明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年05月25日 05:29:52
Many countries have raised their alert levels or boosted their efforts against the Zika virus as scientists race to develop a vaccine for Zika, but the World Health Organization (WHO) says vaccines could come out in at least 18 months.很多国家已经对寨卡病毒警钟长鸣,或者努力竞相研发预防寨卡病毒的疫苗,但是世界卫生组织指出,寨卡病毒疫苗至少要18个月后才会问世。Brazil, the center of the endemic, has been scaling up its efforts, including mobilizing troops, to curb the sp of Zika since it declared a public health emergency in November.自11月发布公共健康紧急状况以来,作为疫情的中心,巴西已经竭尽所能地、包括通过调动军队来抑制寨卡病毒的传播。The focus of fighting the virus has been on eliminating its carrier, the Aedes aegypti mosquito.而对抗寨卡病毒的重点,在于消灭它的传播源:埃及斑蚊。As the Olympic Games are scheduled for August in Rio De Janeiro, controversies have risen over the risk of holding the Games in the city.今年八月,奥运会将会按照规定于里约热内卢举行。但是很多人已经就举办地的染病风险产生了争议。Rio De Janeiro Mayor Eduardo Paes, however, saying the Zika virus is not a threat to the Olympic Games.然而里约热内卢的市长Eduardo Paes表示,寨卡病毒不会威胁奥运会的举办。;We have to deal with the Zika problem, but that is not an Olympic issue. It is an issue for us Brazilians and for Rio de Janeiro,; he said.他说:“我们一定会处理好病毒问题,但是这和奥运会无关。这是巴西人民和里约热内卢的问题。”Mayor Paes argued that August and July are in the dry season, with less incidence of the mosquito that usually lays its eggs on stagnant water. But he vowed no letup in the fight. ;We must take all the necessary precautions, show that we are doing whatever we can to prevent any athlete or visitor who comes to Rio from catching the disease.;Paes市长认为,七、八月份是旱季,蚊子通常在水中产卵,这一机率将会降低。但是他也发誓,战斗不会停止。“我们必须采取一切预防措施,向来到里约热内卢比赛的运动员和观看比赛的游客展示,我们正竭尽所能保护他们避免染病。” /201602/426186Colon cancer patients who were heavy coffee drinkers had a far lower risk of dying or having their cancer return than those who did not drink coffee, with significant benefits starting at two to three cups a day, a new study found. Patients who drank four cups of caffeinated coffee or more a day had half the rate of recurrence or death than noncoffee drinkers.一项新研究发现,与不喝咖啡的结肠癌患者相比,大量饮用咖啡的患者癌症复发或死亡的风险较低,而且从每天饮用咖啡两到三杯开始这种效益就十分显著。每天至少饮用四杯含咖啡因咖啡的患者的癌症复发或死亡率只有不喝咖啡者的一半。But, the researchers caution, cancer patients should not start ordering extra tall coffees. The study, the first to report such findings, does not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between coffee drinking and a lower risk of colon cancer recurrence. As other experts note, there may be differences between heavy coffee drinkers and abstainers that the research was not able to account for.不过,研究人员警告说,癌症患者不应因此就开始点超大杯的咖啡。该研究是对此类发现的首次报道,但未能明饮用咖啡与较低的结肠癌复发风险之间的因果关系。正如其他专家所指出的那样,在大量饮用咖啡者与不喝咖啡者之间可能存在着该研究没有考虑到的差异。In recent years, many studies have pointed to coffee’s health benefits, suggesting coffee may protect against Type 2 diabetes, reduce overall deaths and perhaps even help protect against dementia. Other studies have suggested coffee may reduce the risks of certain cancers, including colon cancer. The benefits are generally attributed to coffee’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.近年来,许多研究都指出咖啡具有健康效益,提出咖啡或可预防2型糖尿病,降低总体死亡率,甚至可能有助于防止痴呆症的发生。还有其它研究表明,咖啡可能会降低包括结肠癌在内的某些癌症的风险。这些优点通常都被归因于咖啡的抗氧化和抗炎特性。But as with many studies about diet, proving a link between coffee consumption and protection against cancer recurrence is difficult.然而,关于饮食的研究虽多,要实饮用咖啡与预防癌症复发之间的关联却十分困难。“Think about it: People who drink a lot of coffee tend to be high stress, high pressure, intense and compulsive,” said Dr. Alfred Neugut, a professor of cancer research, medicine and epidemiology at Columbia University and a director of NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital’s Cancer Prevention Center. “If they have cancer, they’re going to be more obsessive about following all the rules and doing all the things they’re supposed to do. So it may be that coffee itself is playing a physiological role, but it may also be a surrogate marker for you being a compulsive health-conscious good behaver.”“想想看:大量喝咖啡的人往往压力比较大、容易紧张或有强迫倾向,”美国哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)的癌症研究、医学和流行病学教授,纽约长老会医院(NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital)癌症防治中心(Cancer Prevention Center)的主任艾尔弗雷德·纽各特(Alfred Neugut)士说。“如果他们患了癌症,肯定会更严格地遵循所有的规则,去做所有他们应该做的事情。因此,或许确实是咖啡本身发挥了什么生理作用,但也有可能爱喝咖啡只是特别注重健康行为的人们的一个替代性标识。”Dr. Charles S. Fuchs, the director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, who led the research, acknowledged the limitations of his study and called for interventional studies to replicate and confirm the findings.该研究的负责人,波士顿市丹娜法伯癌症研究院(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)胃肠道癌症中心(Gastrointestinal Cancer Center)的查尔斯·S·富克斯(Charles S. Fuchs)士承认自己的研究存在局限性,并呼吁进行干预性研究以重现和实这些结果。“No one has ever done this before in colon cancer patients. It does require confirmation,” he said. Patients should not start drinking coffee based on this study, but, “If you’re a coffee drinker and enjoy your coffee, stick with it,” he said. “If a patient says, ‘Well I hate coffee,’ I’d say there are other things you can do, like avoid obesity, exercise regularly and follow a balanced diet.”他说:“此前尚无人在结肠癌患者中进行过这样的研究。它确实需要经过确认。”富克斯士还说,患者不宜因为这项研究就开始饮用咖啡,但是,“如果你本身就喝咖啡而且喜欢喝,不妨保持下去。“如果有患者说:‘我讨厌咖啡’,那我就会回答:还有很多其它的事情可以做,比方说避免肥胖、经常锻炼、均衡饮食等等。”The study, published Monday in The Journal of Clinical Oncology, followed 953 patients with Stage 3 colon cancer who had been treated with surgery and chemotherapy.这项研究发表在8月17日的《临床肿瘤学杂志》(The Journal of Clinical Oncology)上,共计随访了953名曾接受手术和化疗的3期结肠癌患者。The patients, recruited from 1999 to 2001, were asked to fill out detailed dietary pattern questionnaires about food intake and lifestyle, first during chemotherapy and again six months later. The questionnaires asked about their intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee, herbal and nonherbal tea, caffeinated soft drinks and chocolate.研究人员于1999年至2001年期间招募了这些患者,并要求他们在化疗期间和六个月后分别填写了非常详细的关于饮食和生活方式的膳食结构调查问卷。问卷询问了他们饮用含咖啡因或无咖啡因咖啡、草药茶和不含草药的茶、含咖啡因的软饮料以及食用巧克力的情况。The researchers adjusted the findings to control for differences such as gender, age, smoking, diet, caloric intake, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and alcohol, weight and physical activity. They did not, however, adjust for use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, even though their earlier work suggests such drugs may be protective against colon cancer recurrence. Dr. Fuchs said their previous research had not shown any association between coffee drinking and aspirin use.研究人员对初步结果进行了校正,以控制性别、年龄、吸烟、饮食、热量摄入、饮用含糖饮料和酒、体重和体育活动等差异。不过,他们并没有对阿司匹林和其它非甾体类抗炎药的使用情况进行校正,尽管他们此前的工作表明,这些药物或可预防结肠癌复发。富克斯士称,他们之前的研究并未发现饮用咖啡与使用阿司匹林之间有任何关联。They determined that patients who had reported drinking four or more cups of caffeinated coffee a day were 52 percent less likely to have had a recurrence of cancer or to have died than those who had never drank coffee, while those who drank two to three cups of caffeinated coffee a day were 31 percent less likely than nondrinkers to have had a recurrence or to have died. Sweetened coffee beverages did not count.他们的这项研究发现,较之从不饮用咖啡者,报告自己每天至少饮用四杯含咖啡因咖啡的患者癌症复发或死亡的可能性低了52%,而每天饮用两到三杯含咖啡因咖啡的患者癌症复发或死亡的可能性低了31%。上述数据未计入含糖咖啡饮料。The researchers’ hypothesis is that the factors that increase risk for Type 2 diabetes, such as obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and high insulin levels, also drive colon cancer, Dr. Fuchs said. And many studies have shown that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for Type 2 diabetes, a chronic illness that may increase the risk of colon cancer.富克斯士表示,他们研究人员的假设是,令2型糖尿病的风险增加的因素,如肥胖,久坐不动的生活方式和偏高的胰岛素水平等,也促发结肠癌。许多研究已经表明,饮用咖啡与较低的2型糖尿病风险相关,而2型糖尿病正是一种可能增加患结肠癌风险的慢性疾病。“We believe that activating the energy pathways that contribute to heart disease and diabetes is also relevant for the proliferation of cancer cells,” Dr. Fuchs said, while also stressing that more research was needed.富克斯士说:“我们认为,能促发心脏病和糖尿病的能量转换途径与癌细胞的增殖也有关。”但他同时强调仍需要进行更多的研究。The analysis determined the lowered risk associated with coffee was entirely because of the caffeine. One hypothesis is that caffeine increases the body’s sensitivity to insulin, so it requires less of the hormone. That, in turn, may reduce inflammation, which is a risk factor for diabetes and cancer.这项分析确定了与咖啡相关的风险降低完全是咖啡因的功劳。一个假设是,咖啡因可增加人体对胰岛素的敏感性,减少需要的激素量。这相应地也会减少炎症——糖尿病和癌症的风险因素之一。While there are inevitably gaps in these kinds of studies, the new research is “one piece of a big puzzle,” said Dr. Len Lichtenfeld, the deputy chief medical officer at the American Cancer Society, adding that there is tremendous concern about the role obesity and metabolic factors may play in promoting cancer.美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)的副首席医务官莱恩·利希滕费尔德(Len Lichtenfeld)士表示,虽然此类研究中不可避免地还有着不少缺点,但这项新的研究毕竟为“解开大谜团提供了一条新的线索,他还说,人们对肥胖和代谢因素可能存在的促癌作用极其关注。“This is an example of trying to look at those types of questions — about what the metabolic relationships are, and what might influence those metabolic relationships — in a positive way.”“这是人们试图以积极的方式,探讨代谢关系、以及这些代谢关系可能造成的影响等问题的一个范例。” /201510/403299

  Song Dynasty宋朝Southern Song Dynasty南宋The military weakness of the Northern Song (960—1127) eventually took its toll.北宋时期(960——1127)军队的软弱最终使其自食恶果。In 1127, the Jin army sacked the Northern Song capital of Kaifeng, taking Emperor Huizong and most of his family hostage.1127年,金国军队洗掠了北宋都城开封,徽宗和他的大部分家人成了人质。Huizong’ ninth son, Zhaogou, fled to the south.徽宗的九儿子赵构逃亡了南方。That same year, the Song court re-established itself in Lin’an (present Hangzhou City), where it continued to rule for another 150 years as the Southern Song Dynasty.同年,宋朝在临安(今杭州)重建南宋政府,进行了150年的统治。Zhaogou is known historically as Emperor Gaozong.赵构历史上被称为“宋高宗”。The period of the Southern Song is neither a period of power nor stability and the dynasty only controlled the area south of the Yangtze River.南宋时期国家既不强大也不稳定,这个朝代也仅仅控制了长江南部的地区。When the dynasty was newly established, instead of appointing competent people to carry out reforms and devise effective defensive strategies, Emperor Gaozong did the opposite.南宋刚建成时,宋高宗不仅没有任用有贤能的人实施改革并设计有效的防御措施反而做了背道而驰的事情。By blocking the efforts of his talented Prime Minister Ligang he reversed the dominant military strategy from one of active resistance to passive defence.通过阻挠有才能的宰相李纲,高宗将主要的军事策略从主动防御转变成了被动防守。In addition, talented people were supplanted and less able and often incapable ones were appointed to very important positions.不仅如此,有才智的人们遭到了排挤,而无能的人却被任命了重要的官职。 /201511/406470



  The Mystery Of Why Crafty Snakes Shed Their Legs Is Finally Solved“蛇为什么没有脚”真相大白Mention snakes and the image that comes to mind is that of a stealthily gliding reptile. Turns out that this was not always the case. Ancient snake fossils indicate that the reptiles once had legs, just like the rest of us. So why did snakes decide to shed them in favor of the slither that sends chills down our spines? That is a mystery researchers have been trying to solve for some time.一提到蛇,大家就会想起它神出鬼没快速爬行的样子。事实明,它并非一直如此行进。古代蛇类化石明,它曾经和人类一样是有脚的。那为什么蛇会放弃进化它的脚,用如此让人毛骨悚然的方式爬行呢?科学家们一直在努力调查其中的奥秘。There are currently two schools of thought. Some scientists believe that the reptiles dispensed with their legs to enable them to dwell in water. Others think that the reptiles evolved from burrowing lizards and shed their limbs over time, as they stretched and became longer.对此,现在主要有两种假说。有些科学家认为蛇放弃进化自己的脚是为了更好的在水中生存。另一些科学家则认为蛇是由穴居蜥蜴进化而来的,它们慢慢伸展变长,逐渐放弃了自己的脚。The first proof that the second theory is more likely came in July 2015. David Martill paleobiologist at the University of Portsmouth was leading a field trip at Germany#39;s Museum Solnhofen when he stumbled upon a rare fossil of a four-legged snake that inhabited the planet 113-million years ago.第二种假说的据是在2015年7月发现的。Portsmouth大学的古生物学家David Martill在德国Solnhofen物馆带队考察时,无意间看到了大约生活在1.13亿以前的稀有四脚蛇化石。Now a new study conducted by a group of Scottish and American scientists further validates that snakes probably ditched their legs to slither through underground burrows, allowing them to avoid predators and pounce upon unsuspecting prey.最近,苏格兰和美国科学家联手进行的一项新研究进一步明了蛇也许是为更灵活的在地下洞穴穿梭,躲避捕食者突如其来的袭击,才放弃进化自己的脚。The team led by Hongyu Yi at Edinburgh’s School of GeoSciences reached the conclusion after studying a 90 million-year-old skull of the Dinilysia patagonica an ancient reptile that is closely related to the modern-day snake. The discovery was possible thanks to new CT scan technology that allowed them to create 3D models of the skull and compare them to that of modern snakes and lizards.爱丁堡地学院Hongyu Yi带领的团队,通过研究的一块被称为Dinilysia patagonica的古代爬行生物头骨才得出了结论。这种生物与当代蛇类有很大关联,大概存在于9亿年前。新的CT扫描技术使他们能够创建头骨的3D模型来与现代的蛇类和蜥蜴作比较,才得出此发现。The researchers were looking to see if the reptiles shared the same unique ear structure that is found in burrowing animals. Sure enough, though the ear canals and cavities have adapted further in modern-day burrowing snakes and lizards, there remains a substantial similarity. Snakes that currently live in water or above ground do not have the same adaptations.研究者想查眀这种爬行生物是否与穴居动物有一样的耳部结构。可以确定的是,虽然今天的穴居蛇类和蜥蜴的耳道和耳腔已有很大的改变,它们之间还是存在着某种潜在相似性。而生活在水中和陆地上的蛇类却没有这样的改变。The evidence was enough for the scientists who published their findings in the online journal Science, to conclude that snakes had evolved on land. They believe that as the reptile#39;s hearing sharpened and became accustomed to their subterranean habitat, its limbs began to recede, until they disappeared altogether.此研究结果,足以让科学家在在线科学期刊上公布“曾经的水生蛇类有些进化上岸”这一发现。他们认为,爬行生物随着听觉的进化,慢慢适应陆地上的生存环境,它们的脚就也随之慢慢蜕化,直至消失。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201612/419024



  When Steve Jobs, the late chief executive of Apple, launched the Macintosh computer in 1984, he hid behind the lectern, ing from notes and glancing at his feet.1984年发布麦金塔电脑(Macintosh)时,身为苹果(Apple)首席执行官的史蒂夫吠布斯(Steve Jobs)躲在讲台后面,照稿朗读,并不时看着自己的双脚。By 1996, he was walking around the stage, speaking fluently. But he was still stiff, much like the Tin Man character in The Wizard of Oz movie, says Olivia Fox Cabane, who teaches charisma to chief executives. By 2000, when he announced his return as chief executive of Apple, Mr Jobs had turned into a showman.到了1996年,他已能够在舞台上来回走动,流利地演讲。但姿势依然僵硬,很像电影《绿野仙踪》(The Wizard of Oz)中的铁皮人(Tin Man),为首席执行官们开授个人魅力课程的奥利维娅輠克斯愠班(Olivia Fox Cabane)如此说道。到了2000年,当乔布斯宣布重新担任苹果首席执行官时,他已成了一名表演者。At that point, “he owns the stage. His eye contact is outstanding, hand gestures are carefully orchestrated and in fact, he’s using the same techniques as professional magicians”, she writes.那一刻,“他是讲台的主人。他的眼神交流非常出色,手势经过了精心策划,事实上,他使用的是与专业魔术师相同的技术”,她写道。Ms Cabane, author of the The Charisma Myth, is one of a growing band of experts making a living out of teaching senior executives that “personal magnetism” — a combination of presence, power and warmth — can be learned.卡班是《魅力的神话》(The Charisma Myth)一书作者,她是越来越多向高管讲授“个人魅力”——存在感、影响力与的结合——可以习得的专家之一。Her argument is supported by academic research, which shows that people taught charismatic skills are more likely to be followed.她的观点受到了学术研究的持,研究表明,被传授了魅力技巧的人更有可能受到追随。Drawing from his team’s study, John Antonakis, professor of organisational behaviour at the University of Lausanne, says that leaders who learn 12 charismatic traits — such as using an animated voice or expressing moral conviction — become more “influential, trustworthy and leaderlike”.根据自己团队的研究,洛桑大学(University of Lausanne)组织行为学教授约翰褠东纳基斯(John Antonakis)说,学习了12种个人魅力特质——例如讲话声音生动活泼或者表达道德信念——的领导者变得“更具影响力、更值得信赖、更具有领袖气质”。Charisma influences everyone from voters to company chairmen. Dr Antonakis says he and his team can predict who will win the US presidency on the basis of which candidate has more charisma and how well the incumbent party has handled the economy.魅力可以影响所有人——从选民到公司董事长。安东纳基斯士说,他和自己的团队可以根据哪位候选人更具个人魅力以及本届执政党经济管理得怎么样来预测出谁将赢得美国总统大选。They found similar results in an experimental study where the probability of a chief executive being reappointed depended on his or her charisma and the organisation’s performance.他们在一项实验研究中发现了类似的结果:一名首席执行官被重新任命的概率取决于他或她的个人魅力以及该组织的业绩状况。Although many of us assume charisma is something a person either does or does not possess, experts say we can all be taught the seemingly indefinable allure of Bill Clinton or David Beckham.虽然很多人认为魅力是与生俱来的,但专家们称,我们都可以培养出比尔克林顿(Bill Clinton)或者大卫贝克汉姆(David Beckham)身上那种看似难以确切定义的魅力。Richard Reid, who runs charisma classes for companies including Google and Ernst amp; Young, says it is about finding a style that suits your personality.为谷歌(Google)、安永(Ernst amp; Young)等企业开设魅力培训课程的理查德里德(Richard Reid)说,关键是要找到一种适合本人个性的风格。The trick is to “celebrate each individual’s uniqueness” or it will seem artificial, says Mr Reid. He says Ed Miliband, who lost the race to become UK prime minister this year, received coaching but “became increasingly inauthentic along with it”.里德说,诀窍在于“为每一个人的独特性欢呼”,否则看起来会很造作。他说,今年角逐英国首相之位失利的埃德猠利班德(Ed Miliband)虽然接受了魅力培训,但他“变得越来越不真实”。Much of the emphasis in Mr Reid’s training is on body, rather than verbal language — especially “micro-manoeuvres” such as holding someone’s gaze. First impressions count and even a seemingly involuntary blink of the eye can weaken your influence when meeting someone for the first time, he says, adding that once an opportunity is lost, it takes a lot longer to establish trust. To maximise your chance of getting it right, he suggests picturing a time when you felt most confident before entering a room to meet someone important or give a presentation.里德在培训中主要强调的是肢体语言,而非口头言辞——尤其是“细微的举动”,比如迎着别人的目光。他说,第一印象非常重要,首次见面时,即使一次看似无意识的眨眼都会削弱你的影响力,并补充说,一旦失去这次机会,就需要更长的时间来建立信任。要使自己成功的机会最大化,他建议,在进入房间会见重要人物或者发表演讲之前,你可以想象一个自己最充满自信的时刻。People are drawn to those who are purposeful and can make them feel safe and heard. Mr Reid compares it to throwing “an arm around the shoulder” and whispering: “Can you see my vision with me?”人们容易被那些目标明确、让人有安全感并且认真倾听的人所吸引。里德将这比作“搂住别人的肩膀”,并低语:“你能跟我一起看到我设想的景象吗?”He suggests being an active listener. One way is to interrupt a conversation partner, saying you are doing so “to make sure I’ve understood” and then to repeat the speaker’s words.他的建议是做一名积极的倾听者。方法之一是打断正在发言的伙伴,并说这样做“是为了确保自己已经理解”,然后重复对方说过的话。“Although we think we’re good listeners, we’re not,” Mr Reid says.“我们都认为自己是优秀的听众,其实我们不是,”里德说。If you are trying to persuade someone they want to go to Madrid rather than Rome do not use the word “why”, for example. “Why” is often perceived as a challenge, so best avoided when undergoing a workplace performance evaluation.例如,如果你正试图说某人,大家想去的是马德里而非罗马,不要使用“为什么”一词。“为什么”通常被认为有叫板的意思,所以,最好避免在进行工作绩效评估时使用。In conflict, people tend to end up face to face, jabbing fingers at each other. Mr Reid advises angling your body and referring to the problem as if it is slightly beyond the both of you.在发生冲突时,人们往往会针锋相对,用手指直指对方。里德建议,你可以微微屈身,把问题说得好像不只是跟你们俩人有关。Although useful techniques, they beg the question of whether these are anything more than good communications skills.尽管这些技巧很有用,但也有一个问题——这些是否只是优秀的沟通技巧?Rob Shimmin, an executive coach for multinationals including Dell, Visa, DuPont and De Beers, admits, “ You can learn to be credible, but not necessarily charismatic.”为戴尔(Dell)、Visa、杜邦(DuPont)以及戴比尔斯(De Beers)等跨国公司的高管提供培训的罗布史姆因(Rob Shimmin)坦言,“你可以学做一个值得信赖的人,但未必拥有魅力。”He believes many of the traits that breed charisma, much like the rest of personality, are set in childhood.他认为,构成魅力的诸多品质在童年时期就形成了,就像其他方面的个性一样。“You can’t buy charisma, be it from a smart corporate coach or a private school.”“你无法买来魅力,无论是从一位聪明的企业培训师或是一所私立学校。”But you can get close. “The better able you are to learn the behaviours of charismatic people the more impact you are likely to have when you communicate.”但是你可以向这类人靠拢。“你越能够学习有魅力人士的行为,在沟通中就越有可能发挥你的影响。” /201512/415751。

  Danny Meyer has always been considered one of the most forward-thinking restaurateurs of his generation.丹尼蔠尔(Danny Meyer)一直被视为他这一代思想最前卫的餐厅老板之一。Even by his standards, though, the owner of such celebrated New York restaurants as Union Square Cafe, Gramercy Tavern and The Modern (at the Museum of Modern Art) has just taken an incredibly brave step. He has announced his decision to abolish tipping in his restaurants and increase prices accordingly. His peers salute him but are grateful that it is he who has taken the step rather than them.然而,即便根据他的标准,这位纽约多家知名餐厅的所有者也刚刚迈出了无比勇敢的一步。他名下的餐厅包括联合广场咖啡馆(Union Square Cafe)、Gramercy Tavern以及位于纽约现代艺术物馆(Museum of Modern Art)的现代餐厅(The Modern)。他宣布决定在他的餐厅取消小费并相应提价。他的同行们纷纷向他致敬,但让他们感到庆幸的是迈出这一步的是他,而不是他们。Tipping is terribly misunderstood. In most of Europe, Australia and other parts of the world it no longer exists — and visitors from those countries earn an unwarranted reputation for meanness when they, in their ignorance, fail to tip in Britain and the US.小费受到了严重误解。在欧洲多数国家、澳大利亚以及全球其他地区,小费已不复存在,来自这些国家的游客由于不了解这种习惯而没有在英国和美国付小费,就被不合理地扣上了小气的名声。In Britain, tipping or the payment of a service charge is mistakenly thought of as an extra payment or thank you to the server — whereas in fact it is an integral part of the pay structure of the restaurants they frequent.在英国,付小费或付务费被顾客错误地视作额外付款或者对务员的感谢,实际上,小费是他们光顾的餐厅的薪资结构不可分割的一部分。The customer is actually colluding in what Will Beckett, director of the London-based Hawksmoor chain of steak restaurants, terms a “benign lie” whereby the restaurant avoids VAT and employer’s national insurance contribution on the amount that is levied through the service charge. The ultimate beneficiaries are the customers who would otherwise have to pay more for the services they enjoy. The situation is a muddle, but an innocuous one.顾客实际上在共同编造伦敦牛排餐厅连锁Hawksmoor董事威尔贝克特(Will Beckett)所说的“善意的谎言”,即餐厅可以逃避务费这一部分的增值税以及作为雇主应为这一部分交的国民保险供款。最终的受益者是顾客,因为否则的话他们将不得不为所享受的务付更多费用。这种情况有点乱,但无伤大雅。In New York the situation is rather different. The “benign lie” has never really caught on and customers pay the staff directly for their service through the tip.在纽约,情况则有所不同。这种“善意的谎言”从未真正流行过,顾客直接通过小费为餐厅员工的务付费。This levy is raised through a system of cajoles, threats and moral blackmail. No customer dares refuse to pay the (minimum) 15 per cent tip. The restaurateur may pool the tips, but only those who spend at least half their time with the customer — meaning the front of house team — are allowed to receive money from the resulting “tronc”. In Britain there is no such restriction; cooks and ancillary staff also receive money from the tronc.这种小费是通过哄骗、威胁和道德敲诈收取的。没有顾客胆敢拒绝付(最低)15%的小费。餐厅老板可能会把小费集中在一起,但只有那些至少用一半的时间与顾客在一起的员工(指前台员工)才被允许获得小费收入。在英国,则没有这种限制;厨师和后勤员工也会分到小费收入。What Mr Meyer and any other enlightened restaurateur is recognising is that the commis chef in the kitchen is contributing as much to the customer’s pleasure as the charming schmoozer who is the face of the operation.梅尔和所有其他开明的餐厅老板意识到,后厨的厨师助理为顾客贡献的愉悦感与面对面与顾客交流的富有魅力的务员一样多。The no-tipping move is a logical response to the skill shortage confronting restaurateurs in most leading world capitals. With no one prepared to foot the bill for apprenticeships and training schemes, there are not enough cooks to go round. Even star chefs in London and New York are having to pay higher wages to keep the myriad foams, smears, spherifications and gels artfully arranged on the plate.全球多数主要都市的餐厅老板正面临技能短缺,取消小费之举是对此做出的合理回应。没有餐厅准备为学徒和培训计划买单,因此一些餐厅找不到足够多的厨师。甚至连伦敦和纽约的明星大厨,也不得不付更高的薪资招聘人手把各种各样的乳泡、酱汁、球状及胶状食材艺术地盛放在盘中。At Hawksmoor, Mr Beckett claims his staff earn a wage that corresponds to their vocational level. “Waiters and chefs earn as much as, say, policemen and teachers, and managers earn as much as doctors or headmasters.” If this comes as a shock, you will be gratified to hear that most London restaurants pay much less.在Hawksmoor餐厅,贝克特声称,他的员工赚取的薪资与他们的业务水平相符。“务员和厨师的收入与警察和教师一样多,经理的收入与医生或中小学校长差不多。”如果这令人震惊的话,那么听到多数伦敦餐厅付的薪酬远远低于这个水平会让你感到欣慰。In New York, the situation is very different: most chefs earn a great deal less than a policeman, while a waiter would give a Florida plastic surgeon a run for his money. It is this anomaly that Mr Meyer is seeking to address: the danger is that customers will balk at higher prices and the wait staff will revolt if their pay is cut.在纽约,情况非常不同:多数厨师的收入远远低于警察,而务员的收入却堪比一位弗罗里达州整形外科医生。梅尔正是希望解决这种反常现象:问题是顾客可能对涨价不满,同时如果务员的收入下降,他们也会抵制。As he launches himself like Sir Galahad at this heavily defended wall, a great many restaurateurs are going to be looking on from behind the parapet. Customers who are confused will have to keep their wits about them: always check to see if there is a service charge or if tipping is discouraged. Even if it is, habits take time to unlearn — and for the foreseeable future, a little gesture of thanks is unlikely to go amiss.在梅尔像完美骑士加拉哈德爵士(Sir Galahad)一样冲向小费这堵防守严密的墙壁时,很多餐厅老板会站在墙后观望。感到困惑的顾客将不得不时刻保持警惕:总是查看餐厅是否收务费,抑或是不鼓励小费。即便餐厅取消小费,抛弃习惯也是需要时间的,在可预见的将来,一点点表示感谢的举动总是会受欢迎的。 /201511/407465

  When you#39;re out shopping it can sometimes feel like you#39;re always stuck at the end of the longest line.外出购物,总免不了碰上排队这个老大难问题:长长的队伍似乎总排不完。Shoppers know this age-old dilemma all to well - do you stick to your guns with the queue you#39;re in? Or do you gamble on another queue and risk it all in the hope of gaining more ground?不少人或许深有体会:身在队中,内心无比挣扎,究竟是一鼓作气排到底?还是换条队伍试试运气呢?Now, a system called ZipLine is promising to help shoppers win that battle every time, by using infrared sensors to help them to pick the fastest queue.近来,一款名为ZipLine的软件横空出世,号称屡试不爽的排队神器。其内置的红外感应器可迅速识别最快的队伍。The technology, developed by Cambridge Consultants looks at the length of queues and how fast they are moving to work out which is the best one to join.这款软件由剑桥科技咨询公司打造,能够识别队伍长度与移动速度,从而为用户推荐最省时的队伍。Launched this week at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, the concept combines the sensors with a long-range, low-power radio network.本周,消费电子产品展在开幕,这款内置感应器与远程低功率无线电系统的概念产品惊艳亮相。Algorithms then convert the sensor data into useful information which can be displayed on a shopper#39;s phone.通过科学计算,感应器的数据可转化为实用信息,并传送到用户的手机上。The firm behind ZipLine claims there are no privacy issues around the data it captures, as it does not obtain any identifiable data from customers.剑桥科技称,此款应用并不会收集客户的身份信息,因此不必担心隐私问题。According to Cambridge Consultants, it is also different from existing queue monitoring systems as it can handle queues that are not all in the same place.另外,ZipLine与已有的排队应用不同,它甚至可以同时监控不同场所的排队实况。The long-range radio system works over a number of miles and the technology could combine queue information from multiple outlets.ZipLine内置的远程无线电系统覆盖极广,能够收集并统计多个地点的队伍信息。The system is still being developed, but the firm told MailOnline it is reportedly in talks with retailers about using the technology.目前,此应用尚处试验阶段,但剑桥科技向《每日邮报》网站透露,公司正与各大零售商积极磋商,推广使用。In practice, this could mean you could check what the queues are like at your favourite chain of coffee shops, and it would tell you the fastest place to get your coffee – which could be slightly further away, but with a much reduced waiting time.举个例子,去买咖啡前,你可以打开ZipLine查阅咖啡店排队的实时信息,软件还会告诉你想尽快买到咖啡该去哪家分店——有时候,你或许得多走几步路,但却免了不少排队时间。Tim Ensor, head of connected devices at Cambridge Consultants, said: #39;In the increasingly competitive retail sector, technology can be a crucial differentiator.剑桥科技设备连接部主管蒂姆·恩索尔表示:“零售商之间的竞争日益激烈,为了吸引客户,科技或成秘密武器。”#39;Our ZipLine concept aims to show how taking a service design approach to a problem can give a retailer vital competitive edge by transforming the customer experience.“Zipline针对现有问题,帮助商家改善务,提升客户体验,增强品牌竞争力。这也是我们设计ZipLine的初衷。”#39;In this example, we#39;re analysing some complex sensor data – and turning it into intelligent information that can be shared with customers in a simple but meaningful way.“在打造ZipLine的过程中,我们需要分析各种复杂的感应器数据,并将其转化为有用的信息,让客户能一目了然,心知肚明。”#39;Yet it has the potential to remove a major source of frustration for shoppers.#39;“如此一来,用户就不必为排队而发愁了。”Speaking to MailOnline, Mr Ensor said: #39;We expect the ZipLine interface will be integrated into the department store#39;s own app.恩索尔还告诉《每日邮报》网站:“我们希望商家能把ZipLine界面纳入它们自己的购物应用中。”#39;That usually means it is free to download.“也就是说,你可以免费下载,免费使用。”#39;We#39;re also looking at the option of using Bluetooth beacon technology which could offer the queue length information to consumers on their phone without needing to use an app at all.“我们也在尝试使用蓝牙发射技术。如此一来,用户无需打开手机应用,也能收到队伍的实时信息。”#39;Most of the premium department stores and shopping malls are aly installing equipment in their stores to boost mobile phone signal because this is generally becoming expected by consumers.“应广大顾客需要,多数高档百货公司与购物商场已纷纷开始安装手机信号增强器。”#39;This will also mean that the app will have access to the internet when it needs it to help consumers get the best check-out experience.#39;“也就是说,顾客能够联网使用ZipLine,决定自己想排的队伍。” /201601/421465

  Up until about two years ago, I used to have a big problem with energy. I had intense mood swings caused by intense fatigue and the sluggishness KILLED me. Then came the day where I just lost it.. I just could not live like that anymore! I searched and searched for answers. Finally I found some. Below is the top 10 solutions I have found. I know they are simple, but guess what? Simple works! Enjoy!过去的我深受精力不足的困扰,这种情况一直持续到两年前。那时,由于感到疲惫不堪,我的情绪波动很大,喜怒无常。那种懈怠感几乎要了我的命,后来我甚至到了情绪失控的地步。我真的不能再那样生活下去了!于是我四处搜寻,好不容易才寻到解决之法。下面是我找到的10个方法,很简单。但是呢?它们既简单又有效!快来看看吧!10.Improve Yourself10.改善自身的精神状况People usually understand that diet and fitness play a big role in energy levels but they never look at the mental aspect. Mental IS just as important and diet and fitness. Live a happy life.人们通常明白饮食和锻炼对于保持精力至关重要,但是他们一直忽视了精神的作用。精神与运动和饮食处于同等地位。所以用一种快乐的心态对待生活吧。9.Exercise9.运动Another great tip to get the blood flowing. Be sure that your excising aerobically (with oxygen) though. A simple way to test this is to check if you can breathe through your nose with comfort. If not your wasting energy.运动是促使血液循环的另一妙法。不过你要做的是有氧运动。对此有一个简单的测试方法:看看在运动时,你是不是可以用鼻子顺畅的进行呼吸。如果不能的话,那你只是在浪费精力。8.Talk8.与人交谈Being social greatly reduces tiredness. When your chatting with someone you have a great connection with you can look at the clock and hours will have flown by like minutes.参与社交活动有助于减轻疲劳。与一个要好的朋友交谈时,你可以看下时钟,会发现时光如梭。7.Meditate7.冥想Meditation, over time can free up a lot of mental RAM. Try, 20 minutes a day for a month. You will be shocked by the results. You have thousands upon thousands of unnecessary thoughts clogging you up.冥想一段时间可以帮助你放空精神。试一试每天冥想20分钟,坚持一个月。结果会让你大吃一惊的。要知道,你的大脑只是被太多太多无用的想法滞住了。6.Love what you do6.爱你所做Trust me there is no greater energy drainer then settling for okay. Quit what you don#39;t love anymore.要相信,安于现状是保持活力的最大敌人。如果你不喜欢干一件事,那就直接放弃。5.Do something adventurous5.去冒险吧No wonder you have no energy! Your just bored out of your mind. Try new things, gain new experiences, and have a good time!难怪你这么没精力!你就是太无聊啦!尝试一些新鲜事物,获得不同的体验,好好享受吧!4.Take a walk outside4.出门散步Sometimes we get mentally drained and that, in return, drains us of all our precious energy. A walk outside is a quick refreshing solution to both of those problems.有时候我们一旦感到精神不振,精力也随之蒸发光光。而出门散散步可以快速让你迅速振奋精神,充满活力。3.Move!3.多动动More specifically move a few minutes every hour. This stops your blood from pooling in your muscles and draining you. We need that blood flowing!每小时用个几分钟活动一下身体的某个部位。这样做会阻止血液大量流入肌肉组织,你就不会感到疲惫。我们要让血液流动起来!2.Eat smaller more frequent meals2.少食多餐We all heard this one before but do you do it? Now is the time to start! This keeps all the blood in your body from going to your stomach, instead of your vital organs and brain.我们都听过这种方法,然而有几人付诸实践呢?现在正是时候试一下啦!少食多餐有助于阻止身体中的血液全部涌入腹部,从而促进大脑和重要器官的血液补充。1.Eat more veggies1.多吃蔬菜Ewwwww veggies! Let#39;s face it, they may not taste the best but they are absolutely essential for gaining the energy you need. Luckily, I found some yummy ways to get them in your diet! Drink a green smoothie! These are great tasting and great for your health! A yummy recipe is water, banana, strawberry, and spinach. You can start off with just a small amount of spinach and work your way up. You might want to add some kale too. Eat them cooked. Cooking slightly reduces the bitter taste. Over time you will want to cook them less and less and eventually go raw since its healthier that way.蔬菜实在太太太难吃了!可是面对现实吧,蔬菜或许难吃却绝对是你获取能量的必需品。幸好,我发现了一些妙法让它们吃起来更美味!喝一杯加了蔬菜的水果浓饮料。这样一来既美味又健康!一个比较好的食谱是:水,香蕉,草莓和芹菜。刚开始可以只加一点点芹菜,然后逐量增加。你要是想加一些甘蓝也可以。将蔬菜烹调一下再食用。只需简单烹调,蔬菜就不会那么难以下咽了。慢慢地,你就不再会想要将蔬菜或蒸或煮,而是直接选择生吃,因为这样做更健康。翻译:晴晴晴天 审校:烟囱 编辑:旭旭 来源:前十网 /201601/424542

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