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2017年10月24日 15:52:53来源:网上知识

Taharqo was eager to expand Egypt beyond Sinai and its north-east border-an aggressive policy that led to conflict with the Assyrian king, Sennacherib-whose stone reliefs were the subject of the last programme.塔哈尔卡急于扩张西奈半岛及东北边境的领土。这一富有侵略性的政策导致了与亚述王西拿基立的冲突。Around 700 Taharqo allied himself with Hezekiah, King of Judah, and fought alongside him.约公元前七百年,库施与犹大国王希西家结盟,并肩作战。But this challenge to the Assyrian war machine ultimately led to Taharqos downfall.但对亚述战争机器的挑战导致的最终结局是塔哈尔卡的垮台。Ten years later, the Assyrians came looking for him, seeking the colossal wealth of Egypt, and although he repelled them that time, they soon returned.十年后,亚述入侵埃及,对埃及的巨大财富虎视眈眈。虽然这次塔哈尔卡赢得了胜利,但亚述人很快便卷土重来。In 671 they forced Taharqo to flee south to his native Kush.公元前六七一年,亚述人迫使他逃回了故土库施。He lost his wife and his son to the enemy and, after more attacks from the Assyrians, he was finally expelled.他的妻儿都落入敌手。最终,在亚述的数次进攻后,他遭到了放逐。In the long history of Egypt, Kushite rule was a brief interlude of not even 150 years.在埃及的漫长历史中,库施人的统治不过是一段不超过一百五十年的小插曲。Yet it reminds us that the border between what is now Egypt and Sudan is a constant fault-line, both geographic and political, that has frequently divided the peoples of the Nile Valley, and frequently been fought over.但这段历史提醒我们,埃及与苏丹之间的国界线不仅是一条地理上的断层线,也是政治上的。这条线时常分隔着尼罗河流域的人民,同时也不断引发争夺。Well see that fault-line again later in these programmes, because both the Roman and the British empires bloodily revisited this contested boundary between Egypt and Kush.之后我们还会再看到它的身影, 因为罗马人与大英帝国都曾再度血洗埃及与库施之间这条纷争不断的分界线。Geography has determined that this will always be a frontier, because its here that the first cataract breaks up the Nile into small, rocky channels that are very hard to navigate, making contact between north and south highly problematic.地理因素使它成为一条天然的分界线,在此处,第一瀑布把尼罗河分成了数条布满岩石、难以航行的细流。南北方的交流因而困难重重。201408/321667。

  • 即使是对我们所爱的人,我们还是很难总是做到慈悲。但是罗伯特amp;#8226;瑟曼却号召我们要从爱我们的敌人开始发展我们的慈悲心。他讲述了7步禅修方法,从而让我们能从内心世界中实践和拓展慈悲心。201410/337071。
  • Such a lively, diverse city needed strong leadership.一个如此多姿多、生气勃勃的城市需要强有力的统治者。When Ptolemy Vs father died suddenly, leaving the boy as king, the dynasty and its control of Egypt looked fragile.而当托勒密四世骤然去世,年幼的男孩成为国王,他们的王朝与对埃及的管理开始显得脆弱不堪。The boys mother was killed, the palace was stormed by soldiers, and there were revolts throughout the country which delayed the young Ptolemys coronation for years.男孩的母亲遭到杀害,宫殿被士兵捣毁,全国范围内的叛乱此起彼伏,以至于托勒密五世的加冕仪式拖延了数年之久。It was in these volatile circumstances that Ptolemy V issued the Rosetta Stone, and others like it.托勒密五世颁布罗塞塔诏书及其他法令之时,社会便是如此动荡。The Stone is not unique; there are another 17 similar inscriptions quite like it, all in three languages and all proclaiming the greatness of the Ptolemies.这块石碑并非独一无二,另外还有十七块类似的石碑被保存了下来,每块石碑都用三种语言赞美了托勒密诸王的伟大成就。These were put up in major temple complexes across Egypt.它们被安置在埃及各地的大型神庙里。The Rosetta Stone was made in 196 , on the first anniversary of the coronation of Ptolemy V, by then a teenager.罗塞塔石碑制作于公元前一九六年,为的是纪念托勒密五世加冕一周年,Its a decree issued by Egyptian priests, ostensibly to mark the coronation and to declare Ptolemys new status as a living god-divinity went with the job of being a pharaoh.这道诏书由埃及的祭司颁写,表面上是为了周年纪念,宣布托勒密是埃及法老,人间之神:The priests had given Ptolemy a full Egyptian coronation at the sacred city of Memphis, and this greatly strengthened his position as the rightful ruler of Egypt.此前,祭司们在圣城孟菲斯为托勒密五世举行了一套完整的埃及登基仪式,极大地巩固了他作为埃及合法统治者的地位。But there was a trade-off.但这是一场交易。Ptolemy may have become a god, but to get there hed had to negotiate some very unheavenly politics with his extremely powerful Egyptian priests.托勒密答应了这些位高权重的祭司们许多政治条件,才被加冕为神。Dorothy Thompson, Emeritus Professor at Cambridge University, explains:剑桥大学的多萝西汤普森士解释道。201411/341261。
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