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武汉/睾丸表皮黄色疙瘩武汉/治疗前列腺增生的医院Despite legislation and public education, China hasn#39;t curbed tobacco use. Smoking prevalence remains the same as it was five years ago, a recent national survey found.尽管已经立法并且加大了公共教育,但中国并没有遏制烟草的使用。最近的一项全国性调查发现,吸烟的普遍程度仍和五年前基本相同。The Chinese Adult Tobacco Use Survey 2015 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, found that 27 percent of adults smoked in 2010, the same as now, but the absolute number of smokers has climbed. The total smoking population in China is now 316 million, up 15 million since 2010.由中国疾病预防控制中心发布的调查数据显示,2015年有27%的中国成年人使用烟草,这一数据与2010年相同,但绝对吸烟者的人数已经攀升。当前我国吸烟人数为3.16亿,较5年前增长了1500万。Each smoker, on average, went through 15.2 cigarettes per day, compared with 14 in 2010, when the previous survey was conducted.现在,吸烟者每天平均要吸烟15.2,而2010年进行的调查中显示,这一数量仅为14。Currently, more than half of Chinese male adults and 2.7 percent of women light up, the survey found.报告指出,现在我国男性吸烟率过半,女性为2.7%。According to Jiang Yuan, deputy director of the tobacco control office of the CDC, the survey looked at tobacco control awareness among members of the public, media attitudes and secondhand smoke exposure.中国疾控中心控烟办公室副主任姜垣表示,本次调查内容包括群众对烟草的控制意识、媒体传播以及二手烟暴露等多个方面。On the positive side, nonsmokers suffer less passive smoke now in public indoor places, including at work, on public transportation, the report said.该报告还表示,好消息是,非烟民在包括办公场所、公共交通工具在内的公共室内场所的二手烟暴露情况有所改善。 /201601/419264武汉/做包茎手术多少钱 Once, they were known as unmentionables, and it only mattered that they were clean. You never knew, after all, when you might be knocked down by a bus.曾经,人们羞于谈论它,对它的唯一要求就是干净——因为你不知道自己什么时候会被公交车撞倒。“When we were young, you would never show your underwear,” the designer Tommy Hilfiger said recently, referring to an era when Dwight D. Eisenhower was president. “Now, if you don’t show your underwear, you’re just not cool.”前不久,时装设计师汤米·希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)说:“我们年轻时,永远不会给别人看你的内裤。”他指的是德怀特·D·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)当总统的那个时期。“现在,如果你不展示自己的内裤,别人会认为你不够酷。”Mr. Hilfiger was marking one of those shifts in the culture that lurch along with a tectonic jolt. For generations, American men who were raised wearing generic boxers or Jockeys purchased in three-packs expended little thought or time or post-tax income on the foundation garments worn beneath their outerwear. The whole point of skivvies seemed to be encapsulated in the name given to the category under which they were sold: intimates.希尔费格谈到的是社会文化中突然发生的重大变化之一。无数代美国男人都是穿着没有牌子的三条装平角裤或乔基三角裤(Jockey)长大的,他们几乎没有在里面穿的基础内衣上花过什么心思、时间或税后收入。以前,男士内衣这个概念似乎是包含在贴身内衣这个更大的销售门类下面的。That was before Justin Bieber, of course, before sexting and saggers and artfully lighted, half-clad Snapchat selfies. It was before baldly erotic s of Rafael Nadal popped up on smartphones or monitors in advertisements depicting one of the world’s top tennis players doing a locker-room striptease in Mr. Hilfiger’s new line of sexy boxer briefs — images that even five years ago may have been flagged as NSFW.当然,那是在贾斯汀·比伯(Justin Bieber)之前,是在发送性感短信和穿低腰裤露出内裤之前,是巧妙打光的半裸自拍照出现在Snapchat上之前。那是在拉斐尔·纳达尔(Rafael Nadal)非常魅惑的更衣室脱衣挑逗视频突然出现在智能手机或电脑显示器上之前。那个视频是这位顶级网球运动员为希尔费格新的性感平角紧身内裤系列拍摄的广告。这样的视频就算在五年前还会被列为“少儿不宜”。It was also before a trend (most likely inaugurated by Calvin Klein in the prehistory of Marky Mark) that gained considerable momentum over the last dozen years, that of offering so-called premium underwear for men. “Underwear is where jeans were 20 years ago,” Mr. Hilfiger said. “It’s the new denim.”那也是在给男人们提供所谓的优质内裤这股潮流(它很可能是马克·沃尔伯格[Marky Mark]早期为卡尔文·克莱恩[Calvin Klein]拍摄的广告引领起来的)兴起之前。近十多年,这股潮流势头大涨。希尔费格说:“如今的内裤就像20年前的牛仔裤。它是新的牛仔裤。”Proof of that assertion can be found on The Underwear Expert, a startlingly comprehensive website dedicated to researching, testing, reviewing and even curating for sale underpants culled from the nearly 600 labels now crowding the field.你可以在The Underwear Expert网站找到这一论断的据。这家网站专门研究、测试、评价甚至策划销售内裤,内容十分全面。那些内裤是从目前挤满市场的近600个品牌中挑选出来的。“The options out there are what make men’s underwear a really interesting category,” said Michael Kleinmann, the site’s founder. “It’s not just three packs from Walmart or something out of the back of a catalog anymore.”该网站的创始人迈克尔·克莱因曼(Michael Kleinmann)说:“现在市场上的男士内裤品牌非常多,它变成了一个非常有趣的门类。它不再只是沃尔玛(Walmart)的三条装内裤,也不再只是从属于某个门类。”Jostling for a position in the retailing “white space” of an apparel category little altered for decades are niche labels like Sunspel, Handvaerk, Hanro, Tani, Zimmerli, Naked, Under and Les Lunes.几十年来,这个装门类几乎没有什么变化。现在,很多专门的内裤品牌在争夺这个零售“空白地带”,比如Sunspel,Handvaerk,Hanro,Tani,Zimmerli,Naked,Under,以及Les Lunes。Priced in a broad range from .99 (the figure at which men’s underpants are considered “premium”) to the 0 the French luxury-goods house Hermès charges for a pair of woven boxers are briefs whose virtues are sometimes described in terms better suited to the aerospace than the apparel industry.男士内裤的定价范围很广,从24.99美元(这个价位的男士内裤被认为是“优质的”)到470美元。后者是法国奢侈品公司爱马仕(Hermès)给一条编织平角内裤的定价。形容这些内裤优点的用语更像是来自航空航天业,而非装业。Relative newcomers like Mack Weldon and the Eighth now offer well-constructed though low-key products pitched online to a prosperous imaginary Everyman. Indie labels like Bear Skn, started in 2014 with ,000 in seed money raised on Kickstarter, offers premium underwear in sizes as large as 4XL because, as Jody Koenig, a founder of the label, explained, “There was nothing out there for bigger guys to make them feel sexy or hot.”Mack Weldon和Eighth等比较新的品牌现在供应裁剪精致而低调的产品,在网上的营销定位是想象中的富裕的普通人。Bear Skn是2014年通过在Kickstarter筹集的5.6万美元创立的独立品牌,它提供最大为4XL的优质内裤,因为就像它的创始人乔迪·凯尼格(Jody Koenig)说的:“市场上没有给大体格男人准备的性感内裤”。Some, like Marco Morante, the designer of Marco Marco, a label whose gender-various fashion shows were a surprise hit of the recent Los Angeles Fashion Week, happened into the category almost accidentally after viewers of “RuPaul’s Drag Race,” where Mr. Morante was doing costume design, started clamoring for the briefs he designed for the show’s pneumatic Pit Crew hunks.Marco Marco的设计师马尔科·莫兰特(Marco Morante)是偶然进入这个门类的。在担任《鲁保罗变装皇后秀》(RuPaul’s Drag Race)的装设计师期间,他为健壮性感的修理工设计的内裤得到观众赞扬,从而进入这个领域。前不久,该品牌的多性别时装秀成为洛杉矶时装周(Los Angeles Fashion Week)上的黑马。“We’ve kind of done everything we can do in women’s fashion,” Mr. Morante said. “Men’s is a blank slate because we’re working with concepts that are 50 years old or more.”莫兰特说:“在女装方面,我们几乎什么都试过了。而男装是个白板,我们采用的仍是50年前的概念。”Technological advances have resulted in briefs that now seem less designed than engineered to aerate, separate, wick, deodorize and adjust body temperature or battle microbes with antibacterial silver filament added to their weaves.现在的内裤更多的不在于样式设计,而在于技术创新,比如透气、干爽、吸汗、除臭、调节体温,或者通过在织物中加入抗菌银丝而达到抗菌效果。That men now increasingly purchase underwear for themselves, rather than relying as in the past on women to make their unglamorous utilitarian purchases, “kind of shows were we are as a country,” Mr. Kleinmann said.克莱因曼说,现在越来越多的男人自己挑选内裤,而不是像过去那样,由女人来购买那些单调实用的内裤,“间接地反映出我们国家的现状。”At the very least, it demonstrates changes in the way men shop. “Guys are shopping differently now, much more like women,” said Marshal Cohen, chief retailing analyst at the NPD Group, a market research company in New York. “The women’s market is not growing in the intimates business,” he added. Women, on the other hand, now account for the majority of electronics purchases.这至少反映出男人购物习惯的变化。纽约市场调查公司恩帛源集团(NPD Group)的首席零售分析师马歇尔·科恩(Marshal Cohen)说:“男人们现在的购物方式更像女人。而女装市场的内衣部分没有增长。”从另一方面讲,女人现在是网购的主体。“In the past, 75 percent of underwear purchases were women buying for men,” Mr. Cohen said. “Now, that’s more like 25 percent. In the past, the most significant decision a guy had to make was prints or solids, boxers or briefs.” The proliferation of new labels, he said, had spurred a solid sales uptick in a market that reached .7 billion in 2014.科恩说:“过去,75%的男士内裤是女人买给男人的;现在,这个比例大约是25%。过去,男人们只需要决定要印花还是纯色,要平角裤还是三角裤。”他说,大量新品牌的出现刺激了销售的不断增长,2014年男士内裤的总销售额达27亿美元。“Guys are now very comfortable being part of the fashion equation,” Mr. Cohen said. “Every part of what we wear has now become a part of image-building. That includes shoes, your socks, your pants and your underwear.”科恩说:“现在,男人们非常愿意成为时尚界的一部分。现在我们的所有饰都成为形象塑造的一部分,包括鞋子、袜子、裤子和内裤。”When the rapper and entrepreneur Curtis Jackson III, perhaps better known as 50 Cent, was casting about for ways to augment a portfolio that included investments in vodka, energy drinks and an equity stake in Vitaminwater, he set his sights on premium underwear.说唱歌手、企业家柯蒂斯·杰克逊三世(Curtis Jackson III,他的艺名50美分[50 Cent]更为人所知)在考虑扩大投资(他已经投资了伏特加和能量饮料,并拥有Vitaminwater的股权)时,把目光投向了优质内裤。Teaming up with Frigo, a premium underwear brand developed by Mathias Ingvarsson, the Swedish entrepreneur who helped transform Tempur-Pedic from a no-name mattress brand into a global powerhouse, Mr. Jackson last December helped close an million licensing deal for a brand apparently pitched at the so-called urban market. (Fellow investors include Carmelo Anthony of the New York Knicks and the music producer Timothy Mosley, known as Timbaland.)去年12月,杰克逊和优质内裤品牌Frigo签订了8000万美元的授权协议(其他投资人包括纽约尼克斯队[New York Knicks]的卡尔梅洛·安东尼[Carmelo Anthony]和音乐制作人蒂莫西·莫斯利[Timothy Mosley,艺名Timbaland])。Frigo显然是针对所谓的城市市场,它是瑞典企业家马赛厄斯·英瓦松(Mathias Ingvarsson)开发的。英瓦松曾帮助把泰普尔(Tempur-Pedic)从一个不知名的床垫品牌变成一个全球知名企业。“It’s about men being more conscious of themselves and feeling like they deserve more,” said Mr. Jackson, who added that, until not long ago, his underwear of choice was basic white Jockeys. “My grandmother always said, ‘If you wear white underwear, your underwear will tell you when to change it.’”杰克逊说:“现在男人们更在意自己,感觉自己应该得到更多。”他补充说,不久之前,他的内裤都还是白色基本款乔基裤,“我奶奶总是说,‘如果你穿白色内裤,它会告诉你什么时候该换了’”。The marketing of Frigo tends to favor innovation over style as a way to lure consumers to a product that costs up to 0 a pair. Like the patented AussieBum Wonderjock, or the SAXX Vibe “articulated contour pouch,” or 2UNDR’s “Joey Pouch,” or the “keyhole comfort pouch” made by the label MyPakage, Frigo briefs also feature a patented interior pouch designed to lift and display a man’s anatomical endowment to maximum benefit. Perhaps not coincidentally, the Frigo pouch was devised by an inventor who once won a contest to design a Tempur-Pedic pillow.Frigo的市场营销是通过强调技术创新(而非时尚)来吸引顾客购买售价高达100美元一条的内裤。就像澳洲雄风(AussieBum)拥有专利技术的Wonderjock,或SAXX牌内裤Vibe版“展现轮廓的小袋”,或2UNDR的“幼兽袋”,或MyPakage的“锁孔舒适袋”,Frigo的三角裤也有专利内袋,设计目的是提升并令男子性征得以最佳展现。设计Frigo内袋的发明家曾赢得了一场设计泰普尔枕头的竞赛,这也许不是巧合。Packaged masculinity is nothing new, according to Edwina Ehrman, a curator of textiles and fashion at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, where “Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear” is slated to open in the spring. “Think about the codpiece,” said Ms. Ehrman, referring to the genital-enhancing pouches favored by European gentlemen of the Renaissance, some of which resemble the pommel of saddle or else a bike seat. “It was absolutely kind of out there, this really extraordinary display of masculine power and virility, decorated with bows and ribbons and flourishes.”伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特物馆(Victoria and Albert Museum)即将在明年春季举办“脱下衣:内裤简史”展(Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear)。该物馆的纺织品和时装策展人埃德温娜·埃尔曼(Edwina Ehrman)说,装饰男子性征不是什么新鲜事,“你想想下体盖片”——她指的是文艺复兴时期受到欧洲绅士青睐的提升阳具的小袋,有的形似马鞍前鞍桥,有的形似自行车座——“展示男性力量和特质的方式以前肯定有,比如装饰蝴蝶结、丝带和花饰”。Even the anatomical disclosures so routinely worked into the sexting era have historical antecedents, she said. “At the end of the 18th century, there were these incredibly skin-tight buckskin breeches that men wore that show absolutely every curve,” Ms. Ehrman said.埃尔曼说,甚至连发送性感短信年代经常出现的性征暴露也有历史渊源,“在18世纪末,男人们喜欢穿那种不可思议的紧身鹿皮马裤,所有的线条都暴露无遗”。What has changed, she said, is how the boom in premium underwear parallels another phenomenon rooted squarely in 21st-century solipsism. “Every aspect of how you present yourself is now important,” she said, to the merchandising of one’s individual brand.她说,与那时不同的是,优质内裤的兴旺与另一个完全植根于21世纪唯我论的现象齐头并进。她说,“如今你外在形象的各个方面”对个人品牌塑造“都很重要”。Seated in their garment district showroom last week, the designers Parke Lutter and Ronen Jehezkel awaited the arrival of a group of young hopefuls auditioning for an event to celebrate the debut of a collection of high-end Parke amp; Ronen underwear.上周,设计师帕克·卢特尔(Parke Lutter)和罗嫩·杰赫科尔(Ronen Jehezkel)坐在装区他们的展厅里,准备从一批年轻有志者中挑选合适的模特,参加帕克amp;罗嫩(Parke amp; Ronen )一个高端内裤系列的发布活动。The designers, who, starting in 1997, carved out a solid niche in a once fusty and now booming category, men’s swimwear, overcame their initial hesitance to enter a field dominated by designers like Mr. Hilfiger when customers expressed their desire for underwear, Mr. Lutter said, “that fit well, was made from good materials, was clean and athletic but sexy.”从1997年,这两位设计师在曾经死气沉沉而今十分兴旺的男装市场中开拓了一个重要的细分市场:男士泳衣。当顾客们表达出对内裤的需求时,他们克最初的犹豫,进入这个由希尔费格等设计师主导的领域。卢特尔说:顾客们想要“裁剪合体、面料优良、简洁动感且性感”的内裤。What persuaded them was the resounding chorus of friends who referred to the duo’s frankly sexy runway presentations as “the Victoria’s Secret show for men,” along with the recognition that their client base — as represented by the young models slouching outside the showroom — had undergone a generational shift.朋友们对这个二人组合非常性感的内衣秀大加赞赏,称它是“维多利亚的秘密(Victoria’s Secret)内衣秀的男士版”,这更是让他们下定了决心。另外一个原因是,他们发现,客户群已经经历了代次变迁,目前的客户代表是展厅外的那些懒洋洋的年轻模特们。More than two decades after the term “metrosexual” was coined as a catchall for a new breed of consumer, men have eased into their role as the object of other people’s gaze. “Social media really put the skin out there,” said Seth Wilkerson, a 24-year-old model who was at the Parke and Ronen audition, and the designers ily seconded the opinion.20多年前,“都市型男”(metrosexual)这个词被造出来,形容新一代顾客。如今,男人们已经慢慢习惯成为他人注视的对象。24岁的模特塞思·威尔克森(Seth Wilkerson)来参加帕克和罗嫩的模特挑选。他说:“社交媒体真的让人们开始公开暴露自己的身体。”两位设计师十分赞同他的观点。“Look, you could put the sexy pictures on the web and do it in your three-pack BVDs,” Mr. Jehezkel said. “But let’s face it, you’re not going to get as many likes.”杰赫科尔说:“你知道,你可以把自己穿着三条装内裤的性感照片放在网上。不过,说实话,那样你得到的赞就少多了。” /201512/414877Mei Wending (1633~1721) was a Chinese writer on astronomy and mathematics whose work represented an association of Chinese and Western knowledge.梅文鼎(1633~1721 ),天文学家、数学家。梅文鼎的著作是中西知识联合的结果。In 1645 China adopted a new, controversial calendar that had been prepared under the direction of the Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell.1645年中国采用了一种新的、有争议的历法,这种历法是在耶稣会传教士汤若望指导下编制的。Together with his three younger brothers, Mei studied calendar design under the Daoist Ni Guanghu.梅文鼎和三个弟弟一起跟道士倪观湖学历法。A member of a loyalist family, Mei remained independent rather than join the ;foreign; Manchu administration, but his fame sp far beyond the boundaries of his Province.作为忠于明朝的家庭的一员,梅文鼎没有在外族满人的政府做官,但是他的声名传到了外省。The Kangxi emperor was interested in Mei#39;s work, the Lixue yiwen(c. 1701; ;Inquiry on Mathematical Astronomy;), and summoned him to an audience in 1705.康熙帝对梅文鼎的著作《历学疑问》(约1701)很感兴趣,于1705年召见梅文鼎。Mei#39;s comparative studies of Chinese and Western mathematics and astronomy expanded on the earlier work of Xu Guangqi (1562~1633).梅文鼎对中西数学和天文学的比较研究是以徐光启(1562一1633 )的著作为基础的。Mei tried to situate the new European knowledge properly within the historical framework of Chinese astronomy and mathematics.梅文鼎试图将欧洲知识恰当地融入到中国天文学和数学的历史框架中去。In his view, Chinese astronomical knowledge had advanced following the adoption of the new, more accurate Jesuit calendar following the reform initiated by Xu Guangqi in 1629. 在他看来,中国天文学知识随着采用比较精确的汤若望历法之后已经取得了进步,而这次更改历法是徐光启1629年发起的改革的结果。In his historical studies, Mei stressed that Chinese astronomy had improved from generation to generation, progressing from coarseness to accuracy.在他的历史研究中,梅文鼎强调中国天文学在一代一代地进步,从粗糙走向精确。Mei gave precisely the same description for the development of Western astronomy.他也对西方天文学进行了同样的描述。In other words, he believed that progress was a universal historical pattern. This was Mei#39;s historical rationale for synthesizing Western and Chinese knowledge.换句话说就是梅文鼎认为进步是一个普遍的历史规律,这是梅文鼎融汇中西方知识的基本原理。In Jihe bubian (“Complements of Geometry”) Mei calculated the volumes and relative dimensions of regular and semi-regular polyhedrons by traditional Chinese methods. 在《几何补编》里,梅文鼎使用中国的传统方法计算了正多面体和半正多面体的体积和相对尺寸。He reinterpreted Euclid#39;s Elements in his Jihe tongjie (;Complete Explanation of Geometry;), by reference to the chapter devoted to right-angled triangles in Jiuzhang suanshu (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Procedtcres), a mathematical classic completed during the Han Dynasty.梅文鼎在《几何通解》里,通过提到《九章算术》里处理正三角形的那一章,重新解释了欧几里德的《几何原本》(约前300年)。《九章算术》是中国汉代完成的经典数学论著。Mei helped rehabilitate traditional Chinese mathematics, and he was most widely admired by the scholars of the Qing Dynasty, who generally assumed that the Nine Chapters included all of mathematics without exception. 梅文鼎促进了中国传统数学的地位的恢复,受到清朝学者的广泛钦佩。清朝学者一般都认为《九章算术》涵盖了数学的各个方面。The comprehensive collection of Mei#39;s works, Lisuan quanshu, was published in 1723.梅文鼎的著作总集《历算全书》出版于1723年。 /201603/431768武汉/那些治疗不孕不育的啊

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武汉/包皮手术哪里最好In the narrow aisles of Golden Profit Trading, a store on Mott Street in Chinatown selling dried seafood and medicinal herbs, shelves are stocked with crates and glass jars full of ingredients not usually found outside this Manhattan neighborhood. It has dried squid, bird’s nest, abalone and, for the enhancement of energy and virility, sea cucumber.金利商贸(Golden Profit Trading)坐落在曼哈顿唐人街的莫特街上,是一家专营海鲜干货和草药的店铺。在它狭窄的过道里,货架上的板条箱与玻璃罐里放满各种货物,出了曼哈顿这一带就很难找到,比如墨鱼干、燕窝、鲍鱼,还有能够健体壮阳的海参。Yet one ingredient that regularly sold for at least 0 a pound is missing from the shelves, and has been missing for more than a year: shark fin.然而这一年来,货架上少了一种以前的常备货物,一种至少要卖100美元一磅(一磅约合0.45公斤——译注)的东西——鱼翅。In July 2014, New York State banned the possession, sale and distribution of shark fins, the key ingredient of shark fin soup, which is often served at traditional Chinese wedding banquets as a status symbol.2014年7月,纽约州禁止拥有、零售和批发鱼翅,它是鱼翅汤的主料。这道菜往往作为地位的象征,出现在中国传统婚宴上。Under the law, only fins from non-endangered shark species (spiny dogfish and smooth dogfish), lawfully caught by a licensed commercial fisherman, are exempt from the ban.根据这项法律,只有持商业渔夫捕捉的非濒危品种鲨鱼的鱼鳍(白斑角鲨和大星鲨)才合法。An estimated 73 million sharks are caught each year for their fins, according to the state’s Department of Environmental Conservation, with most of them thrown back into open waters to die. This month the conservation agency announced the first successful prosecution under the law, when Long Quan Seafood International Trading Corporation in Brooklyn pleaded guilty to felony commercialization of wildlife and paid a ,000 fine for trafficking in shark fins. Officials seized more than 700 pounds of shark fins.该州环保厅称,每年大约有7300万头鲨鱼因其鱼鳍遭到捕捉,它们当中大多数被割下鱼鳍后就会被抛入大海等死。本月,该环保厅声称,根据这项法律,已经有了第一起胜诉案例,布鲁克林的龙泉海鲜国际贸易公司承认犯有交易野生动物的重罪,因鱼翅的非法交易而付了一万美元罚款。官方从该公司缴获700多磅鱼翅。Iris Ho, wildlife program manager for Humane Society International, spoke of the significance of the case.国际人道对待动物协会(Humane Society International)的野生动物项目经理何燕青(Iris Ho)说,此案具有重要意义。“This prosecution should serve as an effective deterrent for other seafood trading companies in New York and other states, as well as restaurants who could be sourcing illegal shark fins,” Ms. Ho said.“这项控告对于纽约州及其他州的那些海鲜贸易公司,以及各种通过非法渠道采购鱼翅的餐馆来说,是一个有效的震慑,”何燕青说。Despite this one case, a year into the ban, very few consumers or restaurants seem to have been much affected. Indeed, many Chinese customers, restaurateurs and dried-seafood vendors have adapted and even happily embraced alternatives to shark fin soup.尽管该案获得胜诉,但该禁令实施一年来,似乎没有多少消费者或餐厅受到很大影响。大多数中国消费者、餐厅老板和海鲜干货商家适应了这项法律,甚至高兴地接受了鱼翅汤的替代品。“I think that sea cucumber has a good future,” said Simon Wan, manager of the Jade Asian Restaurant in Flushing, Queens.“我觉得海参前景不错,”皇后区法拉盛的明都大酒楼(Jade Asian Restaurant)经理温志刚(Simon Wan)说。As a substitute for shark fin soup at weddings and other formal gatherings, Jade Asian has turned to serving sea cucumber, which is not a vegetable but an ocean-dwelling animal with a long, gelatinous body shaped like a soft-bodied cucumber, which shrinks to a ridged form when dried.在婚宴和其他正式场合,明都大酒楼使用海参来代替鱼翅汤。海参不是蔬菜,而是一种长长的,身躯呈现胶质的海洋动物,形状有点像软软的黄瓜,风干后收缩成棱状。Mr. Wan touted the sea cucumber as a nutritious source of energy and virility — and it is less expensive than shark fin, he pointed out, in part because it is easier to fish for and takes less time to prepare. Sea cucumber is soaked for two to three days, while shark fin requires about four days of preparation. 温志刚对海参大加吹捧,说它营养丰富,能增进活力,还能壮阳,而且比鱼翅便宜不少,部分是因为它容易捕捞,而且做菜前准备的时间也较短——海参只需泡发两三天,鱼翅则需要四天时间准备。Across the street in Flushing at Mulan Modern Asian Cuisine, George Chu, the restaurant’s executive chef, said bird’s nest soup had replaced shark fin soup for their special-event dinners.明都大酒楼街对面坐落着木兰(Mulan Modern Asian Cuisine)餐厅,餐厅的行政主厨乔治·朱(George Chu)说,他们在特殊晚宴上用燕窝汤代替鱼翅汤 。In Hong Kong, bird’s nest soup has usually been seen as more of a dessert soup, Mr. Chu said. To elevate it to the status of shark fin soup, his kitchen combines bird’s nest — which is crystallized bird saliva from a swiftlet — with seafood soup stock.乔治说,在香港,燕窝汤通常被视为甜品。为了把它提升到和鱼翅汤同等的地位,他的厨师们把燕窝(是用金丝燕的唾液凝结成的)和海鲜汤一同煮炖。Mr. Chu added that there was a more immediate benefit to using this alternative: not having to withstand the fishy stench of the shark fin in his kitchen.乔治说,使用这种替代品一个更立竿见影的好处是:不用忍受厨房里鱼翅的腥臭了。“I don’t think shark fins taste good, anyway,” he said.“反正我也不觉得鱼翅好吃,”他说。That is not to say that full acceptance of shark fin soup alternatives happened overnight.但人们也不是一夜之间就完全接受了鱼翅汤的各种替代品。For one chef at a Chinese seafood restaurant on Eighth Avenue in Sunset Park, Brooklyn, who did not want to be named because he did not wish to publicly challenge the ban, only shark fin soup will do.布鲁克林日落公园第八大道一家中国海鲜餐馆的一位大厨认为,鱼翅汤是不可替代的,他不愿公开挑战这项禁令,所以没有透露姓名。“This is really and truly a very Chinese tradition,” he said. “Without it, the party is a low-grade experience.”“它是货真价实的中国传统,”他说,“没有它,宴会就不上档次。”Manfai Ngai, 78, a retired doctor who would routinely pick up a few ounces of dried shark fin cartilage from one of several shops along Main Street in Flushing, has rejected alternatives like imitation shark fin, which in some locations can be bought for a pack.78岁的退休医生葛曼斐(Manfai Ngai)习惯在法拉盛缅因街的店铺买几盎司干鱼翅,他不喜欢仿鱼翅之类的替代品。在有些地方,这种替代品可以卖到35美元一袋。“Now they have this artificial kind made from mung bean,” Mr. Ngai said while walking along a stretch of stores not far from where he used to buy shark fin. “For myself, I don’t much like it.”“现在他们用绿豆做假鱼翅,我一点也不喜欢,”葛曼斐在以前买鱼翅的店铺附近购物时说。According to Peter How, president of the Asian American Restaurant Association, predictions of outraged parents of newlyweds expected to treat wedding guests to shark fin soup were overblown.美国餐饮协会(Asian American Restaurant Association)会长何德兴(Peter How)说,人们本来觉得那些想在子女婚宴上用鱼翅招待宾客的父母会对禁令感到愤怒,这种估计有些夸大了。If anything, Mr. How said, families have been happy to consider alternatives that carry the same degree of elegance at a lower price.他说,现在的家庭其实都很乐于接受那些同样很上档次,但价格会更便宜的替代品。“Now they don’t bring it up,” Mr. How said, referring to customers’ previous desire for shark fin.“现在他们都不提鱼翅了,”谈起消费者们此前对鱼翅的需求时,何德兴说。La He, who works at Golden Profit in Chinatown, said shark fin was not missed as a sale item.在唐人街金利商贸工作的何拉(La He,音译)说,他们并不怀念鱼翅。“It never sold well anyway,” she said this month as she dealt with a customer trying to negotiate the price of a box of bird’s nest.“它本来也卖得不怎么好,”这个月,她一边说着,一边在和一位想买盒燕窝的顾客讨价还价。As Ms. He and other Chinatown seafood vendors noted, shark fin was a hard sell for ordinary customers, given its high price.何拉和唐人街上的其他海鲜商家指出,因为价格昂贵,普通消费者其实很少购买鱼翅。Though some stores did see a loss.不过也有些商店怅然若失。To get rid of stock before the ban took effect, Xie Luomin, manager of the Po Wing Hong Food Market in Chinatown, said it sold off its shark fins at discounted prices to restaurants in New Jersey, where the shark fin trade is still legal.为了在禁令生效之前清空库存,唐人街宝荣行食品市场(Po Wing Hong Food Market)的经理谢罗民(Xie Loumin,音译)说,市场按折扣价把库存的鱼翅卖给了新泽西的餐厅,那里的鱼翅贸易依旧是合法的。At the Hong Kong Supermarket in East Brunswick, N.J., a large yellow sign hanging from the ceiling directed shoppers to a corner of the store where shark fin and other premium products were dispensed from jars behind a counter.在新泽西州东布朗斯维克的香港超市,一块从天花板上悬挂下来的巨大黄色指示牌告诉购物者,商店角落有鱼翅等高价商品,商店把它们从柜台后面的罐子里拿出来分开摆放。On a recent Saturday afternoon, a thick bundle of shark fin cartilage sprouted over the rim of a large glass jar labeled 9.99 a pound.前不久的一个星期六下午,一大堆装在大玻璃罐里,满满溢出来的鱼翅被标价199.99美元一磅出售。Shoppers walked by the counter, giving the fins little if any notice.走到角落的购物者偶尔对它们瞥上一眼。Aproned clerks from nearby checkout stations took turns going behind the counter for various errands and other sales, but no one wanted shark fin that day, they said.戴着围裙的店员从附近的收银台过来,轮流到柜台后面做各种差事,或者卖点别的东西,他们说,今天没有人买鱼翅。Wu Jianrong, 52, originally from Guangdong Province in China, has been working in the store’s produce department for three years, yet he was only peripherally aware that shark fin was sold there.52岁的吴建荣来自中国广东省,他在这个商店的生产部门工作了三年,但他只是隐约听说店里有鱼翅卖。“I enjoy it, but I would not buy it myself,” he said in Mandarin.“我爱吃鱼翅,但我自己不会买,”他用普通话说。The last time he said he had the soup was over a year ago at a wedding banquet in Brooklyn.他说,自己上一次吃鱼翅汤是一年前,在布鲁克林参加婚宴的时候。“It was good, but not something most people can afford,” he said. “Rent comes first.”“味道是不错,但不是大多数人买得起的,”他说,“还是先付房租要紧。” /201509/398214 武汉/尿道炎好治疗武汉/哪里治疗前列腺好

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