currently running a cyber security awareness month to teach consumers and businesses how to avoid fraud and theft. 例如,美国联邦调查局(FBI)和国土安全局(DHS)目前正在开展网络安全意识月活动,教消费者和企业如何避免遭受欺诈和盗窃。Meanwhile, the US military and DHS have been scrambled to protect so-called systemically important infrastructure from sabotage. 与此同时,美国军队和国土安全局争相保护所谓具有系统重要性的基础设施免遭破坏。There is intense activity around the US electricity grid, after hackers damaged a Ukrainian grid last year.在去年黑客破坏乌克兰电网后,针对美国电网也存在密集的黑客活动。The US election has put a fifth category of risks on the radar: cyber attacks that aim to inflict psychological damage by shattering public trust. 美国大选将第五种风险带到了人们的视线中:旨在通过动摇公众信任而造成心理上的破坏的网络攻击。People have got it all wrong, Dmitri Alperovitch, founder of cyber security group CrowdStrike, recently told me. 人们全搞错了,网络安全公司CrowdStrike的创始人德米特里#8226;阿尔佩罗维奇(Dmitri Alperovitch)最近向我表示。(CrowdStrike revealed that hackers, apparently linked to Russia, had infiltrated the Democratic National Committee.)(CrowdStrike透露,看上去与俄罗斯有关联的黑客之前已渗入过民主党全国委员会(DNC)的网络)。For the past 30 years everyone has worried about kinetic attacks, say an attack on a grid — we were waiting for a cyber Pearl Harbor. 过去30年,每个人都担心动力受到攻击、也就是电网受到攻击——我们一直在等待一场网络珍珠港事件。But the Russians have always believed that the real value of cyber is psychological warfare and influence.但是俄罗斯人始终认为,网络的真正价值在于心理方面的战争和影响力。As a senior US intelligence figure recently told a private meeting of business and policy luminaries: What do we do if the key goal of cyber hackers now is not to steal things but undermine trust in things that guide our lives? Intelligence officials are particularly uneasy about the risk of an attack on the financial system, since this is a sector which only functions if there is trust — as the crisis of 2008 showed.正如美国一名高级情报官员最近在一次商界和政界名流齐聚的私人会议上所说的那样:如果现在网络黑客的核心目标不再是偷东西、而是破坏我们对指引我们生活的东西的信任,我们怎么办?情报官员格外担忧黑客会攻击金融系统,因为金融是一个只有在存在信任的情况下才能正常运行的领域——正如2008年金融危机所显示的那样。American officials are trying to fight back. 美国官员正尝试反击。Last weekend, for example, the DHS offered to provide cyber security assistance to state governments to help them protect the election. 例如,国土安全局近日表示愿向各个州政府提供网络安全协助,帮助各州保护大选免受网络攻击。Two dozen states have accepted. 24个州接受了。But the election is so close, and states so cash-strapped, that it is unclear how effective these defences will be. 但是大选日期近在咫尺,许多州又如此囊中羞涩,这些防御措施的效果如何尚不清楚。Bafflingly, the DHS has not designated the electoral register as critical infrastructure. 令人困惑的是,国土安全局并没有把选民名册定为关键基础设施。It should do this now, so Federal funds can be released for the fight.该部门现在应该这么做,这样才能让联邦资金得以被用于打赢这场仗。The really big issue, though, is the psychological threat. 不过,真正要紧的问题是心理威胁。Donald Trump has called for aggressive counter-attacks in cyber space to provide a display of strength. 唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)呼吁在网络空间发动强硬反击,让对手知道厉害。Separately, Mr Alperovitch thinks the US government needs to publicly declare that Russia is launching psychological attacks, in order to prepare the public. 此外,阿尔佩罗维奇认为,美国政府需要公开宣布俄罗斯正在发动心理攻击,从而让公众做好心理准备。In the cold war days, the state department had a department which countered Soviet propaganda, but then it was disbanded, he argues. They need to once again build a strategy for countering Russia’s aggressive influence operations.在冷战期间,美国国务院曾设有一个部门负责反击苏联的宣传,但后来解散了,他认为,他们需要再次构建起一套战略来对抗俄罗斯咄咄逼人的造势活动。The risk of any aggressive action is that it might launch bigger counter-attacks or sp public fear. 采取任何激进行动的风险是,可能引发更猛烈的反击或在公众中散播恐惧情绪。American voters and politicians seem stuck in a nervous waiting game. 美国选民和政治人士似乎卡在了紧张的等待中进退两难。We had better hope that eventually a new form of cold war-style detente emerges in 21st-century cyber space, as it once did in the physical world. 我们最好希望,在21世纪的网络空间中,也能出现一种新的休战——就像曾经在现实世界中出现过的、为冷战画上了句号的那种。If not, business leaders need to look at the US election — and prepare for a world where digital trust is a new military plaything.如果没出现,那么商界领袖需要关注美国大选,并准备好迎接这样一个世界,在这个世界里,数字空间里的信任成为新的被玩弄的对象。 /201610/470239

Samsung has unveiled a radical 9.1-inch stretchable display.日前,三星推出了一款9.1英寸全新可伸缩的手机屏幕。A flexible OLED (organic light-emitting diode) screen which could stretch in both direction by as much as 12 millimetres might spell out a new era in phone screen technology, the report says.报道称,这款柔性OLED屏幕两侧均可拉伸最多12毫米,开创了手机屏幕技术的新纪元。Samsung says the stretchy screen will be useful for everything from wearables to in-car displays, and could also lead to a new generation of wearable devices that can be knocked or dropped and simply move back into place.据三星方面表示,这款可伸缩屏幕可以应用到包括可穿戴设备和车载屏幕等许多领域,使用此种屏幕制造的可穿戴设备能够抗震抗摔,甚至变形之后也能复原。#39;When the screen is pressed from above, the screen is dented like a rubber balloon, then returns to its original flat shape,#39; the firm said.该公司表示:“从上往下按的时候,这块屏幕会像橡皮气球一样向下凹陷,手指拿开之后又会恢复原状。”The Korean manufacturer revealed the panel at the Society for Information Display 2017 event in the LA Convention Centre, insiders say.据业内人表示,三星在近日于洛杉矶会展中心举行的2017SID大会上发布了该产品。#39;While current flexible OLED is able to be transformed in only one side, this stretchable OLED can be transformed - whether curved, bended or rolled - in both sides, above and below#39;, Samsung told Korea Herald.三星向《韩国先驱报》透露称:“目前的柔性OLED屏幕只能往一个方向变形,而这款可伸缩屏幕却可以在上下两个方向上变形--不管你是把它弯曲还是打卷。”Samsung is also exhibiting a 5.09-inch OLED with #39;glassless#39; stereoscopic 3D, and a new 1.96-inch 4K LCD whose ridiculously high 2,250 pixels per inch density could be ideal for virtual reality.此外,三星还将展示一款5.09英寸“无玻璃”立体3D OLED屏幕以及一款新型1.96英寸4K LCD屏幕,后者的像素密度达到了惊人的每英寸2250,是理想的VR显示器。 /201706/512208

Founded as a bus repair factory in central Henan province in the 1960s, the Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Company has been driven by China’s growth to become the largest bus manufacturer in the world, accounting for 10 per cent of total global sales. 郑州宇通客车(Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Company)在中国经济增长的推动下成为全球最大的客车制造商,销量占到全球的10%。这家创办于上世纪60年代的公司最初是一家客车修理厂,总部在河南省中部的郑州。 However, the engine that drove the company’s ascension — China’s prosperity — is now beginning to splutter. 然而,中国经济繁荣这个推动该公司崛起的引擎现在开始嘎嘎作响。 As China accelerated out of a planned economy, Yutong hitched a ride by helping to ferry workers back and forth between their hinterland homes and jobs in the booming coastal regions. More than 67,000 of its buses hit the road last year. 宇通客车为来往于内陆家乡和蓬勃发展的沿海地区的工人提供运输务,搭上了中国加速摆脱计划经济的便车。该公司去年销售了逾6.7万辆客车。 Now, the home market responsible for Yutong’s rise is shrinking. As growth dips and wages rise, the flow of Chinese workers across the country — the largest known migration in human history — is slowing. China’s “floating population”, the county’s official count of migrant workers, last year fell for the first time since the global financial crisis, according to government statistics. 如今,帮助宇通崛起的国内市场正在萎缩。随着经济增长减速和工资上涨,中国国内的劳动力流动(这是人类历史上已知的规模最大的迁徙)正在放缓。政府统计数据显示,中国的“流动人口”去年出现自全球金融危机以来的首次下降——“流动人口”是中国对在非户籍地务工人员的官方称呼。 Chinese bus sales dropped in tandem from 604,000 to 598,000 between 2014 and 2015, according to Wind Information. Like many other Chinese companies reliant on domestic markets for profits, Yutong has taken this as a signal to ramp up efforts abroad. 与此相对应,万得资讯(Wind Information)的数据显示,从2014年到2015年,中国客车销量从60.4万辆下降至59.8万辆。与其他许多利润依赖国内市场的中国公司一样,宇通将这视为更大力拓展海外市场的信号。 The company’s overseas ventures have thus far focused on the developing world, but now, in line with Beijing’s desire for an innovative and internationally competitive auto industry, Yutong is pouring investment into new technologies such as fuel-replacement and autonomous driving. 宇通海外子公司迄今一直致力于在发展中世界开拓市场,但如今为了响应政府关于发展创新和具有国际竞争力的汽车工业的号召,宇通大举投资于燃料替代和自动驾驶等新技术。 From his office on the outskirts of Zhengzhou, Hu Fengju, head of Yutong’s international arm details the company’s two-pronged approach to international expansion. 宇通海外市场部部长胡锋举在其位于郑州郊区的办公室里详述了该公司双管齐下的国际扩张模式。 Burgeoning markets in developing countries are the long-haul plan, he says, as they provide a stark contrast to China’s increasing saturation. 他说,瞄准发展中国家迅猛发展的市场是长远计划,它们与中国市场的日益饱和形成了鲜明对比。 “[Buses] are interrelated with a place’s economic and human mobility levels,” says Mr Hu. “Our long-term focus is on developing countries. European markets are more mature but also have short-term growth potential.” 胡锋举表示:“(客车)与一个地方的经济和人员流动水平相关。我们的长期焦点是在发展中国家。欧洲市场更为成熟,但也有短期增长潜力。” Chinese automakers face obstacles to entry, however, mostly in the form of local protectionism — much like western companies have faced since China began its partial opening of markets in the 1980s. 然而,中国汽车制造商面临主要以地方保护主义形式存在的准入障碍,这与西方公司自上世纪80年代中国部分开放市场以来所面临的障碍颇为相似。 But Yutong believes it is up to the challenge, and has plans to expand its sales operations beyond the 130 countries where it currently operates. It also manufactures buses in Venezuela and Cuba — in a move to overcome import restrictions — and has sold more than 6,000 vehicles in each of those two countries. 但宇通认为它已准备好迎接挑战,并计划将销售业务扩张至目前运营的130个国家以外的地区。它还在委内瑞拉和古巴制造客车,此举旨在克进口限制,并在这两个国家分别销售了6000多辆车。 While developing markets offer long-term potential, mature markets such as Europe and North America provide immediate opportunities if Yutong can prove it is on par — or ahead — of its competition in technical prowess. 发展中市场具备长期潜力,但如果宇通能够明自己在技术实力上与竞争对手相当甚至领先,欧洲和北美等成熟市场当下也有机会。 In August last year, a Yutong bus drove itself 32km from Zhengzhou to the neighbouring city of Kaifeng, stopping at traffic lights and overtaking as it went, in what Yutong claimed was the first real-world test of a driverless bus. 去年8月,宇通的一辆自动驾驶客车从郑州行驶了32公里抵达邻近的开封市,遇到红灯就停车,行驶途中还会超车。宇通宣称,这是现实世界中的首例无人驾驶客车测试。 Li Feiqiang, deputy director of Yutong’s technology research centre, played down the immediate future of such technologies, saying that the primary purpose was to improve safety in regular buses. 宇通技术研究中心副主任李飞强淡化了此类技术在不久的将来就会成熟的可能性,他表示,主要目的还是提高普通客车的安全性。 It is in fuel replacement technologies that Yutong hopes to be most competitive, he says. “The safety, reliability and endurance of Yutong’s new energy vehicles is aly at the same level as petrol-fuelled buses.” 他表示,宇通希望的是在燃料替代技术方面具备最强的竞争力。“宇通新能源汽车的安全性、可靠性和耐久性已达到与以汽油为燃料的客车同等的水平。” Thanks to an extensive government plan to support the sector, sales of electric buses have soared in China, with more than 92,000 electric buses registered as road-y in 2015 — 15 times the number in the previous year. Yutong accounted for 20,000 of these, almost three times the sales from the previous year. 受政府一项行业持计划的推动,中国电动客车销量大幅上升。2015年中国电动客车的上牌量超过9.2万辆,是前一年的15倍。其中宇通电动客车占到2万辆,几乎是前一年销量的3倍。 Local government subsidies drove this sales growth, but an investigation into fraudulent claims could cut local spending on upgrades of public transport in the short term, which may eat into Yutong’s sales of electric vehicles, according to Zhi Aik Yeo, an analyst at Jefferies. 杰佛瑞(Jefferies)分析师Zhi Aik Yeo表示,地方政府补贴推动了电动客车销量的增长,但一项新能源骗补调查可能会在短期内导致地方政府削减在公共交通升级方面的出,这可能会影响宇通的电动客车销量。 At the same time as home growth is likely to slow, 2015 also saw Yutong take its electronic technology for its first foray abroad, running a trial operation on the streets of Paris in a bid for a contract to replace 9,200 cities buses with electric models. 与此同时,随着国内增长可能放缓,宇通也在2015年首次将其电动技术带到国外,在巴黎街道进行了试运营,以争取一项将9200辆城市客车更换为电动客车的合约。 Yutong will face stiff competition in its internationalisation of electric buses, but not necessarily from non-Chinese rivals. 宇通要将其电动客车推向国际市场将面临激烈竞争,但竞争不一定都来自中国以外的对手。 BYD, the Chinese carmaker that recently put five electric buses into circulation in London, is better placed to sell such vehicles to international markets, says Zhong Shi, a Beijing-based auto analyst. 中国汽车制造商比亚迪(BYD)的5辆电动客车最近在伦敦上路通行。驻北京的汽车分析师钟石表示,在向国际市场销售电动客车方面,比亚迪更有优势。 “However, if Yutong decides that [electric] are important for its international development and invests more, they are likely to overtake BYD due to their more comprehensive bus-making capabilities,” he adds. 他补充称:“然而,如果宇通认为(电动客车)对其国际发展很重要并加大投资的话,那么他们可能会超越比亚迪,因为他们拥有更全面的客车生产能力。” As with all large state-owned company, Yutong’s push abroad began — and is maintained — by a government drive to create national champions that “go out” and become internationally competitive. 与所有大型国企一样,宇通进军海外是源于政府一项旨在打造“走出去”并具备国际竞争力的国家冠军企业的计划——并从中得到持。 As China’s top leaders met at a high-profile yearly meeting in Beijing, CCTV, China’s official state-run television group, chose to feature Yutong’s Cuba operations as an example of “Chinese Brands in Overseas Markets” in a glowing report that praised its efforts. 中国国家领导人在北京参加备受关注的全国人大会议期间,国家电视台央视(CCTV)特意对宇通在古巴的业务作了专题报道,作为“中国品牌在海外”的一个例子,盛赞宇通为开拓海外市场所付出的努力。 This favoured position helped Yutong to push up net profits 35.5 per cent year-on-year to Rmb3.6bn in 2015 despite the overall slip in Chinese bus sales — a trend-bucking result that the company says it will repeat in 2016 and 2017. 在这种持下,尽管2015年中国整体客车销量下滑,宇通净利润同比增长35.5%,至36亿元人民币。该公司表示,这种逆势表现将在2016年和2017年延续。 /201604/438175

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