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2018年03月18日 15:55:34来源:兰州晨报


  • In our selfie-happy world where we can take a photo anytime of anything we want, its difficult to conceive of life in which photography is completely banned.No photographs, ever – or face severe punishment.From 1996 to 2001, that was life in Afghanistan under the Taliban.After the Taliban fell from power, free press and photojournalism were born.A new documentary called Frame By Frame takes us to Afghanistan, where we meet four Afghan photojournalists who are working to reframe their country for the world and for its people.Mo Scarpelli tells us that she and her co-director Alexandria Bombach were drawn to the subject because it gave them a chance to see life in Afghanistan the way that people who live there do, a perspective not often portrayed in the media.And, in a relatively young climate of photography, the two wanted to look at what it is actually like to take photographs as a professional in a space in which it used to be entirely outlawed.She tells us that the project started out small, but grew in scope once they started working.;We thought we were going to make a short film, (but we) met four people who just blew us away. They were incredible and all had very unique takes on what they did and also on how they covered their own country,; Scarpelli says.Three of the four subjects in the film were children during the Taliban regime who didnt discover photography until after the Taliban fell from power, she says.The fourth is a man who shot photographs in secret during the Talibans rule. Scarpelli tells us that he worked as a painter, contracted to paint portraits of the Mujahideen leadership, and using those connections gained access to the north in order to document the front lines of the war between the Mujahideen and the Taliban.There, Scarpelli says he uncovered an ongoing genocide against the Hazara and smuggled rolls of film through Taliban checkpoints disguised as pill bottles.Scarpelli tells us the films cinematography was heavily influenced by the four photojournalists styles, and hopes that this sort of portrayal of Afghanistan and its people will help fill in some of the gaps for many of us for whom the country is still so unknown.;Theres very few films that have been shot in Afghanistan that really tap into the feel of the place,; she says. ;We wanted to convey the sense of empathy that they all find within their photographs.;201509/397785
  • What makes adolescents so vulnerable to developing addictions to substances like nicotine, alcohol, and drugs?是什么使得青少年很容易对像尼古丁,酒精和毒品这些物品上瘾?Teens, in particular, seem more vulnerable than any other age group.特别是青少年,他们似乎比其它任一年龄人群更脆弱。Is it a result of peer pressure? Of wanting to fit in?是来自同辈的压力吗?想融入群体?In a word, no. Socio-cultural elements do play their role.总之,不是。社会文化因素是主要原因。However, scientists who analyzed the results of many studies on this subject believe the susceptibility of adolescents to substance addiction also has to do with the state of development of a particular region in adolescent brains.科学家分析了许多相关研究调查,他们认为青少年对物质成瘾的敏感性与大脑内部某特定区域的发展情况有关。They interpreted that the region of the brain that monitor simpulse and motivation isnt fully formed in adolescence.他们解释说大脑控制神经冲动和动机的区域是在青春期形成的。This area of the brain experiences a lot ofactivity and change during adolescence.大脑的这个部分在青春期经历许多活动并改变。Its due to this brain regions hyperactivity and quick-firechange that adolescents are more likely than children and adults to want to try out new experiences, to be impulsive and take risks.由于青春期大脑的这个部分的极度活跃比小孩和速射大人都大,所以青少年更想尝试新的体验,更冲动和更愿意冒险。That may not sound so bad in theory, but the real downside about this region of the brain is thatalong with adolescent inhibitions may come experimentation and abuse of addictive drugs.这听起来可能不是那么糟糕,但这个区域的真正缺点是随着青少年情绪压抑,对成瘾药物的尝试和滥用也会随之而来。Inaddition, because of the immature state of this brain region, adolescents may be quicker to succumb to nicotine, alcohol, and drug addiction, and to do so with greater permanency.此外,由于这个大脑区域的不成熟状态,青少年也许会更快地屈于尼古丁,酒精和毒品,并且更具有永久性。What can be done about it?我们可以做些什么呢?This suggests that substance use disorders among adolescents areactually neuro developmental disorders as well;这表明,青少年的物质使用障碍实际上也是神经发育障碍;researchers and doctors may learn more about howto treat these patients by focusing on the particularities of the adolescent period and on the brainin that period.研究人员和医生可以通过关注青年期的青少年和那个时期大脑的特质,了解更多关于治疗这些病人的信息。 201411/339739
  • Ethnic minorities in France法国少数民族An edgy inquiry一项前卫调查A taboo on studying immigrant families performance is fraying打破调查移民家庭表现的禁忌BY LAW, French authorities cannot collect ethnic statistics. All citizens are considered equal. Differentiating them is felt to imply stigmatisation, or even worse to echo the singling out of Jews that took place under the collaborationist Vichy regime in the 1940s.根据法律规定,法国官方部门不可以收集少数民族的统计资料。所有公民一律平等,对其进行区分可认为是有意歧视,严重者,可唤起20世纪40年代维希卖国政府对犹太人迫害的记忆。Yet however strong the historical reasons, this approach makes it difficult to tell whether French people of different backgrounds really do fare as well as each other. A new study suggests they do not.然而,无论历史的作用多么强大,禁止的方法让人难以发现法国不同背景的人们是否真的个个表现良好。一项新的研究表明,并非全然良好。It comes, surprisingly, from an official source: France Strategie, the governments economic-strategy unit, which is run by Jean Pisani-Ferry, an economist. The authors get round the ethnicity taboo by using census data on national origin. Several decades after mass immigration began, enough long-term data exist to see how the generation raised in France by parents from other countries has done.出人意外的是,该项研究竟出自官方之手:由经济学家Jean Pisani-Ferry经营的政府经济战略研究单位France Strategie。研究作者使用原籍人口普查资料,以避免触犯民族禁忌。人口大规模迁入的几十年来,存取了大量的长期数据,足以用来研究第二代移民的表现。In a word, badly. Youth unemployment of 32% for French-born citizens whose parents arrived from Africa, including sub-Saharan countries and those of the Maghreb, is twice as high as for those with no immigrant background. Fully 30% leave high school without any diploma or qualification, against 16% of those without immigrant parents. French people with parents from Africa have less stable working lives, and are more likely to live in poor neighbourhoods, than those with non-African immigrant backgrounds, the report finds.一言以蔽之,糟糕透顶。对于来自撒哈拉以南以及马格里布等非洲地区的第二代法国移民,其青年失业率为32%,是无移民背景人群的两倍。高中毕业时未获得任何学位或文凭的人数比率高达30%,而无移民背景人群所占的比率为16%。研究报告发现,与无移民背景的法国人相比,第二代非裔法国移民的工作生活不稳定,在贫穷社区生活的可能性更大。Other studies use the data to reveal further differences by national origin. French-born citizens with parents from Morocco orTunisia, for example, seem to do better at school than those with parents from Algeria or the African Sahel. Only 10% of French men aged 25-35 with Algerian-born parents, and just 9% of those with parents from the Sahel, have a degree, against 19% of those with Moroccan or Tunisian parents and 23% of the non-immigrant population. (Among those with south-east Asian roots, the figure tops 30%.)其他几项研究通过这些数据进一步揭示了来自不同国家的移民之间的差异。第二代洛哥裔或突尼斯裔法国移民在学校的表现似乎优于第二代阿尔及利亚裔或非洲萨赫勒裔法国移民。25岁至32岁的第二代阿尔及利亚裔法国移民中,只有10%的人拥有大学学位,第二代萨赫勒裔法国移民的比率为9%,而第二代洛哥裔或突尼斯裔法国移民的比率为19%,无移民背景的人口比率为23%。(第二代东南亚裔法国移民的比率为30%,数量最多。)Girls also seem to do better than boys. Just 49% of French-born men aged 20-35 with Algerian parents have passed the baccalaureat, the national school-leaving exam, compared with 58% of women (and 68% of the non-immigrant population). Those with parents from the Sahel do little better: 63% of young French-born women have the bac, and 51% of men. Interestingly, when the sexes are combined, young French citizens born to Moroccan or Tunisian parents do better at school not only than those from Algeria or the Sahel but also those born to parents from Portugal.女孩儿的表现亦似乎优于男孩儿。20岁至35岁的第二代阿尔及利亚裔法国男士在全国学校毕业考试—高中毕业会考中的通过率为49%,而女性的通过率为58%(非移民人口的通过率为68%)。第二代萨赫勒裔法国移民的表现稍好一些:年轻女性的通过率为63%,男性的通过率为51%。有趣的是,如果不分性别,洛哥裔或突尼斯裔法国移民在学校的表现不仅要优于阿尔及利亚裔或萨赫勒裔法国移民,而且优于葡萄牙裔法国移民。Such divergent patterns mirror those found in other European countries. British-born Bangladeshis have pulled away from British-born Pakistanis in terms of school results, for instance, and now perform better than white British children.这些大相径庭的结果映射出欧洲其他国家少数民族的发展趋势。第二代孟加拉国裔英国移民的学校成绩远不同于第二代巴基斯坦裔英国移民,如今超过了英国白人儿童。What explains the French pattern? History may play a part. The bloody war forAlgerias independence may have created feelings of hostility to the French system, and general alienation, which are slow to disappear. Poverty and discrimination clearly play a role. Many French immigrants came from countries with very low living standards, like Mali, Mauritania and Niger. And coming from a poor family background, notes the France Strategie study, seems to have a stronger impact on school performance in France than it does in other comparable countries.何以解释这种法国模式?也许有历史的原因。因阿尔及利亚独立引发的血腥战争产生了对法国体制的敌视情绪,以及普遍的疏离感,这些皆不易消失。贫穷和种族歧视也具有明显的作用。法国很多移民来自生活水平极低的国家,如马里、毛里塔尼亚、尼日尔。据France Strategie的研究显示,在法国,出身贫困对学生在学校表现的影响似乎大于其他类似国家。 翻译:石海霞 校对:胡雅琳译文属译生译世 /201504/370141
  • 听力参考文本(文本与音频不全一致,敬请谅解):October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month.Each and every year, more than 230,000 American women will hear the words, “You have breast cancer.”Of those, some 100,000 will undergo mastectomy and breast reconstruction.When your worlds been turned upside down by a breast cancer diagnosis, it can be hard to grasp what options are there for you.Pat Anstetts new book provides answers, presented through the stories of women who have been handed that breast cancer diagnosis and then followed many different paths in treatment and reconstruction.The book is Breast Cancer Surgery and Reconstruction: Whats Right for You.Anstett sat down with us today to talk about the book and some of the options women have after being diagnosed with breast cancer.In addition to the book, Anstett has put together an extensive website collecting womens stories and photographs. You can find that here.201610/471002
  • Oxford牛津Dreaming cranes梦中的吊车It is the biggest construction boom since the Middle Ages这是中世纪以来最大的建造活动IN HIS book “Notes from a Small Island”, Bill Bryson, an American author, took exception to some of Oxfords 20th-century architecture. It is, he wrote, as though the city had said to itself, “Weve been putting up handsome buildings since 1264; lets have an ugly one for a change.”美国作家Bill Bryson在书中如此写道“源自一个小岛的记录‘。他把牛津地区20世纪的一些建筑物当做特例。他写道,“1264年以来我们已经建造了许多美观的建筑;为了改变,来造一个丑陋的吧。”Much of Oxford is beautiful. A quarter of the university is listed. Some buildings date back to 1424. But in the 1960s planners added ugly shopping centres, offices and even college buildings that drain the beauty from the city centre. Now a building programme is under way that aims to avoid such errors, and even reverse a few.牛津有许多漂亮建筑。这所大学四分之一的建筑物都名列在册。一些的建筑日期可以追溯到1424年。不过在20世纪60年代,设计者新建了难看的商业中心、办公楼,甚至学院建筑都叫城市中心失去美丽。现在有一个建筑计划正在施行,这个计划将避免上述错误,并且可以挽救些许失去的美好。Some of the construction is driven by the need to upgrade facilities in order to keep Oxford globally competitive. In 2014 it was ranked Britains top research university, yet some departments are still housed in converted Victorian houses. Post-war buildings in the Science Area have been demolished. Their replacements will encourage inter-disciplinary work. There is a push, too, for links with business, as pioneered by Oxfords old rival, Cambridge, where builders have also been busy. One new hub outside Oxford city centre, the BioEscalator, promotes commercial research in life sciences alongside academia; another, the Innovation Accelerator, focuses on advanced engineering.有些建筑之所以修建,是为了更新设施以保牛津大学在全球的竞争力。在2014年,尽管它有些部门还在维多利亚时代的屋子中办公,它还是英国最顶尖的研究型大学。战后科学区修建的建筑已经拆掉了。继而修建的建筑将促进跨学科研究的发展。将之与商业联系在一起也是有推力的,牛津的老对手剑桥早就开始这么做了,剑桥的建筑修建活动也在热火朝天地进行。位于牛津城市中心之外的一个新实验中心,BioEscalator,加强了生命科学的学术研究的同时也加强了其商业研究;另外,Innovation Accelerator则将注意力集中在先进引擎技术上。Other buildings are being renovated. On March 21st the Weston Library (formerly the New Bodleian) opened to the public. In September a shiny new China Centre opened in the grounds of St Hughs College. Construction is about to begin on the Beecroft physics building. The boldest newcomer, located next to the new Mathematical Institute, will be the Blavatnik School of Government (pictured), a glass-and-metal spaceship designed by the architects responsible for the “birds nest” Olympic stadium in Beijing.其他的建筑正在改造中。在3月21日,韦斯顿图书馆(前身是新牛津大学图书馆)对公共开放。10月在圣·休学院,将成立一座崭新的中国中心。Beecroft物理楼也要开始进行改造。位于新数学研究所旁最大胆的建筑,Blavatnik政府学院(图示),是由设计建造北京奥运会建筑“鸟巢”的建筑家负责督造的玻璃-金属建筑。Private funding has been crucial, the names on the buildings reflecting those following in the footsteps of Balliol, Bodley and Wadham—from Ukrainian businessmen to British financiers. The university plans to spend another 1.8 billion (2.7 billion) over the next decade, says William James, the pro-vice chancellor for planning. He hints at bigger projects to come.私人募捐变得十分关键。建筑上的名字如Balliol、, Bodley 、Wadham反映了从乌克兰生意人到不列颠金融家的脚步。牛津大学计划在下一个十年花费18亿英镑(27亿美金),该计划前副经理William James说。他暗示未来将有更大的项目。Oxford City Council is building, too, redeveloping Oxpens, a down-at-heel area near the railway station, into homes and offices. It has demolished the monstrous Westgate car park to make way for a 500 million shopping centre. The railway station is getting a 200m refit, with plans for a “continental boulevard” outside to greet some of the 9.5m tourists who arrive in Oxford each year. A second railway station is under construction in the north of the city. Separately, an old branch line that links to the Mini factory in Cowley should open for passengers by 2020.牛津城市议会也在建设中。这次将改建Oxpens区,把这个临近火车站的糟烂区域改造成住宅区和办公区。这次改造拆除了巨大丑陋的Westgate汽车公园,将修建价值5亿英镑的购物中心。火车站获得了2亿英镑的重修费用,计划在火车站外周建成一个“大陆林荫道”,以此吸引每年来牛津旅游的9500万游客中的一部分。在这个城市北部,第二座火车站正在建设中。另外,在2020年,通往Cowley的Mini工厂的一条旧线也将向游人开放。Yet if all this makes Oxford more attractive, it will accentuate another problem. Many people want to live or study there. Commuting to London is rising. Hedge funds are setting up in the city centre. The number of graduate students has doubled (to 10,000) since 2001. And yet the green belt around the city does not permit Oxford to expand, driving house prices higher than anywhere in the country, proportional to income. Local opposition to a development of badly needed graduate student accommodation near Port Meadow, a beauty spot, has led to the biggest town-gown bust-up in years.不过尽管所有这些都让牛津更富魅力,这种情形导致了另外的问题。很多人希望在此学习或者生活。往返伦敦的费用一直上扬。Hedge基金正落户在这个城市的中心。毕业学生的数量自2001年以来翻倍。环绕这座城市的绿化带限制了牛津城的扩张。这使得房屋价格相对于收入的比例而言高于全国其他地方。当地人反对发展靠近Port Meadow的毕业生居住区。这本是一个漂亮的景点,这些年已经成为最大的城镇增长点。Oxford has many articulate, conservation-minded residents. It is surrounded by pretty countryside and hemmed in by decades-old planning regulations. Its building boom is impressive. But growth will always be uncomfortable.牛津有许多口齿清晰、内心保守的居民。它为漂亮的乡村所环绕,也被数十年陈旧的管理所束缚。蓬勃的建造工程颇具震撼。但增长的同时总是带来不适。翻译:唐宇·无心 校对:胡雅琳 译文属译生译世 /201504/368585
  • But youre still smacking your foot directly on the ground, without any padding.但是光脚跑步仍然是在没有任何衬垫的情况下脚部直接猛烈接触地面。Wouldnt this lead to more foot injuries? Possibly.这会不会导致脚部受伤?很有可能。And, of course, it takes time to develop calluses on your feet thick enough to make barefoot running comfortable.而且要花上一段时间脚才能长出足够厚的老茧让你舒地跑步。And I suppose running in cold weather could be a problem.而且我猜在寒冷的天气中跑步也是个难题。So like most things in science, theres more than one side to this story.像大多数科学中的问题一样,这个说法不只有一种结论。Running barefoot may have certain advantages, but there are some pitfalls, too.光脚跑步有一定的优势,但也存在隐患。201503/363065
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