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固原医院泌尿外科割包皮平凉市第二人民医院男科Most of us are familiar with calluses.对于“老茧”,我们都很熟悉。These extra-tough patches of skin are generally quite useful-wemight even say handy-because they act like a kind of natural armor, protecting areas of skin thatget an unusual amount of wear and tear.这些皮肤上突出的硬皮是很有用的,也可以说是方便,因为他们扮演着保护常磨损皮肤的天然盔甲的角色。Have you ever wondered exactly what a callus is, or howit forms on your skin?你是否思考过什么是老茧?他又是怎样形成的?Callus formation is triggered by pressure or abrasion.老茧是由压力和擦而形成。The heel of your foot as it rubs inside yourshoe, or the palm of your hand if youre doing a lot of manual labor are good examples of this.脚后跟的茧是由其在鞋里擦而形成,正如手茧是在大量的劳动过程中形成。While it might feel like a callus is something extra, added to your skin, its actually just a build-up ofwhats aly there.尽管看起来似乎是皮肤上多出的部分,然而事实是已经存在的皮肤角质的累积。Your skin has a number of layers of different types of cells.皮肤是由若干层不同类型的皮肤构成。The outermost is a layer of hardened, dead cells.表层是一些坏死的硬细胞,This top layer is usually about twenty-five cellsthick, and it constantly replaces itself as the outermost cells flake off to be replaced by new hardened, dead cells underneath.通常有25个细胞那么厚,表层细胞不断的脱落,取而代之的是下层硬的坏死细胞,由此而完成自我更替过程。If your skin is subject to an unusual amount of friction, this layer of dead cells increases.假如皮肤受到不寻常量的擦,这层坏死细胞将会增加,New deadcells are added faster than the old ones slough away.新的坏死细胞增长速度比旧细胞脱落的速度快,This can build up the outer layer fromtwenty-five cells thick to over a hundred cells thick.这就致使皮肤表层的厚度增加到100个细胞那么厚,Youve grown a callus.由此,老茧便形成。While calluses are generally useful, if the process continues unchecked a callus can thicken into acone-shaped structure called a corn.虽然一般来讲,茧是有益的,但如不控制其过程,老茧厚度就会增加到被称作鸡眼的锥形结构,These super calluses can be quite painful, and may require the attention of a doctor.那样就会很疼,甚至需要去看医生。 201407/312308院彭阳县妇幼保健站男科医生 Business商业报道British law firms英国律师事务所Taking the magic abroad进军梦幻般的国外市场Londons big law firms are expanding their global footprints伦敦的大型律师事务所正在进行全球扩张LAWYERS are cautious folk.律师是十分谨慎的人群。So the recent collapse of Dewey amp; Leboeuf, a big American law firm, has scared them.因此,最近美国大型律师事务所Dewey amp; Leboeuf的倒闭已经吓坏了他们。Dewey failed because it tried to grow too fast, by borrowing too much money.Dewey律师事务所之所以倒闭,是因为急切扩张,借贷了大量贷款。Other firms still want to grow, but they are doing so slowly and carefully.其他事务所仍然寻求发展,但他们做的比较缓慢和小心。Consider Londons top five law firms, known as the magic circle.以伦敦最大的五家律师事务所为例,他们被称为梦幻集团。Allen amp; Overy and Clifford Chance released results early this week, and Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer and Linklaters were expected to do so later.Allen amp; Overy和Clifford Chance在周初发布了他们的业绩报告,Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer 和 Linklaters随后也将发布业绩报告。Allen amp; Overy had a good year, with its revenues growing by 6% and its profits by 7%. Clifford Chance, the biggest, did even better, with revenues up by 7% and profits up by 13%.Allen amp; Overy事务所的收益不错,总收入增长6%,利润增长7%。最大的Clifford Chance事务所表现的更好,总收入增长7%,利润增长13%。Emerging markets are where the growth is.这种增长来自于新兴市场。Allen amp; Overy now gets 22% of its revenue from such places, up from 15% a few years ago.Allen amp; Overy事务所来自于新兴市场的收入从几年前的15%增长到22%。It opened an office in Vietnam a month ago and another in Jakarta 17 months previously.它一个月前在越南开了一个营业处,17个月前在雅加达同样开了另一个。As for China, so many Western firms have piled in that they have competed each others fees down,对于中国,涌入了如此多的事务所以至于他们相互低价竞争。but Wim Dejonghe, Allen amp; Overys boss, is still optimistic:但Allen amp; Overy的比利时老板Wim Dejonghe仍然很乐观,他表示:the centre of gravity has moved from Shanghai to Beijing, he says, as the focus has shifted from inbound mergers and investment to Chinese money flowing out.市场的中心已经从上海转移到北京,因为焦点已经从入境兼并和投资转移到中国资金的外流。David Childs, the boss of Clifford Chance, is also bullish on China.Clifford Chance的老板David Childs同样看好中国市场。His firm cut partners during the recession,在经济萧条期间他的公司削减了合作伙伴,but not in Asia, the Middle East or Brazil.但不是在亚洲,中东和巴西。As for downward pressure on fees, Mr Childs says, slowly, They are very careful buyers…in Asia, before insisting that his firm has no trouble with pricing there.就收费走低的压力的问题,Childs先生缓缓地说:亚洲人是很谨慎的买家。随后他坚持,在亚洲他的公司没有定价方面的困扰。The firms revenues grew by 28% in Asia this year, thanks in part to a push into Australia.transaction flows.今年公司在亚洲地区的收入增长了28%,部分是得益于进入澳大利亚市场。Next year will be tougher: though bank regulatory work and dispute resolution are providing steady fees, Id much rather have healthy明年的形式可能会困难一些:尽管监管工作和调解纠纷在提供稳定的酬金,我更希望拥有可观的交易佣金收入。The magic circle may be getting a new competitor.梦幻集团可能会有一个新的竞争者。Herbert Smith, a second-tier firm, announced a merger with Freehills, one of Australias biggest, on June 28th.6月28日,位于行业第二集团的Herbert Smith事务所宣布与Freehills事务所进行合并,后者是澳大利亚最大的律师事务所之一。With revenues of over billion, the merged firm will be bigger than Slaughter and May.合并后的事务所将以10亿美元的收入超过Slaughter and May事务所。It will push for work related to Austrialias commodity boom and Asian capital markets.它将推进与澳大利亚商品市场和亚洲资本市场等相关的工作的发展。But David Willis, Herbert Smiths boss, is keen to stress the firms un-Dewey-like gradualism:但Herbert Smith的老板David Willis着重强调公司不同于Dewey的增长模式:Were not expecting a huge increase in earnings in year one.我们不期望在一年之内实现收入的大幅增长。Thats not why were doing this.这不是我们进行合并的原因。 /201307/249195You okay, Don?你还好吗,唐?Sorry,Yael . Ive been having trouble sleeping lately.抱歉,我最近睡眠不好。Have you tried thinking warm thoughts about your hands and feet?你有没有想办法暖手暖脚呢?Uh,No. Why would I wanna do that?没有,我为什么要那样做?Because it could help you fall asleep. See, when we’re falling asleep, the body naturally cools down. To make this happen, blood flows from the body’s core out to the legs, arms, hands and feet. This makes the central part of the body cooler and makes the hands and feet warmer.因为那样可以帮助你入睡。想象一下,当你睡着的时候,身体就会自然降温。要做到这一点,血液就会从身体的中心流向腿,胳膊,手和脚。这样身体的中心部分就会降低温度,使手和脚暖和起来。OK. But what does that have to do with thinking about my hands and feet?哦,但是那和我想到手和脚有什么关系呢?Well, for some people, the natural cooling-off process doesn’t work the way it should. But sleep researchers have found that you can sort of kick-start the process by imagining that your hands and feet are becoming warmer.对有些人来说,这个自然降温的过程无法正常进行。睡眠研究人员发现,我们可以启动这个过程,通过想象自己的手和脚变暖。You mean that if I think about holding my hands over a campfire or something like that, I can trick my body into making the blood flow and actually warming up my hands.你的意思是,如果我想象自己把手放在篝火旁或类似的做法,我就可以让身体里的血液流动,这样就可以暖手了。Exactly,at least thats the idea It’s been tested on a handful of people with sleep disorders and there’s some evidence that it actually works.一点儿没错,至少这种想法已经在少数失眠的人身上做过测试,并且也有一些据明这种做法是有用的。 /201304/234775固原有什么比较好的男科医院

原州区治疗睾丸炎哪家医院最好Heres a neat question you may have never thought to ask. How far away is the horizon?你可能从未思考过这个简单的问题,地平线有多远?Think about it.想想这个问题,The Earth seems flat from our viewpoint, and if you are in a desert or out at sea you get a sense that the earth extends indefinitely in every direction.从我们的视角看来,地球似乎是平的,但是要是你待在沙漠里或是在海上的话,你会感觉地球在向四面八方无限地延伸。This isnt correct, though; the planet is round, so at some point the ground must drop away.然而这是不正确的,地球是圆的,因此陆地在某一点必下沉 。When it drops below your angle of vision, you cant see it any more, and thats what we call the horizon.当地面下沉到你的视角之下时,你就无法再看到,这就是我们所说的地平线。So how far can you see before the planet curves away?那么在地球发生弯曲之前,你可以看多远呢?If youre six feet tall, the answer is about three miles. Surprised?如果你有六尺高的话,你可以看差不多三英里远。震惊吗?You arent alone.可是并不是只有你一个人感到震惊。Try asking a friend next time youre at the beach on a clear day to guess how far out across the ocean you are looking.尝试着下次问下你朋友这个问题:在一个晴天,你站在一个沙滩上,猜猜你可以看到多远的海面。Shes more likely to say twenty or fifty miles than just three.她很有可能会说二十或五十英里,而不是三英里。Now that were thinking about horizons, heres another cool thing to think about.既然我们在思考关于地平线的问题,我们要思考另一个很酷的问题。The horizon is three miles away on earth. But elsewhere in the solar system its closer or farther, depending on the size of the body youre standing on!地平线在地球上的三英里之外,但是在太阳系的其他星球上地平线是更近还是更远呢,这取决于你所站立的星球的体积大小。Take the moon.以月球为例,The moon is two thousand, one hundred and sixty miles in diameter, only about one quarter the size of the earth.月球直径为2160英里,只有地球的四分之一。So the curvature at its surface is much more noticeable, and the horizon is much closer. Its only about 1.5 miles away.因此,月球表面的曲率更明显,地平线也更近,只有大约1.5英里远。One cool result?这是不是一个很酷的?The surface bends so quickly on the moon that its possible to stand inside some of the largest impact craters and not know youre in one.在月球上,地表弯曲得很快,因此当你站在一个撞击坑中,很可能身处其中而不自知,The walls of the crater are below the horizon on all sides!因为撞击坑的岩壁处在地平线以下。 /201401/272695固原有专门治梅毒的医院吗 固原市阳痿早泄的治疗医院

固原协和泌尿医院有治疗前列腺炎吗Its summertime, and youre on vacation.时值夏季,你正在享受假期。You sit beside a quiet pond, fishing, trying to relax, trying to think about nothing at all.你稳坐在一个安静的池塘旁钓鱼,想放松自己,试图让脑子放空一切。You watch the leaves stirring, the water rippling in the sunshine, and the water bugs standing on the surface of the water. 你看到树叶随水波荡漾,湖水在阳光下泛起涟漪,还有水虫恣意站在水面上。How do they--Rats! Now your brains working again, wondering how those bugs do that.它们是如何!现在你的大脑再次被拉回工作状态,想知道虫子是如何做到的。Well relax, its Moment of Science to the rescue.好了,放松,又到了科学出马的时候。Today well explain Standing on Water.今天我们将解释水上漂。There are two things involved in this trick:这一所谓的“魔术”涉及两个环节:one is a property of the water, and the other has to do with the bugs feet.一是水的性质,另一点是这种虫子的脚。Lets start with the water.让我们先从水开始。Water molecules naturally stick to each other, due to a strong chemical attraction between the individual molecules.由于单个分子之间的强烈化学吸引力,水分子自然而然的互相紧密连接。At the ponds surface, the uppermost water molecules experience this attraction as a strong pull toward each other, and downward from the water beneath them.在池塘表面, 当强大的引力以及水内部的吸引力互相作用最上层的水分子经历这一吸引力。This creates whats called ;surface tension;-a somewhat compressed layer of water molecules right at the ponds surface.这就产生了所谓的“表面张力”,一种水分子在池塘表面的压缩层。You can think of this layer as being like a tight film over the surface of the pond.你可以将这一层想象成池塘水面一种非常紧密的膜。How does this help the water bug?这对水虫起到什么作用?If the surface water stuck to its feet as well as it stuck to the water below, the bug would be pulled under.如果撑它脚部表面的水撑水面以下,虫子就会被拉入水中。As it turns out, the bugs feet are covered with waxy hairs that are ;hydrophobic;--which means they chemically resist contact with water.事实明,脚部覆盖着蜡状毛的这种昆虫是恐水的—这意味着它们会化学抵抗与水接触。This combination of strong surface tension and water-resistant feet is what lets our bug stand on the water, without even getting wet!这种结合强大的表面张力及防水的脚部让我们的虫子站在水上,甚至没有淋湿!On our next program, well learn how water bugs move across this surface.在我们下一期节目中,我们将了解水虫如何跨越这一表面。Meanwhile, get back to your fishing!与此同时,继续享受你的钓鱼吧! 201309/255038 Science and technology科学技术Athletic performance运动员的表现Faster, higher, no longer更快,更高已成往事Is it time to update the Olympic credo?是时候更改奥运会信条了?ON AUGUST 5th millions of people will watch the 100-metre final at the London Olympics.数百万人将在8月5日观看伦敦奥运会的一百米决赛。Many will wonder if anyone can repeat Usain Bolts feat in Berlin in , when the Jamaican clocked 9.58 seconds, lopping 0.11 seconds—aeons in a sprint—off the previous world record, which he set at the 2008 Beijing games.许多人都想知道谁能重现尔特奇迹,09年的柏林世界田径锦标赛上,尔特以9秒58的成绩刷新了自己在08年北京奥运会创下的记录,这缩短的0.11秒在短跑界已经算是巨大的超越了。One person who thinks this unlikely is Mark Denny.有人认为没人能做到,他就是马克丹尼。Another 0.11 seconds would take the time below what Dr Denny, from Stanford University, reckons is the absolute limit of human athletic performance in the 100-metre dash.在斯坦福大学的丹尼士看来,再缩短0.11秒就超过了运动员在百米冲刺表现中的极限。In 2008 Dr Denny published a paper in which he crunched through the highest speeds achieved each year in running events from sprints to the marathon, some dating back to 1900.2008年丹尼曾经发表了一篇论文,他在其中收集了从短跑到马拉松等每年的赛跑项目的最佳成绩,有的甚至可以追溯到1900年。A statistical technique called extreme-value analysis discerned trends and the maximum possible deviations from them.利用一种叫极限价值分析法的统计技术可以看到数据走向,并由此计算出最大可能性。For the 100 metres, the human speed limit is 10.55 metres per second.就100米而言,人类的速度极限是每秒10.55米。This translates to 9.48 seconds.所以人类一百米最好成绩应该是9.48秒。Predicting the limits of human athletic prowess has been a popular parlour game among number crunchers.估算运动员的能力极限是数据分析家们最热衷的室内游戏。One study from 1992 had female marathon runners drawing level with men by 1998, to complete the 42.195km course in just under two hours and two minutes.有一项研究在1992年到1998年间以统一标准要求男女马拉松运动员,即在2小时2分以内跑完42.195。A more recent analysis from 2004 suggested that male and female 100-metre times will converge in 2156, at 8.08 seconds.2004年的一项研究分析曾预示,到2156年,男女一百米运动员的成绩都将达到8.08秒。Nowadays sport statisticians view such calculations as flawed because they relied on linear extrapolations.现在的体育统计员们认为,这些计算还不尽完善,因为它们是以线性推断为基础的。They prefer to fit data to variants of a “logistic” curve.它们倾向于用数据去迎合“逻辑”曲线上的变量。This produces an S-shaped plot more in line with the intuition that performance starts off relatively flat.由此绘制出的S型图表更符合最初阶段相对平庸的表现。It then goes through a period of rapid improvement as more people take part and more systematic approaches to training and nutrition get more out of them.随着参与人数的不断增多和培养训练方式的更加系统化,这个图表会在一段时间内快速上升。It finally levels off as athletes inch towards the most a body can manage.但随着运动员逐渐接近生理极限,图表会慢慢趋于平缓。This aly seems to be happening.现在的情况似乎正是如此。According to Dr Denny female marathon runners have, in effect, reached their peak.丹尼士表示马拉松女运动员实际上已经达到顶峰。In a 2010 study Geoffroy Berthelot, of Frances National Institute of Sport, showed that performance in 23 out of 36 track-and-field events has stagnated since 1993.法国国家体育协会的杰弗罗伊贝森罗特在2010年的一项调查中指出,在36项田径赛事中,有23项的运动员表现自1993年以后就一直停滞不前。The remaining 13 have seen only small increments.而剩下的13项就算有所提高也是微乎其微。Pool performance表现欠佳In swimming, Dr Berthelot found that all 34 events have seen improvements since 2000, though this may have been aided by the now banned slick, full-body swimsuits which helped competitors in Beijing smash 22 world records.而在游泳界,贝森罗特士发现34项比赛自2000年起都有一定进步,虽然这可能要归功于现在禁止穿光滑的套身泳衣的规定,该规定曾帮助运动员在北京奥运会上打破了22项世界纪录。Before 2000, performance in 16 events had been becalmed, though not in the 400-metres individual medley, which may explain why Chinas 16-year-old Ye Shiwen shaved a second off the world record and in the final leg stoked controversy by being quicker than the mens medley champion.2000年之前,在16项游泳比赛中,运动员的表现已经出现瓶颈,但是400米混合泳除外,这也许解释了为什么中国的16岁小将叶诗文落后世界记录一秒并在最后一圈的速度甚至超过了男子混合泳冠军的表现会引发争议。But Alan Nevill, of Wolverhampton University in Britain, reckons this is within the bounds of possibility for the 400-metres womens freestyle: a proxy, albeit an imperfect one, for the last leg of the medley.但是英国伍尔夫汉普顿大学的艾伦奈维尔确认为,这在女子四百米自由泳中是可能出现的:虽然不太可能实现,但仍算混合泳最后一圈的一个指标Drugs and technological tricks aside, ensuring that future Olympics live up to their motto of “faster, higher, stronger” may thus require some other performance-boosting tricks.抛开兴奋剂使用和技术作假不说,要保以后的奥运会不辜负“更高,更快,更强”的信条,可能要采取一切其他的技巧来促进运动员的表现。Steve Haake, of Sheffield Hallam University in Britain, points to a notable blip in the figures for the 100-metre dash.英国谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学的史蒂芬哈基指出了一百米数据中一个明显的尖峰信号。In 1968 the average of the best times of the top 25 athletes was much better than trend.1968年世界排名前25的运动员的最佳成绩要比整体趋势好得多。This, Dr Haake explains, is because those Olympic games were held in Mexico City.哈基士认为这是因为当时的奥运会实在墨西哥城举办的。At an altitude of 2,240 metres the air there is a fifth thinner than at sea level, providing 20% less drag—a boon to sprinters who, unlike their endurance counterparts, run anaerobically, and so need not worry about the diminished supply of oxygen.在海拔高达2,240的地方,空气要比海平面稀薄五倍,因此阻力也下降了20%,这是短跑选手的福利,和耐力型长跑运动员不同,他们进行的是无氧跑步,所以也不必担心供氧不足的问题。Eight of the 25 best times that year were recorded at the games, and most of the remaining 17 were at higher-than-usual altitudes where athletes prepared for the main event.当年的25个最佳成绩中,有8个打破了世界纪录,剩下的17个中的大多数都出自海拔较高的地方,那儿的运动员都在为主赛事做准备。The reduced drag may have helped Bob Beamons 8.9-metre long jump, in which the American added 55cm to the world record.也许下降的空气阻力还帮助鲍勃比蒙取得了跳远8.9米的好成绩,由此美国又为世界纪录增加了55厘米。Of that, 31cm was down to a tail wind combined with the altitude.高海拔加上顺风让鲍勃多跳了31米。Statistics suggest that feats like those of Messrs Bolt and Beamon are increasingly improbable.统计数据表明,像尔特和比蒙这样的好成绩越来越难以出现。But are they impossible?但是绝无可能吗?Peter Weyand, of Southern Methodist University in Texas, has shown that whereas the peak force which elite sprinters apply to the track is more than four times their body weight, they can squeeze even more out of their muscles.德克萨斯州南卫理公会教大学的彼得韦安德表示鉴于顶尖的短跑选手所爆发出来的最大力量是其体重的4倍,他们的肌肉还是可以挤出更多力量的。Dr Weyand found that the forces generated while athletes hopped on one leg as fast as they could on a high-speed tmill were roughly twice as high as during running at top speed.韦安德还发现,运动员在一座高速运转的跑步机上尽可能快的单脚跳跃时所迸发出的力量大约是他们在以最快速度奔跑时所迸发出来的两倍。This translated into 30% more ground force.这就是说运动员在地面奔跑还能爆发出30%的力量。Since ground force is the main determinant of sprinting speed, Dr Weyands results imply that human muscles are capable of producing enough oomph to propel sprinters one-third faster than Mr Bolts record.既然地面力量是冲刺速度的主要决定因素,韦安德士的研究结果表示,人类肌肉还能释放出足够的力量,可以帮助运动员跑得比尔特年创下的世界纪录还要快三分之一。The reason they have not is that in the normal, two-legged gait the foot is in contact with the ground for only around one-tenth of a second, 0.05 seconds less than when hopping.之所以没有出现这样的情况是因为在正常情况下,双腿跑动时,脚和地面的接触时间仅有十分之一秒,比跳跃时少0.05秒。As a consequence, muscle fibres do not have enough time to contract to their full potential.所以肌肉组织没有足够时间释放它们的潜力。Although tapping all this force while sprinting seems biomechanically inconceivable, there may be scope for slight alterations in training and gait, focused on increasing the peak power available to sprinters.虽然从生物医学的角度来看,在短跑时发挥出全部力量似乎是难以置信的,但也许在训练和步伐上还有改进的余地,可以关注如何提高运动员所能调动出的最大力量。For his part, Dr Denny would be thrilled to see any athlete breach his limits, but he isnt putting any money on it.如果有人能打破这个极限丹尼士一定会很激动,但他可不会在这上面押钱。 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